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Chapter 19a- The Circulatory System: Anatomy of the Heart

by: Marlee Porter

Chapter 19a- The Circulatory System: Anatomy of the Heart BIOL 20214

Marketplace > Texas Christian University > Biology > BIOL 20214 > Chapter 19a The Circulatory System Anatomy of the Heart
Marlee Porter

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About this Document

study guide for exam 1
Anatomy and Physiology
Mrs. Crenshaw
Study Guide
anatomy, Physiology, Anatomy & Physiology, Circulatory System, The Heart
50 ?




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This 7 page Study Guide was uploaded by Marlee Porter on Wednesday February 3, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to BIOL 20214 at Texas Christian University taught by Mrs. Crenshaw in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 82 views. For similar materials see Anatomy and Physiology in Biology at Texas Christian University.


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Date Created: 02/03/16
Chapter 19­ The Circulatory System: Anatomy of the Heart The Heart ­Equal amount of blood sent to each circuit simultaneously  ­Two Circuits: 1. Pulmonary Circuit ­Blood flow­ heart lungs heart  ­Purpose­ transport CO2 to the lungs to eliminate; oxygenate blood before  returning it to the heart  ­Low­pressure vessels 2. Systemic Circuit ­Blood flow­ heart body tissues heart ­Purpose­ deliver O2 and other nutrients to body tissues for metabolism;  transport wastes away from tissues ­High­pressure vessels  External Anatomy ­Enclosed in the mediastinum and rests on the superior surface of the diaphragm  ­Base­ uppermost end; wide and directed toward right shoulder ­Apex­ tip; points toward the left hip ­Apical impulse­ apex of heart beating against chest wall; point of maximal  intensity (PMI) ­Enclosed by the Pericardium (Pericardial Sac) ­Double walled sac surround the heart ­Isolates the heart from the thoracic organs and allows it to expand  ­Two Tissues: ­Fibrous Pericardium ­Superficial layer ­Anchors heart to surrounding structures, protects the surface and  prevents overfilling  ­Parietal Pericardium ­Deeper layer ­Lines the internal surface of the fibrous pericardium ­At superior margin of heart, parietal layer runs inferiorly to  become the visceral pericardium  ­Pericardial Cavity  ­Space between Pericardium and Visceral Pericardium ­Filled with serous fluid to lubricate the surface of the heart ­Pericarditis­ inflammation of the pericardium; roughens serous membranes and  produces large amounts of inflammatory fluids  ­Tamponade­ pressure from inflammatory fluids; compresses the heart;  must be removed by syringe  ­Epicardium­ “upon the heart” ­Visceral Layer of the Serous Pericardium ­Includes adipose tissue ­Contains the largest branches of coronal blood vessels ­Myocardium ­Cardiac muscle ­Thickness is proportional to the workload of the chambers ­Reinforced by the fibrous skeleton  ­Crisscrossing collagen and elastic fibers ­Provides structural support for large vessels and valves  ­Anchors contractile cardiac muscle fibers ­Not electrically excitable; slows passage of electrical signals between the  atria and the ventricles  ­Endocardium ­Lines the inside of the heart chambers and valves ­Made of endothelium (squamous epithelium with underlying CT) ­Continuous endothelial lining of blood vessels leaving and entering the heart ­Endocarditis­ inflammation of the heart valves ­Caused by bacteria, fungus, or autoimmune  Coronary Circulation ­Functional blood supply to the heart ­Supply the wall of the heart with nutrient­rich blood, then drain the waste products  generated by metabolism ­Anatomy varies in people ­Many anastomoses (junctions) of arterial vessels to provide circulation to the heart all  incase of obstruction  ­Coronary arteries ­First branch off the aorta ­At rest­ delivers 250 mL of blood per minute to the myocardium ­Arteries deliver blood to the heart when it is relaxed, but are compressed by the  myocardium during contraction  ­Left Coronary Artery ­Branches into: ­Anterior Interventricular Artery­ supplies blood to both ventricles  and the interventricular septum  ­Circumflex branch and the Left Marginal branch­ supply the left  ventricle and the right atrium  ­Right Coronary Artery ­Supplies the right atrium and the sinoatrial node ­Branches into: ­Right Marginal branch­ supplies the lateral aspect of the right  atrium and right ventricle  ­Posterior Interventricular branch­ supplies the posterior walls of  both ventricles and the posterior portion of the interventricular  septum  ­Coronary Veins ­Route by which blood leaves the myocardium and returns to venous circulation ­Empty blood into the coronary sinus on the posterior heart ­Coronary sinus empties blood directly into the right atrium  ­Venous drainage­ the route by which blood leaves the myocardium ­The Great Cardiac Vein­ collects blood from the anterior surface of the heart ­Posterior Interventricular Vein (Middle Cardiac)­ drains blood from the posterior surface of the heart ­Left Marginal Vein­ drains the left side of the heart ­These vessels empty blood into the Coronary Sinus on the posterior side  ­Coronary Sinus empties blood directly into the Right Atrium  ­Angina Pectoris­ thoracic pain caused by temporary ischemia to the myocardium ­May be induced by blockage in the arteries, stress­induced spasm of the arteries,  or from increased contractions of the heart  ­Deprived myocardium produces lactic acid through anaerobic fermentation,  which stimulates the sensation of pain  ­Myocardial Infarction (MI)­ heart attack; prolong ischemia that can cause tissue death ­Cardiac muscle is mostly amitotic, so damaged areas are replaced by scar tissue ­Can lead to arrhythmia and failure to contract, leading to heart failure or  weakening of the heart wall ­Damage to the left ventricle is the most serious  Internal Anatomy  ­Atria­ receiving chambers; relatively thin; contract minimally to propel blood into  underlying ventricles ­Right atrium­ receives blood from: ­Superior Vena Cava ­Inferior Vena Cava ­Coronary Sinus ­Left atrium­ receives blood from: ­4 pulmonary veins ­Auricles­ increase atrial volume ­Pectinate Muscles­ seen in right atrium and in the auricles; ridges of myocardium ­Fossa Ovalis­ depression in the interatrial septum; remnant of the fetal Foramen  Ovale ­Ventricles­ discharging chambers ­Trabeculae Carneae­ irregular ridges of muscle ­Papillary muscles­ attach Chordae Tendineae to keep atrioventricular valves  from inverting during contraction   ­Right Ventricle ­Contracts and sends blood to Pulmonary Trunk sends blood to lungs ­Left Ventricle ­Contracts and sends blood to the Aorta sends blood to the rest of the body ­Walls are thicker than the Right ventricle  ­The ventricles are separated by the Interventricular Septum ­Heart Valves ­Four valves enforce one­way flow of blood through the heart ­Open and close in response to pressure differences on their two sides ­Atrioventricular Valve (AV Valve) ­Prevent backflow of blood into the atria when the ventricles contract ­Tricuspid Valve ­Right AV Valve ­Mitral (Bicuspid) Valve ­Left AV Valve ­Prolapse­ one or more flap(s) come incompetent and allow blood regurgitation  ­Semilunar Valves­ guard the large arteries from ventricles and prevent backflow ­Pulmonary Valve ­Blood flow from the Right Ventricle to the pulmonary trunk ­Aortic valve ­Blood flow from the Left Ventricle to the Aorta  ­No valves guarding the Vena Cava or Pulmonary veins 


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