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PSY 210 Study Guide for Chapters 1-4

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by: Riley Spencer

PSY 210 Study Guide for Chapters 1-4 PSY 210

Marketplace > Southern Connecticut State University > Psychlogy > PSY 210 > PSY 210 Study Guide for Chapters 1 4
Riley Spencer

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Study guide that covers chapters 1-4 of the textbook.
Infant and Child Development
Dr. Anthis
Study Guide
Psychology, child development
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This 4 page Study Guide was uploaded by Riley Spencer on Wednesday February 3, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to PSY 210 at Southern Connecticut State University taught by Dr. Anthis in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 56 views. For similar materials see Infant and Child Development in Psychlogy at Southern Connecticut State University.


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Date Created: 02/03/16
PSY 210 Chapters 1­4 Study Guide 1.) What are the three domains of development? ­Social emotional, cognitive, and physical  2.) What did Lewis Terman find regarding the long­term outcomes of children who were  conscientious? ­One finding that he had was that children who were rated high in conscientiousness or  social dependability had many positive outcomes in adulthood, including a 30%  reduction that they will die in a particular year. They are also likely to smoke and drink  less and have longer marriages. 3.) What are nature and nurture? ­Nature is one’s genetic outcome, where nurture is the influence from the environment. 4.) Do stage theories assume qualitative or quantitative change? ­Stage theories describe qualitative changes in development. 5.) What is multifinality? ­The same pathways may lead to different developmental outcomes. 6.) What are the contexts of development?  ­Family, schools, the community, and culture. 7.) How is socio­economic status (SES) a context? ­A higher socioeconomic status allows families more resources that can support healthy  child development. For a lower SES, parents have less access to good prenatal care, so  children are more likely to be born prematurely or at a low birth weight. 8.) Does all of the scientific research on development automatically update what we know? If  not, how do we determine what research studies are worth updating our understanding?  ­We are updated with new ideas that are better as the old ones fade out. However, not all new ideas are better, but old ideas that have been around for a longer time doesn’t make  them true (for example, many believed that the Earth was flat). Research needs to be  replicated and published before we think of that information as reliable. 9.) How is our ability to resist the temptation to eat a marshmallow as a child related to our self­ control as adolescents?  ­It demonstrates greater self­control… For example, those who control their eating  habits are less likely to become overweight. 10.) What are the three structures of personality according to Freud?  ­Id: part of the personality that consists of the basic drives, such as sex and hunger. Ego: part of the personality that contends with the reality of the world and controls the  basic drives. Superego: conscience or sense of right and wrong. 11.) What are the crises in each of Erikson’s psychosocial stages?  ­Infancy (birth to 1 year): trust vs. mistrust Toddlerhood (1 to 2/3 years): autonomy vs. shame & doubt Early Childhood (2/3 to 5 years): initiative vs. guilt Middle Childhood (6 to 12 years): industry vs. inferiority Adolescence (13 to mid­20s): identity vs. role confusion:  Early Adulthood (25 to 45): intimacy vs. isolation Middle Adulthood (45 to 70): generativity vs. stagnation Later Adulthood (70 to death): ego integrity vs. despair 12.) How are learning theories different from psychoanalytic theories? ­The psychoanalytic theory is that the way we deal with biological urges moves us  through a series of stages that shape our personality. The learning theory is set up of  stages that are based on a central conflict to be resolved involving the social world and  the development of identity. 13.) How are classical and operational conditioning different? How can each be used practically? ­Classical conditioning involves placing a neutral signal before a reflex and focuses on  involuntary, automatic behaviors. It is used to treat phobias by exposing the patients to  their fears. Operant conditioning involves applying reinforcement or punishment after a  behavior and focuses on strengthening or weakening voluntary behaviors. It is used  mostly in classroom settings where students may be given checkmarks or tokens where  they could be exchanged for gifts. It is especially used with special education students. 14.) What did Bandura find with the Bobo Doll research? What is his idea of self­efficacy? ­Bandura found that children who watched others act aggressively at the doll were more  likely to imitate their behavior, while those who didn’t watch anyone acted less  aggressive. He named this type of behavior the social cognitive theory because of what  the children (not the control group) learned by watching someone else. Self­efficacy is a  belief in our ability to influence our own functioning and our life circumstance. 15.) What are Assimilation and Accommodation?  ­Assimilation: fitting new experiences into existing mental schemas. Accommodation: changing mental schemas so they can fit new experiences. 16.) What is Scaffolding? ­Scaffolding is the idea that more knowledgeable adults and children support a child’s  learning by providing help to move the child just beyond his/her level of capability.  17.) What does Information Processing theory assume about the human mind?  It assumes that we process information in a way that computers process information, and that our minds are much more complicated than a computer’s. 18.) What are the various systems in Bronfenbrenner’s Ecological theory? How has his theory  been applied practically?  ­Chronosystem: the dimension of time, including one’s age, and the time in history in  which one lives. Microsystem: the face­to­face interaction of the person in her immediate settings, such as home, school, or friendship groups. Mesosystem: the interaction among the various microsystems, such as the child’s school  and home. Exosystem: settings that the child never enters but that affect the child’s development  nevertheless, such as the parents’ place of work. Macrosystem: cultural norms that guide the nature of the organizations and places that  make up one’s everyday life. His theory applies to real life by looking at the development of social competence of  preschoolers, such as the age, sex, & levels of stress in them, family characteristics  (married/divorced, level of stress, SES), teacher behavior, and classroom climate. 19.) What roles do nature and nurture play in the field of neuropsychology?  ­Biology determines behavior, but the environment also affects our biological  functioning. The development of connections between nerve cells, the coating of the  nervous system, and the neurochemistry of the brain are all shaped in part by what a  person does. This is also expressed by environmental events. 20.) What are the pros and cons of observational research? ­Pros: Rich source of information            Allows observation of behavior as it naturally occurs           Can be conducted in a laboratory to gain control in a situation            Can lead to a new hypothesis Cons: Can be confused with interpretation                       Risks observer bias                      Can produce large amounts of raw data that must be coded and analyzed                      Risk changing the behavior observed         Cannot identify the causes of behavior 21.) What are the pros and cons of self­report research?  ­Pros: Gathers information quickly and efficiently            Can gather information on many different topics Cons: Requires precisely worded questions           Requires questions that are not misleading or biased           Risks respondents not answering honestly           Risks respondents not being able to accurately recall or report on behavior           Risks socially desirable rather than truthful answers  22.) What is the benefit of experimental research over correlational research?  ­In experimental research, the subjects can be manipulated while those in correlational  research aren’t. 23.) What is the difference between the experimental and control group?  ­The experimental group gets the special treatment that is of interest to the researcher,  where the control group gets no treatment and provides a baseline against which the  experimental group can be prepared. 24.) What is the difference between the independent variable (IV) and the dependent variable  (DV)? ­The independent variable is the variable in an experiment that the researcher  manipulates, where the dependent variable is the outcome of interest to the researcher  that is measured at the end of an experiment. 25.) What does a positive correlation mean? A negative correlation?  ­Positive: The value of one variable increases as the value of the second variable  increases. Negative: As the value of one variable increases, the value of the second variable  decreases. 26.) What are the pros and cons of cross­sectional research, as well as longitudinal research? ­Cross­sectional: The pros­ all data is collected at the same time, and dropout is not an  issue. Cons­ the subjects need to be as similar in age as possible. Longitudinal: Pros­ it allows researchers to look at changes over time. Cons­ it requires  a long time to complete and is expensive. Because of this, this study is only done with a  small group. Participants can drop out of the study. 27.) What are the pros and cons of cross­sequential research (aka sequential research)?  ­Pros: Looks at different age groups            Dropout reduces sample bias. Cons: The groups need to be as alike as possible                    The researcher needs to be able to track and reassess the groups at regular  intervals. 28.) What is the purpose of a meta­analysis?  ­A meta­analysis combines data from different studies to determine whether there is a  consistent pattern of findings across studies. 29.) What is the difference between a genotype and phenotype? ­Genotype: all the genes that make up a human being, or the specific genes at a  particular location on a chromosome. Phenotype: A person’s bodily traits and characteristics. 30.) What is polygenic inheritance? ­Numerous genes may interact to promote any particular trait or behavior 31.) What are the stages of prenatal development? What happens in each?  ­Germinal: Lasts from conception to two weeks. When fertilization occurs, the zygote  makes its way to the fallopian tube (cont. l8r) 32.) Are female conceptions more vulnerable than male conceptions? ­No. Males are more vulnerable to environmental toxins, so fewer of them are likely to  survive. They are also vulnerable to rapid growth, which can outpace the ability of the  placenta to provide the nutrients needed to support development of the organ systems. 33.) What are the causes of infertility in heterosexual couples?  ­Infertility can be caused by physical problems (blocked fallopian tube and low sperm  count), lifestyle factors (alcohol and drugs), exposure to environmental toxins, and  stress. 34.) What are APGAR scores? What do the various number mean?  ­An APGAR score is an assessment of a newborn’s overall condition at 1 minute and 5  minutes after birth that is based on the newborn’s Activity level, Pulse, Grimace,  Appearance, and Respiration. 35.) What are the typical outcomes for premature infants? ­An infant is considered premature if he or she is born less than 37 weeks before their  due date, and if they weigh less than 5 lbs. 4 ounces. Premature babies are at risk of a  number of neurological and developmental problems.


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