Psychology Study Guide-Exam 1
Psychology Study Guide-Exam 1 1557
Kutztown University of Pennsylvania
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This 10 page Study Guide was uploaded by Melissa Metzgar on Wednesday February 3, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to 1557 at Kutztown University of Pennsylvania taught by Dr. Manos Akillas in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 238 views. For similar materials see General Psychology (PSY 11) in Psychlogy at Kutztown University of Pennsylvania.
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Date Created: 02/03/16
General Psychology Study Guide- Exam 1 Tuesday, February 9th, 2016 Definition of Psychology -The scientific study of the human mind and its functions, especially those affecting behavior in a given context. History of Psychology ➔ Concept of Abnormal Behavior ◆ Prehistoric -> 11th century AD ◆ Madness ◆ Religious and Occult Explanations (performed exorcisms) ● trephining: opening the skull to give the demon an exit point (40,000 years ago-today), many survived ➔ Abnormal Behavior 11th-19th Century ◆ Social morality and control ◆ Poverty and workhouses (17th century) ◆ Concept of abnormal behavior expands and includes people who don’t conform ◆ Asylums arise ◆ More and more people were being seen as mentally ill ● Concept of AB was changing because of things like economic problems in Europe during the 17th century ○ unemployment (which was made illegal) ○ homelessness ◆ these people were arrested and taken to workhouses ○ asylums became huge ➔ The Problem of Subjectivity ◆ Science and Objectivity ● science vs. philosophy ● claimed knowledge was based on observation, not logic ◆ Observation isn’t always objective due to perspectives ◆ Efforts to study perception and the mind lead to the development of psychology as a new field General Psychology Study Guide- Exam 1 Tuesday, February 9th, 2016 Important People Name Time Beliefs Experiment(s)/ Criticism of Period Accomplishments Work All living organisms have a positive & Huang Ti 27th negative force, strange behaviors Wrote a book Century N/A BC result from an off-balance of these about his beliefs forces. Created mental 5th-4th Everyone has 4 fluids in balance in institutions to try Hippocrates Century their bodies, but that balance gets and relieve N/A BC disturbed and affects our behaviors. people’s stress (successful) 4th In order for a person to be healthy they Century must have strong logic. To be able to N/A N/A Plato BC help the mentally ill we have to teach them philosophy. His methods Helped cure a worked 10th-11th Avicenna Century You can help the mentally ill by talking prince who because of thought he was a his creativity BC to them in a manipulative way. cow. and catering to each illness. Benjamin 18th-19th Wanted to teach the mentally ill skills Director of PA Rush Century in-order for them to help themselves. hospital in Philly. Teaching of BC Relocated the mentally ill into better Spinning chairs, skills failed. environments from the basement. blind ice baths, etc. Theory of Hysteria: suffering from a Very Jean Martin 19th brain weakness results in hysteria. Experimented with impatient Theory of Hypnosis: Anyone can be hypnosis on Charcot Century hypnotized. Thought only a few people various people. with can be hypnotized. experiments. Can’t say that all suffer from a Hippolyte 19th weakness, then it isn’t a weakness. Experimented with Argued with Bernheim Century Everyone can be hypnotized, it just hypnosis more Charcot. takes time. intensively. Theory of Suggestibility: hysteria is the result of suggestibility. General Psychology Study Guide- Exam 1 Tuesday, February 9th, 2016 Areas of Specialization Applied Areas -Use psychology to solve problems -Clinical Psychology -Focus on diagnosis and treatments (ex. Therapies) -40% of all psychologists -Work in hospitals and/or private practice, teaching, research fields -Industrial-Organizational Psychology -Interested in using psychology principles and knowledge in the workplace (that isn’t already psychology related in most cases) -Work in human resources, employee counselors, designing the workplace, marketing, advertising Academic and Research Areas Learning Involves understanding the process of learning (ex. animals) Motivation and Interested in causes of these behaviors Emotion (ex. feelings triggering behaviors) Cognition focus on understanding higher level thinking (ex. human memory and creativity) Developmental Study different ages of people in a comparison form (ex. 5 yr old vs. 25 yr old) Physiological Psychology and Biology, how the brain influences behavior Social Study people in groups (interactions, social behaviors) Comparative Studies animal behavior, species specific General Psychology Study Guide- Exam 1 Tuesday, February 9th, 2016 Research Methods Common Sense vs. Scientific Knowledge -Knowledge from life experiences vs. knowledge from scientific studies -Difference: science goes through active evaluation through its research True Experiments -Experimental and Control Groups Experimental: exposed Control: not exposed -Personal qualities may affect results, have to find ways to factor-out -Random Assignment -Independent and Dependent Variable Independent: what you’re studying Dependent: the results Quasi-Experiments -not divided randomly, pre-exisiting groups ex) brain damaged vs. healthy, male vs. female -never as good as true experiments, can never be certain that the results are caused by the difference being studied Reactivity -You can never be certain of the results because when humans know they’re being observed and studied they behave differently. In-Depth Case Studies -Focuses on one or a few people and studies them very closely -No control group -Conclusions don’t have the same type of certainty General Psychology Study Guide- Exam 1 Tuesday, February 9th, 2016 Theories of Learning Pavlovian Conditioning -Wanted to know how much saliva is generated in a dog when food is present -Original measuring experiment got him wondering how the dogs starting salivating before the food was present -Trained the dogs to assciate the sound of a bell with the recieveing of food -Taught the animal that two stimuli go together (the bell and the food) -Acquisition: Learning that the bell and the food correspond **Learning the association -Extinction: Learning that the bell and the food don’t correspond **Unlearning the association -Spontaneous Recovery: Even though a behavior has been extinct, the association still remains to a certain degree. -Generalization: Finding a similarity between the different bell sounds and generating the same response for all of them. -Discrimination: Training the animal to separate the generalization and break down the different bell sounds into different associations. Instrumental and Operant Conditioning Edward Lee Thorndike -Experiment: caged cat needs to learn how to get out and obtain food by General Psychology Study Guide- Exam 1 Tuesday, February 9th, 2016 pressing a button inside the cage. Out of hunger driven hysteria, the cat got out accidentally. This cycle was repeated and the cat gradually learned what the button did. - Learned through a trial and error process -Law of Effect: If an animal/human does something that has pleasing consequences, that behavior is more than likely to happen again. Wolfgang Kohler -Caged a monkey with boxes and hung a banana over his head. The monkey stacked the boxes and retrieved the banana. -Wanted to prove Thorndike wrong -Thorndike argued that monkeys naturally have the instinct to climb to obtain food, so it was just highlighting a natural instinct. Behaviorism John Broadus Watson -Wrote criticism of mind/thinking theories because of many psychologists using the introspection method -show someone something and ask them to tell you about it and then repeat it with more people to find patterns -no consistent information, said that the problem was that thoughts can’t be observed Methodological Behaviorism: anything that can’t be observed should be referred to as non-existent (thoughts and feelings). Burrhus Frederic Skinner -Radical Behaviorism: the difference between the observable and unobservable is the internal behavior vs. overt behavior, but they still obey the same principles. -Law of Reinforcement: if a behavior has certain consequences (positive or negative) and because of those consequences the behavior becomes frequent, we can say that the consequences reinforced the behavior -Positive: something pleasant is obtained in return -Negative: something unpleasant is taken away ex) if you get an A on all exams there is no final General Psychology Study Guide- Exam 1 Tuesday, February 9th, 2016 Motivation Instinct Theory -All organisms are born with innate biological tendencies that help them survive. -Problem: just assumed unsolvable behaviors were instincts Drive Theory -Replacement for instinct -All behaviors can be explained by the 4 drives of hunger, thirst, sex, & aggression -Biologically determined, not learned -Other needs are learned based off of secondary drives and conditioning Harry Harlow -Harlow took infant monkeys and placed them with wire mothers or cloth mothers. The wire mother held the food, and the cloth mother didn’t have any food. The monkeys developed an attachment to the cloth mother, which a 5th primary drive of comfort was added. Homeostatic Model -believed that the brain acts like a thermostat in a way to maintain regularity -Hunger and thirst -Hypothalamus: responsible for detecting the need to eat or drink, activates according to behavior -lateral hypothalamus initiates desire to eat or drink (if destroyed, the desire to eat or drink stops) -ventromedial hypothalamus inhibits the desire to eat or drink (if destroyed, the desire to eat and drink happens) General Psychology Study Guide- Exam 1 Tuesday, February 9th, 2016 Non-Homeostatic Behaviors -Aggression -Not a good concept→ many behaviors, but happen for different reasons ex) play aggression vs. hunting aggression -Amygdala Theory -There is a part of the brain that controls aggression called the Amygdala that once stimulated causes aggression -Experiment with Baboons -Scientists measured how often the monkeys fought, then removed the Amygdala and found that they weren’t fighting anymore. -It was later found that this lack of aggression was due to the monkeys not being able to recognize anything in the environments around them. -Sexuality *more complicated to study because of the sensitivity & assuming honesty -Masters and Johnson’s studies -conducted human experiments -measured heart rate, skin temperature, etc. -not a natural environment/situation -influenced behavior -questionable sanity of those being experimented on *Their conclusion: Humans arousal reaches a plateau and then ends after orgasm. -Criticism of Masters and Johnson’s work -There wasn’t any at first, but it was later questioned because there was not really any useful information out of the 10,000 observations. -Experiments with animals -Better results than human experiments -Caged a male monkey, and later added a female monkey and began measuring the frequency of sex. Once the frequency got low, they removed the female and replaced her with another, and did that for a total of 3 monkeys. -Once a new monkey was added, the frequency went up and gradually decreased until sex became rare. *Sexuality is triggered by novelty -C.A. Tripp -Novelty -Barrier Theory General Psychology Study Guide- Exam 1 Tuesday, February 9th, 2016 *It’s not novelty that triggers sexuality, but barriers. ex) break ups, relationship problems Theories of Emotion -William James -“We feel sad because we cry” -Believed that behavior comes first, then emotions. -Stanley Schachter -Epinephrine experiment→ creates physical tension and arousal -Supported William James -Randomly placed people into 3 groups and gave them an epinephrine injection. Group 1 was told about the injection, group 2 was told that it was a vitamin with no side effects, and group 3 wasn’t told anything. Then they were randomly placed into two different waiting rooms with an actor: the first room had someone acting like they were in a really good mood, and the second had a grumpy actor. -When asked afterwards how they felt: Group 1: felt tense regardless of actor Groups 2 & 3: felt like the corresponding actor *Emotions aren’t as automatic as we think that they are, they come after a process of interpretation. Emotion and Personality Styles -Meyer Friedman’s theory of Type A and Type B styles Type A: very task oriented, tense, impatient, needs to get things done. *Increased risk of heart disease Type B: relaxed, procrastinator, no urgency. *Less likely to be at risk for heart disease - Found being type A versus being type B plays a role in predicting heart disease and heart attacks. -Suzanne Miller’s Monitors and blunters -Can divide people into Monitors and Blunters Monitors: seek information, stress over it Blunters: avoid information -David McClelland’s theory of needs -nAch→ the need for achievement -constantly needs to accomplish things General Psychology Study Guide- Exam 1 Tuesday, February 9th, 2016 -nPow→ the need for power - constantly needs to feel they have authority -nAff→ the need for affiliation -needs to feel they have high levels of interactions with others
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