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NTRI 2000 Exam 1 Study Guide

by: Alyssa Anderson

NTRI 2000 Exam 1 Study Guide NTRI 2000

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Alyssa Anderson

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These notes cover everything we've gone over in class that will be on the exam Friday. Diagrams that Dr. Greene mentioned could make an appearance on the test are included.
Nutrition and Health
Dr. Greene
Study Guide
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This 16 page Study Guide was uploaded by Alyssa Anderson on Wednesday February 3, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to NTRI 2000 at a university taught by Dr. Greene in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 276 views.

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Date Created: 02/03/16
1 NTRI 2000 Exam 1 Study Guide Nutrition- the science that links food to diseases and focuses on the process of ingestion, digestion, absorption, transportation, metabolism, and excretion 1. Note: by age 65 you’ll eat around 70,000 meals (50 tons of food) 2. Food has a cumulative effect Nutrient- component of food that are indispensable to the functioning of the body 1. Provide energy 2. Building blocks 3. Support growth 4. Maintains/repairs body Essential Nutrient- nutrients our bodies can’t make or make in sufficient amounts that MUST be obtained from the diet and must have the following criteria: 1. A specific function in body 2. Omission of these lead to decline in the functions of the body 3. Replacing these restores normal function Malnutrition- any condition caused by a deficiency or excess of nutrient intake 1. The only thing that has a bigger effect on your health is tobacco 2. Many nutritionally-related diseases are chronic and take years to show up clinically Leading Causes of Death 1. Heart disease 2. Cancer 3. Lung Disease Nutrition and Disease 1. Poor diet is a risk factor for many chronic diseases A. Cardiovascular Disease B. Some forms of cancer C. Hypertension D. Lover disease 2. These diseases account for about 2/3 of all deaths in North America 3. All of these deaths are linked with obesity 4. Obesity is the second leading cause of preventive death 2 The Six Classes of Essential Nutrients 1. Carbohydrates (C, H, O)- macronutrient 2. Lipids aka fats (C, H, O)- macronutrient 3. Proteins (C, H, O, N)- macronutrient 4. Water (H, O)- macronutrient 5. Vitamins- micronutrient 6. Minerals- micronutrient NOTE: most energy comes from proteins, most carbohydrates, and most lipids Phytochemicals 1. Plant compounds that are thought to cause health benefits 2. Energy comes from the SUN through light 3. CO2 + H20 + light -> CHO + O2 (photosynthesis) 4. CHO + O2 -> CO2 + H2O + energy (metabolism) 5.example: carotenoids (such as in lycopene tomatoes) 6.example: resveratrol (such as in red wine and grape juice) Measure of Energy in Nutritions 1. calorie/Kcal 2. These are units that describe the energy contents of food 3. 1 kcal is the heat needed in order to raise the temperature of 1000 mL of water 1*C 4. 1 kcal = 1000 calories = 1 Calorie Energy in Nutrients (4-9-4 rule) 1. Carbohydrates (4 kcal/gram) 2. Fat (9 kcal/gram) 3. Proteins (4 kcal/gram) 4. NOTE: alcohol is not a nutrient but a TOXIN. 7 kcal/gram Objectives for Our Society’s Diet (for those 2 years and older) 1. increase fruit intake/varriety 2. increase calcium levels in diets 3. increase vegetable intake/variety 4. increase amount of whole grains 5. reduce calorie intake 6. decrease levels of saturated fats/added sugars 7. decrease sodium levels 8. reduce iron deficiency (maintain healthy levels) 3 Why Do We Choose the Food We Eat? 1. Biological Drives- very complex A. Hunger- a physiological drive to eat B. Appetite- A psychological drive to eat C. Satiety- a feeling of being full, which halts the drive to eat 2. Cultural/Social Reasons A. Social needs B. Network of family and friends C. Food customs/cultures D. Cost of food E. Education/Knowledge F. Occupation and Income G. Routines/Habits H. Lifestyle/Health I. Nutrition concerns J. Benefits K. Food Marketing L. Food availability M. Food flavor, texture, appearance N. Preferences O. Psychological needs Reasons to Select A Particular Food 1. Positive Association 2. Region/County 3. Social Pressure Wellness in College 1. Develop a plan A. Eating habits B. Food choices C. Weight control, especially when faces with unlimited food D. Exercise regularly 2. How to avoid the Freshman 15: A. Eat breakfast B. Plan ahead C. Limit liquid calories D. Stock the fridge with healthy choices 4 The Challenge of Choosing Foods 1. There are more foods to choose from than ever before 2. Ironically, this variety has made it more difficult to elect a nutritious diet 3. However, we now have more technology that helps live healthier lives, such as product websites, apps, and online calculators. When given the protein, carb, and fat count of a dish, know how to determine the calories in a dish and the percentages of the count based off the total. Food Philosophy: Consume a variety of foods balanced by a moderate intake of each food. Characteristics of a healthy diet: 1. Adequacy 2. Balance 3. Moderation 4. Nutrient density 5. Energy content 6. Variation- choosing a number of different food groups. 7. NOTE: supplements don’t have every component you need. Phytochemical's are found in variety. No one food can meet your nutritional needs. Variety- tips for boosting phytochemical intake 1. Use veggies in main/side dishes 2. Use grain in side dishes 3. Opt for fruit-filled cookies 4. Get creative at the salad bar (go for the rainbow) 5. Eat fresh/dried fruit for snacks 6. Add vegetables to sandwiches 7. Try to eat vegetarian meals once or twice a week 8. Use different lettuces (romaine over iceberg) 9. Use fresh salsa for dips instead of something creamy 10. Eat whole grain cereals 11. Use herbs and spices such as ginger or rosemary over salt 12. Try to incorporate tofu, soy milk, and soybeans into meals Adequacy- obtaining all the essential nutrients in order to meet all the bodys need plus storage 5 Balance- select food from 5 major food groups every day 1. Grains 2. Vegetables 3. Fruits 4. Milk/Dairy 5. Protein Moderation- can refer to portion size (calories, diet composition) 1. Fats (saturated fast and trans fats) 2. Salt 3. Cholesterol (saturated fats) 4. Refined carbohydrates (added sugars) States of Nutritional Health 1. Your body’s nutritional health is determined by considering the nutritional state of each needed nutrient 2. Three categories: A. Desirable Nutrition B. Undernutrition 1. Intake of nutrient does not meet the body’s needs 2. If the body’s surplus is ned, health declines 3. It can take years to develop clinical symptoms C. Overnutrition 1. In the short run, it has few symptoms 2. If excess intake continues, nutrients may develop to toxic amounts (an excess in vitamin A can cause birth defects; excess in calories can lead to obesity, CV disease, diabetes, stroke, some cancers) 3. The amount of each nutrient needed to maintain a state of desirable nutrition is the basis for dietary intake recommendations 4. The state of undernutrition and overnutrition are both considered to be malnutrition How is Nutritional State Measured? 1. It is done by a physician and/or a registered dietician 2. Determines background factors A. Family Health History B. Medical History C. Medication/supplements intake D. Social History E. Level of Education F. Economic Status 6 How is Nutritional State Measured? (cont.) 3. Assessments (ABCDEs) A. Anthropometric (height, weight, body composition, circumference) B. Biochemical (enzyme or nutrient by-product in blood and urine) C. Clinical (appearance of skin, eyes, hair, etc.) D. Dietary (food intake) E. Environmental (ability to purchase/prepare foods, education, etc.) 4. Limitations- a long time may elapse before symptoms can be diagnosed as clinical Specific Nutrient Standards A. The overarching goal of any healthy diet is to meet nutrient needs B. To do this we must determine what amount of each essential nutrient is needed to maintain health C. These standards are based on populations of healthy people The Scientific Method A. Used to gain knowledge B. Steps 1. Make observations and use knowledge of what is assumed to be true 2. Make a hypothesis (must be testable) 3. Preform experiments (epidemiological, case-control) 4. Report results (either support or refute hypothesis) C. The experiment must be independent of particular opinion D. The test must purposely test itself and criticize, correct, and improve itself DRI- Dietary Reference Intakes A. The umbrella term for dietary standards B. Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA) 1. Nutrient intake sufficient to meet the needs of 97%-98% of individuals in a specific stage of life 2. What if you consume more or less? Being 70% above or below the RDA for an extended time (3 times longer for some nutrients) can result in a deficiency or toxicity C. Adequate Intake (AI) 1. Nutrient intake set for any nutrient for which insufficient research is available for RDA 2. AIs are based on estimates of intakes that appear to maintain a defined nutritional state in a specific life stage 7 D. Estimated Energy Requirements (EER) 1. estimated energy (in kcal) intake needed to match the energy use of an average person in a specific life stage 2. Needs to be specific, taking into account age, gender, height, weight, physical activity 3. Serves as a starting point for estimating calorie need E. Tolerable upper intake limit (UL) 1. Maximum chloric intake daily level of a nutrient that is unlikely to cause adverse health affects in almost all people in a specific life stage 2. Problems arise from using many fortified foods and excess doses of vitamins and minerals F.Daily Value (DV) 1. DV is the nutrient standard used on the nutrition facts portion of a food label 2. The percent DV for each nutrient is based on consuming a 2000 kcal diet 3. Set at or close to the highest RDA value or related nutrient standard 4. DVs have been set for vitamins, minerals, protein, and other dietary components 5. Allow intake comparison from a specific food to desirable (or maximum) intakes Dietary Guidelines for Americans A. What is a healthy eating pattern? 1. Variety of vegetables 2. Fruits, especially whole fruits 3. Grains, half of which are whole grains 4. Fat-free or low-fat dairy, including milk, yogurt, cheese, and/or fortified soy beverages 5. variety of lean protein 6. oils- high in monounsaturated fat and polyphenols (make sure not to buy olive oil in clear bottles because the sunlight will break apart the polyphenols) B. A healthy eating pattern limits: 1. Saturated fast and trans fats- less than 10% 2. Added sugars- less than 10% 3. Sodium- 2,300 mg C. Healthy also includes the physical activity guidelines for Americans (ages 18-64) 1. Avoid inactivity 2. Get at least 150 minutes per week of moderate exercise, but aim for 300 8 Recommendations for Food Choice A. How do we translate the science of nutrition into practical terms B. 1992: the plan was illustrated using a pyramid shape (Food Guide Period) C. 2011: a plate was used to illustrate a guide Food Labels (check out figures in book) A. What is required? 1. Name of product 2. Who the manufacturer is aka where it’s coming from 3. How much you’re buying (in ounces and in grams) 4. Ingredients (in order by weight) 5. Nutrition Facts a. Serving size b. Number of servings c. Calories d. Calories from fat e. Percent of daily value f. Fat (both saturated and trans) g. Cholesterol h. Carbohydrates (dietary fiber, sugar) i. Protein B. They can choose to add additional stuff on the packages, such as different levels of vitamins or nutrients, but don’t be fooled if the serving size is inconsistent C. The FDA is in charge of the nutritional claims 1. “good source” means 10-19% of daily value for nutrient 2. “excellent source” means one serving contains 20% or more of the daily value 3. “reduced” means at least 25% less per serving than in the referenced food 4. “low-____” means 3 grams or less in one serving 5. “____-free” means less than 0.5 grams in one serving Levels of Organization 1. Chemical level (atoms combine to form molecules) 2. Cell level (molecules form organelles) 3. Tissue level 4. Organ level 5. Organ system level 6. Organism level 9 Cell Metabolism 1. Entire collection of chemical processes involved in maintaining life 2. Biochemical reactions take place in the cell cytoplasm and organelles 3. Anabolic requires energy (we need this to grow) 4. Catabolic takes more molecules apart, releases energy Multicellular Organisms 1. Same tissue as a singular cell 2. Whole body metabolism is similar to a cell’s Organ Systems 1. Respiratory 2. Cardiovascular A. Carries blood B. Regulates blood supply C. Transports nutrients, waste products, cells, gases D. Regulates blood pressure E. Plays a role in immune responses and body temperature F. Components a. Heart- muscular pump for blood b. Blood vessels- arteries leave the heart; veins enter the heart c. Capillaries- exchange of nutrients, oxygen, waste products, and gases between blood and cells d. Blood- made up of plasma, red and white cells, platelets G. Portal circulation a. Artery to capillary to vein to portal vein to capillary to vein b. Nutrients absorbed by capillaries in the small intestine (go to the liver) 3. Lymphatic System A. brings fluid back to the cardiovascular system B. fluid is lymph (plasma, white blood cells (and absorbed fat), lymph nodes C. drains back into the CV system near the heart D. remove foreign substances from blood and lymph E. maintain tissue fluid balance F. adds in fat absorption G. forms white blood cells and provides defense against pathogens 10 4. Endocrine System A. Endocrine glands a. pituitary b. thyroid c. adrenal glands d. hypothalamus e. pancreas- endocrine/exocrine B. Hormones are produced in the glands (act as messengers) C. Function- metabolism, reproduction, water balance, many other functions D. They have different functions called endocrine, paracrine, autocrine 5. Digestive System A. Gastrointestinal Tract 1. Tube from your mouth to your anus 2. Responsible for the digestion and absorption of nutrients B. Accessory Digestive Organs 1. Salivary glands 2. Liver 3. Gall bladder (can be removed) 4. Pancreas C. Check out the digestive system figure in your book D. Check out the mouth diagram in your book E. Esophagus 1. Muscular tube connecting the pharynx (throat) to your stomach 2. Food moves by a series of coordinated constructions known as peristalsis (check out the figure in your book) 3. Esophageal sphincter a. Regulates the movement through the esophagus b. Must relax to allow food to enter the stomach c. Prevents back flow of food (unless necessary) F.Stomach 1. Large sac for holding food 2. Stomach contains gastric juice (water, hydrochloric acid, enzymes, and the intrinsic factor) 3. Muscle of stomach church gastric contents into chyme 4. Pyloric sphinter controls the rate of chyme entering the small intestine 5. What keeps the stomach from breaking down/digesting itself? a. Mucous- stomach is lined with a thick layer of mucous so gastric juice doesn't come into contact with the tissue of the stomach b. HCL and enzymes are primarily released only after eating 11 G. Small Intestine 1. Site of most of the digestion sand absorption of nutrients 2. Check out the diagram in your book 3. Intestinal hormones released (getting chyme ready) a. Secretin- released bicarbonate from pancreas b. Cholecystokinin (CCK)- releases digestive enzymes from pancreas and regulates the release of bile (made in the liver and is important to the digestion of fats) from the gall bladder into the small intestine 4. Because of folds in the mucosa, villi, and microvilli on cells, the surface area for absorption is huge 5. Capillaries absorb the water soluble compounds 6. Lymph vessels absorb the fat soluble compounds 7. Undigested food passes on the large intestine (colon) via the ileocecal sphincter 8. Look up the small intestine diagram in your book H. Large Intestine 1. Only a minor amount of carbohydrates, proteins, and fast escape the absorption and reach large intestine 2. No villi or enzyme (no digestion or major absorption) 3. Some absorption of water, some vitamins, some fatty acids, and the minerals sodium and potassium 4. Home to a large population of bacteria (over 500 species), yeast, and viruses 5. Look at large intestine diagram in your book 6. As water is absorbed, contents become semi-solid 7. Becomes feces (water, undigested fiber, tough connective tissue, bacteria, dead intestinal cells, and body waste) 8. Contractions occur as a mass movement 9. The rectum fills 10. Anal sphincters control waste management 11. TABLE 3.4 IN BOOK I. Liver 1. Releases number of unwanted substances that travel with bile to the gallbladder 2. End up in the small intestine, eventually in the large intestine for excretion (you can’t live without a liver) 12 J. Gallbladder 1. Organ attached to the underside of the liver 2. Bile storage, concentration, and secretion 3. Bile- released through common bile duct into the first segment of the small intestine that is essential for digestion and the absorption of fat 4. Enterohepatic circulation (hepatic = anything with the liver) - continual recycling of compounds like bile acids between small intestine and liver K. Pancreas 1. Has both endocrine and digestive functions 2. Manufatures hormones- glucagon and insulin 3. Produces “pancreatic juice”- a mixture of water, bicarbonate, and a variety of digestive enzymes 6. Urinary System A. Kidneys, ureter, bladder, urethra B. Kidney 1. Produces urine, which is the modified ultra filtrate of he blood 2. Functional unit of kidney is the nephron 3. Nephron is involved in the processes of filtration, reabsorption, and secretion 4. Look at nephron/urinary system diagram in your book 5. Kidneys are used in the formation of vitamin D 6. Kidneys produce a hormone, erythrpoitin, that stimulates the production of red blood cells 7. Helps regulate blood pressure and fluid balance Nutrient Absorption A. Passive Absorption (diffusion)- concentration dependent B. Facilitated Absorption ( transport)- carrier or receptor dependent C. Active Absorption (transport)- carrier/receptor and energy dependent D. Phagocytosis/pinocytosis- form of active transport; often cancer cells take advantage of these cells in order to grow rapidly and feed off nutrients Digestive disease case Problem: An elderly woman sees her doctor and complains of pain 2 hours after eating, weight loss, nausea, vomiting, and loss of appetite. What condition does she have? An ulcer caused by helicobacter pylori, which is an excess of the bacterium which causes peptic ulcer disease. Barry Marshall and J. Robin Warren were awarded the Nobel Prize in Medicine in 2005 for discovering it. They did it themselves, then took antibiotics and were cured. What are the potential therapies? Antibiotics. 13 Diseases Related to the Digestive System A. Constipation 1. Difficult or infrequent evacuation of the bowels 2. Increase fiber consumption such as dried fruit to stimulate peristalsis 3. Drink adequate fluids, especially water 4. Relaxation/regular exercise 5. Probiotics/laxatives can lessen constipation (consult a health professional first) B. Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS) 1. As many as 25 million Americans suffer from this syndrome 2. Symptoms include cramps, easiness, bloating, irregular towel function, diarrhea and constipation, or alternating episodes of both 3. Visible abdomen distention 4. Hard to pinpoint exact causes, but possible that it’s caused by altered intestinal peristalsis or decreased pain threshold 5. Treat it through elimination diet, moderate caffeine, low-fat, small, frequent meals, stress reduction C. Celiac Disease and Gluten Sensitivity 1. Chronic, immune-mediated disease precipitated by exposure to dietary protein gluten 2. **Genetically predisposed people** 3. Found in certain grains, wheat, rye, barley 4. Affects about 1% of U.S. population 5. Flattens villi 6. Limits absorption of nutrients 7. Treatment should include a blood test for antibodies to gluten D. Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease (GERD) 1. Fancy way of saying heartburn 2. Half of North American adults experience occasional heartburn 3. Heartburn can damage the lining of the esophagus Central Dogma of Biology A. DNA <—> RNA —> Protein B. There is an emerging field of genomics in nutrition C. Nutritional Genomics- interactions between nutrition and genetics 1. Important because there are variations in nutrient requirements 2. Studies the responsiveness to dietary modifications 3. Helps us understand the impact of food on the gene expression 4. Helps us know our susceptibility to nutritionally related diseases 14 Diagrams Stomach Digestive Tract Small Intestine Mouth 15 Large Intestine Urinary Tract Peristalsis 16 sa=i&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=images&cd=&ved=0ahUKEwi6uafMsNjKAhXEFT4KHd1XD8Q QjB0IBg& intestines&psig=AFQjCNEC-yAA8MNlHbU_5dKly2TE7nhckw&ust=1454478450014645 sa=i&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=images&cd=&ved=0ahUKEwiPivygsdjKAhVDVz4KHYiMD8UQ jB0IBg& yourself-with-urinary-system-physiolog%2F&bvm=bv. 113034660,d.cWw&psig=AFQjCNECkLW4qxPZio7jF7wmHQmivtET7w&ust=14544786166447 90 sa=i&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=images&cd=&ved=0ahUKEwigi7_XsNjKAhWDaD4KHeSQA8Q QjB0IBg& %2F3502&psig=AFQjCNEnxfmxnuWWVw3I14nHH0g9V-NXfA&ust=1454478473218903 sa=i&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=images&cd=&ved=0ahUKEwjQzfa5sNjKAhVIcT4KHX1BAsQQ jB0IBg& system.html&bvm=bv.113034660,d.cWw&psig=AFQjCNFhpmeJSXOm1- qC3HUihzxEIxtnyA&ust=1454478384189427 sa=i&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=images&cd=&ved=0ahUKEwj-8JGUsNjKAhUFHD4KHbJeCcQ QjB0IBg& diagram-2%2F&bvm=bv. 113034660,d.cWw&psig=AFQjCNGWZHa7iIpC7xwB3zdrE3abO7gQDQ&ust=1454478328183 040 sa=i&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=images&cd=&ved=0ahUKEwit7dGIsdjKAhWJej4KHYGuAMQ QjB0IBg& 113034660,d.cWw&psig=AFQjCNHks9h2rYeO5jUhpuTGZiMjnde2gQ&ust=145447856126129 2


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