GPH210 Exam 1 Study Guide
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This 24 page Study Guide was uploaded by Phoebe Chang on Wednesday February 3, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to GPH 210 at a university taught by Elizabeth Larson in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 114 views.
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Date Created: 02/03/16
GPH210Introduction SpringSEMESTER2016 Professor:Dr.ElizabethLarson EliteNotetaker:Phoebe(email@example.com) 1. Earth Day ○ Information ■ April 22nd ■ Worldwide known and celebrated ■ Highlight environmental issues ○ Biodiversity issue ■ Diversity is important for ecosystem functioning ■ Ecosystem is a community of organisms and their environment ■ Extinctions ● Pollution ● Overharvest ● Habitat Destruction ○ Human social issue ■ Pollution kills 7m people per year (water, air, etc) ■ High population, limited resources ● 600% since 1900 ● 7 billion in the world ● 300 million in the United States ○ Global Warming issue ■ Earth is heating up (+1℃) due to accumulation of greenhouse gases ■ E.g. CO2 concentration increases by 30% due to ● Human activities: deforestation / high use of fossil fuels ● Consequences: higher sea level / ecosystem change 1 2. Environment and Sustainability ○ Environment ■ Physical, chemical and biological factors and processes that determine the growth and survival of an organism or community of organisms ○ Environmental Science ■ The study of all aspects of the environment ○ Ecology ■ The branch of environmental science focuses on abundance and distribution of organisms in relation to their environment ○ Sustainability ■ Definition ● Human well-being is the first concept introduced as focus for sustainability ● Maintaining the ability to accommodate important sources of change ● Meeting the needs of present without compromising the ability to meet future needs ■ Ideas are changing due to ● The world is changing ● We are changing ● We are changing the world ■ Management ● The triple bottom line (TBL) a. 3Ps— people, planet, profit b. Finding the balance between society, environment and economy ● Goal: Maintain well being of the human being a. Basic necessities of life b. Personal freedom c. Social stability d. Good health e. Food and shelter 2 3. Ecosystems ○ Ecosystem ■ Physical, chemical and biological factors and processes that determine the growth and survival of an organism or community of organisms ■ Defined at different scales (E.g. Log vs Forest vs Continent) ○ Biota ■ living organisms ■ E.g. Animals, plants, bacteria ○ Abiotic ■ nonliving organisms ■ E.g. Climate, soil, minerals, temperature ○ Ecosystem Function ■ The flow of matter and energy and the processes influencing the distribution and abundance of organisms ○ Ecosystem Integrity ■ The web of interactions that regulate ecosystem functions ■ E.g. Inflow → Exchange / transformation of energy and matter → Outflow ○ Ecosystem Services ■ Provisioning services ● Supply with resources ● E.g. food, water, air to breathe ■ Regulating services ● How ecosystems control important conditions and processes ● A consequence of self-regulating system ● E.g. Flow of water, climate, absorption of pollutants ■ Cultural services ● The leisure and recreational goods ecosystems provide ● E.g. Grand Canyon, Yosemite Valley, woods around home ■ Supporting services ● The basic ecosystem processes ● Service maintainer ● E.g. Soil formation nutrient cycles 3 4. Principles of Ecosystem Function ○ Matter and energy are neither created nor destroyed ■ Energy in a ecosystem = absorbed + reflected + released ○ Ecosystems are always open to gain and lose matter and energy ■ Ideally, arbitrary boundaries are made between countries based on type of soil or vegetation ■ In reality, it’s based on river, mountains yet lead to mismanagement and conflicts ○ Ecosystem processes are self-operated by interactions between abiotic and biotic elements ■ Dynamic homeostasis = system adjustment to minimize features or processes vary from their normal values ■ Negative feedback ● System alters processes in order to reverse the change to normal ● E.g. body temperature ■ Positive feedback ● System alters itself in order to strengthen the change ● E.g. global climate changes ○ Ecosystem changes are important and can’t be avoided ■ Ecosystem disturbance always happen ■ Response is often homeostatic ■ Some processes take a long period of time 5. Acting Sustainably ○ Renewable / Non-renewable resources ■ Depending on the rate of renewal of resources ■ We should be able to manage and use at the rate that don’t use up all the resources ○ Understanding of the ecosystem ■ Natural boundaries (not arbitrary yet functional) ■ Affected by surrounding ecosystems ■ Spatial scales and landscape features ○ Communication and collaboration across all human-imposed boundaries ■ Embrace and adjust to changes 4 ■ Be aware of tipping point / thresholds of change which one cannot return the nature back to its previous state 6. The Big Picture ○ Problem: Uncertainty ■ Ignorance ● Don’t have enough knowledge ■ Complexity ● Don’t understand how they all work together ■ Complexity Yields Uncertainty ● Data from different resources allow meteorologists to predict weather few days in advance ○ Solution: Science ■ Scientific Thinking ● Hypothesis— testable assumption ● Replication— repeatedly tested ● Peer review— eliminated biases ● Conclusion— new technology / findings / can still be proven wrong ■ System Thinking ● Recon the connection between parts of the system ● Recon the function of parts of the system ● Recon all systems are parts of a bigger system ● E.g. the practice of undertaking a long-term study at a place 7. Sustainability Science ○ Including biology, chemistry, politics and society ■ Understand interactions between social and ecological systems ■ Globalization hinder motives of people; incentives were local ■ Focus on long-term changes ■ Balance between ecosystem and societies ■ Threshold of changes / limitation / new structures ■ Progresses are monitored ■ Use the knowledge we have to take actions 5 ○ Agents of Change: UCBerkeley Green Initiative Fund ■ $250k per year for campus projects ■ $5 per semester for students ■ Grants provided ● Energy retrofits ● Green internships ● Water conservation 6 GPH210Introduction SpringSEMESTER2016 Professor:Dr.ElizabethLarson EliteNotetaker:Phoebe(firstname.lastname@example.org) 1. Dam-nation ○ USA ■ Exact number unknown ■ 75k dams in US Army Corps of Engineers’ National Inventory of Dams (NID) ■ The most comprehensive inventory of dams ■ Some provides hydroelectricity ○ Hetch Hetchy Valley ■ Original thoughts: ● Lots of snow in Yosemite National Park and surrounding area ● Ideal geological structure as dam to collect melted snow ● Support San Franciscan water shortage ■ Memorial Meeting: ● President Theodore Roosevelt and John Muir @ Glacier Point, Yosemite ● Agree to preserve the valley ■ Earthquake hit San Francisco ● Debate started again until 1913 ● O’shaughnessy Dam was completed and filed by July 1923 2. Changing Views of Humans and Nature ○ Pre-industrial Views ■ Animism ● Living and nonliving objects have souls ● Common for indigenous people / religious ■ Domestication ● Humans alter ecosystem for their benefits by owning animals and plants ● E.g. Crop production increases therefore more food to eat ● Agriculture society → Market society ■ Monotheistic Religion ● Judaism / Christianity / Islam a. Emphasize the centrality of human in nature 1 b. Anthropocentric - humans are the boss among all creations ● Hinduism / Buddhism / Shintoism a. Emphasize harmony between human actions and nature b. Biocentric - humans are inseparable from nature ○ Enlightenment and Industrial Revolution ■ New technology and scientific method blooming ● Steam-driven machines ● Urbanization ■ Famous people and ideas ● Voltaire → Humanity relationship with God ● Jean-Baptiste Lamarck → Human was one of many products of a process of evolution ● Charles Darwin → Theory of evolution (natural selection) ● Botany / Zoology → Connection between organisms and environment ● David Thoreau → The discipline of ecology ● George Perkins → Man and Nature (book) ○ Conservation vs Preservation ■ Conservationist View ● Gifford Pinchot ● Public resources should be used and managed in a sustainable way to provide the best benefit to most people ● E.g. Sustainable use of natural resources ■ Preservationist View ● John Muir ● Parks and public lands should preserve the nature in its original state ● E.g. Not intervening with the nature at all ■ Debates ● Aldo Leopold (both conservation and preservation) ● Rachel Carson (DDT / silent spring) ● Paul Ehrlich (population bomb) ● Edward O. Wilson (loss of plant and animal species) ○ Modern Era ■ Rio Earth Summit (1992) ■ Global politics / debates ■ Understand dependence on ecosystems ● Media warning ● Environmental trends 3. Environmental Ethics ○ Three Ethical Traditions 2 ■ Virtue ethics (Plato) ● An action is right if it’s motivated by virtues like kindness, honesty, loyalty, justice ● Sort of anthropocentric (human-centered) ■ Consequence-based ethics ● Emphasize outcome ● Right = pleasure, benefit, satisfaction ● Wrong = pain, harm, dissatisfaction ● E.g.Utilitarianism (conservationist) a. Right actions = delivering the most good to most people ■ Duty-based ethics (Immanuel Kant) ● Right or wrong is based on laws and rules (lying is always wrong) ● E.g. Ten Commandments ○ 2 Types of Values ■ Intrinsic value ● Person, organism, objects are valued for its own sake ■ Instrumental value ● Things are valued since it helps us to get or achieve something else ○ 5 Environmental Ethics ■ Anthropocentric ethics ● Humans have intrinsic value ● Everything else have instrumental value ● E.g. conservationist view ■ Biocentric ethics ● Intrinsic value for all living/nonliving creatures ● Debates a. A thing have intrinsic value must be able to experience pleasure and satisfaction (motived animal rights movement) b. All organisms that is product of natural evolution has intrinsic value (jellyfish = dogs) ■ Ecocentric ethics ● Intrinsic value on all communities and ecosystems (collection of organisms) ● Deep ecology movement a. Human has no right to diminish the diversity and richness of ecosystems except to meet vital needs ■ Ecofeminism ● Françoise d’Eaubonne ● Argued feminine concerns for the interrelationships among living/nonliving lives and environment ● Abuse of both environment and women from male domination ● E.g. Wangari Maathai 3 a. Deforestation in Kenya deprived women of fuel b. Led to soil erosion at where they farmed ■ Environmental Justice ● Ensure people are treated fairly regardless of race, gender or economic status in management of natural resources ● Related to international negotiations on global issues ● Concerning developing countries ● E.g. UN Environment Programme (UNEP) a. Established to support international environmental ethic to grow, promote sustainability and protection to the Earth 4. The Environment and the Marketplace ○ Economic Systems ■ Subsistence economy ● The most basic system ● Society meets their needs from environment without accumulating wealth ● E.g. Hunter-gatherers, fishermen, farmers, etc ■ Market economy ● Production and consumption of goods and services happen in markets with certain prices and currency ● Free market economy a. No taxes, laws, subsidies and government involved b. E.g. United States (partially) ● Planned economy a. Government takes control over prices, services and level of production b. Black market operates outside of gov. control c. E.g. North Korea, Cuba, China ○ Supply and Demand ■ Commodities ● The goods or services that are valued and exchanged ■ Neoclassical economic theory ● Price and production is depending on the supply and demand of the goods and services ● The higher the price, the higher the supply, the lower the demand (vice versa) ● Therefore, there’s an equilibrium price and supply for the market ○ Economic Value ■ How much a consumer is willing to pay for the commodity ● The more abundant of a commodity, the less beneficial it is for a buyer ● The more immediate of a commodity, the more beneficial it is for a buyer 4 ● The more necessary of a commodity, the more likely for a buyer to purchase ■ Discount rate ● Decline of economic values ● Affected by a. Opportunity cost: the worthiness when comparing the item to buying the best alternative use of that money b. Risk: the uncertainty of the future c. Consumer need ■ Externalities ● Pros and cons to other people than buyers and sellers when producing a commodity ● Positive externalities a. Third party benefits from an economic transaction b. E.g. Timber company (maintain healthy forest while maximizing profits of harvested timbers) ● Negative externalities a. Harms/costs to others b. E.g. Neighborhood of timber company (pollution from their production); DDT issues ○ Unknown Costs and Benefits ■ Risky Behaviors ● 50 years ago, we didn’t know how harmful can cigarettes be ■ Limited Resources ● Non-renewable resources cannot be replenished at all or in short period of time 5. Valuing Ecosystem ○ Economic Valuation of Ecosystem Services ■ Marginal value ● People’s willingness to pay for an action comparing to an alternative ● E.g. Are you willing to pay more to be more green? ■ Travel-cost valuation ● People's willingness to pay for transportation and living to visit certain ecosystem ● Including cost of building, maintaining roads and infrastructure of the destinations ■ Hedonic valuation ● Environmental alternatives affect market price of real estate ● E.g. Are you willing to pay more for having a national park around? ■ Contingent valuation ● People’s willingness to pay for an ecosystem service 5 ● E.g. Are you willing to pay for conservation of an endangered species? ○ Ecological Valuation ■ The potential cost of the loss or degradation of an ecosystem service ■ E.g. Deforestation leads to flooding ■ Areas with forests that are along rivers in tropical and temperate regions have the greatest ecological value ■ Natural capital ● All resources on Earth that are needed and depended on to produce the ecosystem services ● Base of ecological valuation ○ Wealth of Nations ■ Gross domestic product (GDP) ● Total value of goods and services produced by a country’s citizen / population size ● Measure of one country’s economic status ● Basis for financial aid, loans to nations ■ Genuine Progress Indicator (GPI) ● GPD +/- the economic value of enhancements/degradations to the environment ● Increase of GPI by reforestation, health care, etc ● ● 6. Environmental Policy ○ Overview ■ Guidance for decisions and actions that influence environmental conditions or processes ■ The Policy Cycle ● Develop and revise policies through steps a. Problem definition → Agenda setting (hearings, debates, lobbying) → Policy development → Implementation → Policy evaluation (termination or revision) ○ Actions ■ Regulatory Mandates ● Laws setting standards for actions ● E.g. CAFE regulations ■ Incentives ● Offering appealing to encourage actions ● E.g. Hybrid cars, solar panels, geothermal heat pumps, small wind-energy systems ■ Market-based Policies ● Using economic markets for actions ● E.g. Cap and trade 6 a. Rights to exceed a certain law needs to be bought b. U.S. Clean Air Act Amendment (1990) ■ Volunteerism ● Free behavior from a community ● E.g. U.S. Forest Service encourage the control of wildfire and stop littering ○ 8 Issues of Policy Decision Framework ■ Government vs Individual ● How much control should region and individuals have? ● E.g. Laws on recycling ■ Competing public values ● What’s value should be the priority? ● E.g. Economic benefits for the timber man vs Environmental benefits for the neighborhood ■ Precautionary principle ● Uncertain yet reasonable evidence needs to be taken under consideration/action if it’ll put human health or environment at risk ● All action might lead to different risks ● E.g. Banning pesticide lower the risk of health effects yet higher the risk of not having enough crops ■ Government involvement ● Federal / State / County / City ● E.g. Cali and NY argued states should have their regulation on air quality ■ Government power overlap ● Good when a lot of departments are taking care of something together ● Bad when overlaps are poorly defined and responsibility is confusing ● E.g. Flow of water in rivers involves Bureau of Reclamation and Army Corps of Engineers ■ Selfish Actions ● Tragedy of the common a. Common resources are likely to be overexploited if people are selfish b. E.g. land owned by several families, they all want to put as much animals on the land as possible ● Not in my backyard a. Protest against landfill around neighborhood ■ Strategy for a good end ● Debates on what strategy is the best to achieve certain environmental outcomes ● E.g. CO2 emission for companies and individuals 7 ■ Political power relationships ● Some state, country or company or party might have more say since the distribution of resources is unfair ● E.g. fossil fuel distribution is unfair 7. U.S. Environmental Law and Policy ○ Governmental Functions— three branches of government ■ Legislative— The Congress ● Approves president's budget and appointments ● Approves judges appointments impeachment ● Removes judges by impeachment ■ Judicial— The Courts ● Enforcement and interpretation of laws ● Constitutionality of legislation ■ Executive— The President ● Laws are signed and enacted by president ● Appoints judges with congressional approval ○ Constitution and Environmental Policy ■ Articles and amendments ● Article 1 a. The right for federal gov to regulate foreign and interstate commerce. b. E.g. transportation, water flow and quality, mining, natural energy resources, etc ● Article 4 a. The right for gov to make laws for public lands b. E.g. national parks, forests, wildlife refuges, etc ● The Fifth Amendment of the Constitution a. The right for gov to take property for public use with compensation for owner b. E.g. Eminent-domain ● The Fourteenth Amendment a. After Civil War b. Require states to provide legal due process and equal protection to all citizens c. Basis for environmental justice 8. International Environmental Law and Policy ○ Environmental laws ■ Sovereignty ● A country can do whatever they like in their border as long as it doesn’t violate international laws which they agreed on ● Three forms of international laws a. Customary international laws i. Most countries in the world accept the law 8 ii. A country cannot use their territory in a way that heat other countries iii. E.g. Japan has to notify everyone when the Fukushima incident happened so everyone can be alerted b. Conventional international laws i. Legally binding conventions or treaties amount countries ii. E.g. Convention on Nature Protection + Wildlife Preservation = protect migratory birds c. Judicial international laws i. Standards of countries’ actions are based on international court and tribunals decisions ii. E.g. European Court of Justice, World Trade Organization ○ International Institutions ■ Environmental laws / policies ● The United Nations a. The most important organization b. 54 Nations in the social and economic council ● Regional Consortia a. Different regions formed different organization with each countries b. E.g. European Union, Organization of American States, etc ■ Financial laws / policies ● Multinational Development Banks a. Provide financial and technical assistance to countries for economic, social and environmental development b. E.g. World Bank, African Development Bank, World Trade Organization ■ Nongovernmental Organization ● No governmental involvement; huge influence on international environmental policy ● E.g. Greenpeace, World Wildlife Fund, etc 9 GPH210CommunitiesandEcosystems SpringSEMESTER2016 Professor:Dr.ElizabethLarson EliteNotetaker:Phoebe(email@example.com) 1. The Web of Life ○ Numerous cross-over throughout the system ○ Complex connection between biotic and abiotic ○ Depend on each other like a web 2. Competition for Shared Resources ○ The order of our systems ■ Individual → Population → Community → Ecosystem → Biome → Biosphere ○ Ecological Community ■ A specific area where a web of life interact with each other ○ Different types of competition ■ Intraspecific competition ● Limited resources shared/fought by same specie ● E.g. Frogs fighting for a fly ■ Interspecific competition ● Limited resources shared/fought by different species ● E.g. Frog and turtle both fighting for a fly ● Competitive exclusion principle a. Two species fighting for essential resources and cannot coexist, one specie will eventually die out ■ Forest competition ● Trees all fighting for water and soil nutrition ■ Exploitation Competition ● Successful competitors take up resources more efficiently ● Often occur in desert ■ Interference Competition ● Aggressively competing with each other for dead remains killed by lions with territorial behavior ● E.g. hyenas, jackals, vultures ○ Niche ■ Ecological niche ● The role of an organism in the ecosystem 1 ● Not just physical habitat but also the interactions with others ■ Fundamental niche ● The range of environmental conditions needed to support a certain specie ● E.g. temperature, PH, food, water, ■ Realized niche ● The range where an organism exists because of competition ● Smaller than fundamental niche due to constraints of competition ■ Niche Differentiation ● Competitors can coexist due to division of fundamental niche ● Division of resources ● E.g. Warblers in evergreen forest ● (eating different portions of forest canopy, divide the tree into different portion to live in) 3. Herbivory, Predation and Parasitism ○ Consumers ■ Feed on living organisms ○ Herbivores ■ Feed on plants ■ Coevolution ● Adaptation to plants evolutions (thorns, irritating hairs, toxic chemical, distasteful) ● Specialized digestive systems ● Detoxify plant chemical systems ● E.g. Monarch butterfly-milkweed relationship ○ Predators ■ Hunt, kill and eat their prey ■ Predators tend to have different species of preys ■ Giant Filter Feeders ● Filtering plankton from the water by opening the expandable mouths and forcing water through upper teeth ● E.g. Blue whale ■ Prey Switching ● Focusing on the most abundant prey specie ● Ensure no prey will extinct ● Provide predator steady food supply ■ Defending Predators ● Natural selection evolve preys with special body structures ● E.g. Imitate nonfood parts of the environment (looking like sticks, leaves, etc) ○ Parasites ■ Food on living host for nutrition ■ Simple life cycles ■ Coexisting with the host 2 ■ Vectors ● Carry parasite but not affected by it ● Spreading the parasite at the same time ■ Hosts ● Increase of host = increase of parasite ● Leads to disease spreading quickly (4 factors) a. Abundant hosts b. Accessible hosts c. Quick transmission rate of parasites d. Long life length of infected host e. E.g. medieval era 4. Mutualism and Commensalism ○ Symbioses ■ Interdependence between different species ■ Types of symbioses ● Host-and-parasites ● Mutualism ● Commensalism ○ Mutualism ■ Both species benefits from each other ■ E.g. Figs + Wasps / Ants + Bullhorn Acacia / Fungus-plant root + Most plants living in a prairie ○ Commensalism ■ Only one specie is benefited, the other is unaffected ■ E.g. Snails and Hermit Crab 5. The Flow of Energy in Ecological Communities ○ Energy Flow ■ The transfer and transformation of high-energy organic molecules ○ Trophic Levels ■ Based on food sources (who eat by who) ■ Primary producer → Primary Consumer (Herbivores) → Secondary Consumers (Carnivores) → Tertiary Consumer ■ Decomposer (Non-living matter eater) ■ Examples ● Producers: Phytoplankton (autotrophs) ● Detritivore: Earthworms / Millipedes (eat dead food) ○ Food Chain / Food Web ■ Chain: Feeding relationship from one specie to another ■ Web: Complex feeding relationship between different species ■ The more complex, the more stable the ecosystem is ○ Biomass Energy ■ The amount of energy within one living or dead organism ■ Trophic level efficiency 3 ● The higher one is on the trophic levels, the lesser energy it gets by eating the other ● Only ~10% energy is available to the next level ○ Keystone Species ■ Named due to the wedge-shaped keystone holding an arched structure together ■ Extremely important for the ecosystem’s stability; Removal can be destructive ■ Can be a plant or an animal ■ E.g. Trophic cascade ● Loss of carnivores = explosion of herbivore = disaster for primary producers 6. Disturbance and Community Change ○ Ecological Disturbance ■ Cause ● Fire, hurricanes, volcanoes explosion, logging, etc ■ Result ● Community loss for many/all species in a community ■ Legacies ● Soil, debris ■ Types of Succession ● Process of post-disturbance change in ecological community ● Primary succession a. Millennia needed for processing b. Started with bare rock typically (no resources, empty area) i. Glacial retreat ii. Volcanic eruption c. Pioneer species (earliest colonists) → Migration/Facilitation of new species → Climax Community (organisms perpetuate) ● Secondary succession a. 70–100 years needed for processing (faster) b. Started with the legacies left behind from the disturbances i. Soil ii. Seed bank iii. Wood debris c. Old-field succession i. Reforestation ii. Started at abandoned farm fields iii. One of the most carefully studied examples ● Cyclic succession a. Increase chances of disturbance b. Leads to cycles of change 4 c. Return time: average time between disturbances at a certain area d. Some ecosystems are maintained by cyclical succession i. E.g. Lodgepole Pine (requires fire to reproduce— open cone up to reproduce) ■ Importance of Succession ● Proximity to other systems (e.g. climate, local variations in terrain, composition of species surrounding) ● Human influences (e.g. gardening, deforestation, invading species— nuisance/invaders) 5 GPH210EcosystemEcology SpringSEMESTER2016 Professor:Dr.ElizabethLarson EliteNotetaker:Phoebe(firstname.lastname@example.org) 1. Definitions ○ Biosphere ■ Living + Nonliving organisms + Environment ○ Biogeochemical cycle ■ Flow of matter in the ecosystem ■ E.g. Elements, water, etc ○ Biogeochemical cycles ■ Distribution, abundance and movement of elements ■ Dynamics ● Cycles vary ● Season change (climate affects NPP) ● Disturbance / Succession (alters flux and pools) ○ Cycling time ■ The length of an element or molecule needed to pass through a biogeochemical cycle ○ Pools ■ Where element resides in the ecosystem ■ Capital ● Total mass of an element (in a pool) ■ Residence time ● Average time of an element (in a pool) ○ Fluxes ■ The rate of elements movement ○ Massbalance accounting ■ The process that accounts for the abundance of an element in an ecosystem 2. Nutrients ○ Elements needed to carry out functions in life ○ About 25 in total ○ Macronutrients (require a lot) ■ Calcium 1 ■ Phosphorus ■ Sulfur (acid rain) ■ Nitrogen ○ Micronutrients (require a little) ■ Manganese ■ Boron ○ Human body composition ■ 65% Oxygen ■ 18.5% Carbon ■ 9.5% Hydrogen ■ 3.3% Nitrogen ○ Earth atmosphere and lithosphere ■ Mainly oxygen + silicon 3. The Rock Cycle ○ Earth crust + Mantle cycle ■ Rocks are converted from one type to another ○ Three types of rocks ■ Igneous (Solidified magma) ■ Sedimentary (Sand, silt bound by pressure) ■ Metamorphic (Transform from igneous or sedimentary due to heat + pressure) 4. The Hydrologic Cycle ○ Distribution and flux of water throughout biogeochemical system ■ Ocean: 98% ■ Atmosphere: 0.001% ○ Driven factors ■ Solar energy ■ Gravity ○ Three phases of water ■ Solid ice ■ Liquid water ■ Gaseous water ○ Processes ■ Precipitation (atmosphere → hydrosphere) ■ Evaporation / Transpiration (hydrosphere → atmosphere) ■ Aquifer (Percolates through soil/rock → groundwater) ■ Water in the grown have the longest residence time 5. The Carbon Cycle ○ Facts ■ 0.032% of atmosphere + lithosphere 2 ■ 0.0005% in biosphere ■ Mostly in sedimentary rocks (biomass terrestrial) ● Plant litter, waste, dead organisms ● Portion not consumed by decomposers remain ● Climate + water affect soil carbon pool ■ Essential for life ○ Driven Factors ■ Respiration (back to atmosphere) ■ Photosynthesis (comes from atmosphere) ● Gross primary production (GPP) a. Total CO2 converted each year ● Net primary production (NPP) a. Organic carbon available ● Net ecosystem production (NEP) a. Net movement of carbon into an ecosystem ○ Aquatic / Marine Carbon ■ CO2 in oceans, lakes, and rivers ■ Phytoplankton ■ Shells making for marine organisms (falls as sediment to ocean floor) ■ Ocean absorbs carbon ○ Human Impacts ■ Altered carbon cycle ■ Reduced NPP (organic carbon available) ■ Fossil Fuels (releases carbon into atmosphere) ● Since Industrial Revolution ● Primary reason for increased flux of carbon 6. The Nitrogen Cycle ○ Facts ■ Most abundant element ■ Small amount in crust ■ Microorganisms transform nitrogen gas to usable forms ■ Plants modify = amino acids / nucleic acids ■ Limit forest to be turned into cropland ■ Most found in fertilizer (+phosphorus) ○ Driven Factors and Process ■ Nitrogen Fixation ● Atmosphere → Biosphere ● Bacteria (convert N2 → NH3) ● Lighting ■ Nitrification ● Soil bacteria makes nitrogen available to other organisms ■ Denitrification 3 ● Bacteria (Nitrates → N2 gas) ○ Human Impacts ■ Doubled rate of nitrogen fixation ■ HaberBosch process ● Nonbiological method of nitrogen fixation ● Due to chemical fertilizer ■ Too much nitrogen = pollutant ■ Eutrophication ● Aquatic ecosystems having too much nutrition causing growth of plants and death of animals 7. The Phosphorus Cycle ○ Facts ■ Abundant in crust ■ Absent in atmosphere ■ Organisms use it as phosphate (PO4) ■ Weathered out of sedimentary rock ■ Limiting marine production ○ Processes ■ Geologic uplift → Rock → Mining → Erosion / Fertilizers and detergents → Pollution → Runoff → Oceanic burial ■ Rock → Weathering ■ Soil → Land plants → Consumers → Decomposition → Soil ○ Human Impact ■ Mining large quantities of phosphorus for fertilizer ■ Mining disturb ecosystem ■ Too much phosphorous changes aquatic systems 8. The Sulfur Cycle ○ Facts ■ Crust: 0.07% ■ Mostly chemically in rock ■ Weathering + Volcanic activity releases usable forms ■ High flux of sulfur into atmosphere ■ Low residence time ○ Human Impact ■ Mining + burning fossil fuel = doubled amount of sulfur released ■ Acid rain source 4
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