ENV 1301: Study Guide II
ENV 1301: Study Guide II ENV 1301
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Anna Frazier ENV 1301; Spring 2016 Test 1 Review; pages 1-‐111 Review the quiz ques▯ons that were asked in class. Quiz Ques▯ons: • What is another name for nutrient pollu▯on? • What are the nutrients related to nutrient pollu▯on? • What is a biogeochemical cycle? • What are the ﬁrst and second laws of energy and mass? Ch. 1 W HAT IS THE SCOPE OF ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE ? Environmental science —the scien▯ﬁc study of how the natural world func▯ons, how our environment aﬀects us, and how we aﬀect our environment. G IVE AN EXAMPLE OF AN ECOSYSTEM SERVICE . Ecosystem services —For example, ecosystems naturally purify air and water, cycle nutrients, provide for plants to be pollinated by animals, and receive and recycle the waste we generate H OW DO HUMANS INFLUENCE ECOSYSTEM SERVICES ? IVEGAN EXAMPLE . Humans inﬂuence ecosystem services in many ways, such as farming a certain plot of land un▯l there are no more nutrients le▯, changing the ecosystem. H OW DOES POPULATION AMPLIFY ANTHROPOGENIC IMPACT ? More humans means a greater anthropogenic impact. W HO WROTE “RAGEDY OF THE OMMONS ”? OWH DOES THE NARRATIVE RELATE TO ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES TODAY ? W HAT IS THE DOMINATE THEME OF THE ESSAY ? Garre▯ Hardin wrote “Tragedy of the Commons.” The Tragedy of the Common s an economic problem in which every individual tries to reap the greatest beneﬁt from a given resource. As the demand for the resource overwhelms the supply, every individual who consumes an addi▯onal unit directly harms others who can no longer enjoy the beneﬁts. Generally, the resource of interest is easily available to all individuals. D IFFERENTIATE BETWEEN FRONTIER MENTALITY ’ AND SUSTAINABILITY ’. Sustainability —a guiding principle of environmental science, entailing conserving resources, maintaining func▯onal ecological systems, and developing long-‐term solu▯ons, such that earth can sustain our civiliza▯on and all life for the future, allowing our descendants to live at least as well as we have lived Fron▯er mentality —a mindset that views humans as superior to other forms of life, rather than as an integral part of nature. Sees the world as an unlimited supply of resources for human use regardless of the impacts on other species. Implicit in this view are the no▯ons that bigger is be▯er, con▯nued material wealth will improve life, and nature must be put under subjec▯on. L IST THE STEPS PERTAINING TO SCIENTIFIC METHOD . Scien▯ﬁc Method —observa▯ons, ques▯ons, hypothesis, predic▯ons, test, results W HAT IS MEANT BY HYPOTHESIS DRIVEN SCIENCE ? Hypothesis-‐driven science —research that proceeds in a more targeted and structured manner, using experiments to test hypotheses in a framework tradi▯onally known as the scien▯ﬁc method. R ELATE THE DEVELOPMENT OF CONSERVATION AND PRESERVATION IN THE US P . 13) Preserva▯on ethic —we should protect the natural environment in a pris▯ne, unaltered state Conserva▯on ethic —we should put natural resources to use but we have a responsibility to manage them wisely P ROVIDE THE FUNDAMENTAL CONCEPT OF LDO EOPOLD ’S WORK PERTAINING TO “HE AND THIC ”. Aldo Leopold —a wildlife manager, author, and philosopher who ar▯culated a new rela▯onship between people and the environment; embraced a government policy of shoo▯ng predators, such as wolves, to increase popula▯ons of deer and other game animals E XPLAIN THE CONCEPT OF ENVIRONMENTAL JUSTICE IN THE CONTEXT OF POLLUTION ,HAZARDS , AND ENVIRONMENTAL HAZARDS . (*not sure i understand ques▯on*) Environmental jus▯ce —involves the fair and equitable treatment of all people with respect to environmental policy and prac▯ce, regardless of their income, race, or ethnicity W HAT IS MEANT BY SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT ? Sustainable development —the use of resources for economic advancement in a manner that sa▯sﬁes our current needs but does not compromise the future availability of resources H OW CAN FOOTPRINTS BE USED IN THE EXAMINATION OF SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT PROJECTS ? An ecological footprint can be used in the development of sustainable development projects by reﬂec▯ng which habits are destruc▯ve to the environment and which habits promote environmental health. Ch. 2 P ROVIDE AN EXAMPLE OF A FEEDBACK LOOP ? S IT POSITIVE OR NEGATIVE ? E XPLAIN THE PROCESS OF EUTROPHICATION . Eutrophica▯on is the enrichment of an ecosystem with chemical nutrients, typically compounds containing nitrogen, phosphorus, or both. Eutrophica▯on can be a natural process in lakes, occurring as they age through geological ▯me. (nutrient pollu▯on) W HAT IS THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN EUTROPHIC AND OLIGOTROPHIC ? Eutrophic a term describing a water body that has high nutrients and low oxygen condi▯ons. Oligotrophic is a term describing a water body that has low nutrients and high oxygen condi▯ons. D ISTINGUISH BETWEEN BIOTIC AND ABIOTIC ASPECTS OF THE ENVIRONMENT . Bio▯c —living Abio▯c —nonliving W HAT IS P H? XPLAIN THE SCALE WITH WHICH IT IS MEASURED . pH a measure of the concentra▯on of hydrogen ions in a solu▯on. The pH scale ranges from 0 to 14: a solu▯on with a pH of seven is neutral; solu▯ons with a pH below seven are acidic. Those with a pH higher than seven are basic. Because the scale is logarithmic, each step on a scale represents a 10-‐fold diﬀerence in hydrogen ion concentra▯on. L IST THE SUBATOMIC PARTICLES THAT MAKE UP AN ATOM . Protons —a posi▯vely charged par▯cle in the nucleus of an atom Neutrons —an electrically neutral uncharged par▯cle in the nucleus of an atom Electrons —a posi▯vely charged par▯cle in the nucleus of an atom W HAT IS AN ISOTOPE ? OW H CAN WE USE ISOTOPES TO MAKE ELECTRICITY ? Isotopes —one of the several forms of an element having diﬀering numbers of neutrons in the nucleus of its atoms. Chemically, isotopes of an element behave almost iden▯cally, but they have diﬀerent physical proper▯es because they diﬀer in mass Isotopes are used to create energy in at least two ways: The isotopes are allowed to heat water into steam, and the steam turns a generator. The isotopes are allowed to heat one end of a “thermopile," and the thermopile powers electronics. (This is how the deep space probes get their power.) P ROVIDE THE FIRST AND SECOND LAWS OF ENERGY AND MASS . First law of thermodynamics —Energy is neither created nor destroyed Second law of thermodynamics —Energy is lost in the form of heat W HAT IS MEANT BY THE TERM ORGANIC ’ IN THE CONTEXT OF ECOLOGY ? OW H DOES THE DEFINITION DIFFER WHEN DISCUSSING CHEMISTRY ? Organic —derived from living ma▯er (ecology) Organic —deno▯ng compounds containing carbon (chemistry) H OW DO WARM BLOODED ANIMALS DEMONSTRATE THE CONCEPT OF ENTROPY ’? Entropy —the degree of disorder in a system, substance, or process. Animals produce heat (disorganized energy). P ROVIDE THE UNBALANCED FORMULA FOR PHOTOSYNTHESIS AND RESPIRATION . W HAT IS THE MOST PRODUCTIVE AQUATIC ECOSYSTEM ON THE PLANET ? HE MOST PRODUCTIVE TERRESTRIAL ECOSYSTEM ? Wetlandsa re the most produc▯ve aqua▯c ecosystems in the world because of their proximity of water and soil. Tropical foresta s re the most produc▯ve terrestrial ecosystems in the world because of both their areal extent and their high average produc▯vity. W HAT DOES THE TERM BIOGEOCHEMICAL CYCLE ’ DESCRIBE . ROVIDE THREE EXAMPLES . Carbon cycle —a major nutrient cycle consis▯ng of the route the carbon atoms take through the nested networks of environmental systems Nitrogen cycle —a major nutrient cycle consis▯ng of the route that nitrogen atoms take through the nested networks of environmental systems Phosphorous cycle —a major nutrient cycle consis▯ng of the routes that phosphorus atoms take through the nested networks of environmental systems O NE OF THE DIAGRAMS ON PAGE 3DISCUSSES ASPECTS OF BIOGEOCHEMICAL CYCLES RELATED TO SOURCE ’, FLUX ’ AND ‘SINK ’. IFFERENTIATE BETWEEN THOSE COMPONENTS IN TERMS OF THE WAY ENERGY AND NUTRIENTS CIRCULATE THROUGHOUT THE ENVIRONMENT . When a reservoir releases more materials than it accepts, it is called a source, and when a reservoir accepts more materials than it releases, it is called a sink. The rate at which materials move between reservoirs is termed a ﬂux, And the ﬂux between any given pair of reservoirs can change over ▯me. Ch. 3 D ESCRIBE THE CONCEPT OF EVOLUTION USING THE CONCEPTS OF GENE FLOW AND NATURAL SELECTION . Evolu▯on consists of changing popula▯ons of organisms from genera▯on to genera▯on. Natural selec▯on: inherited characteris▯cs that enhance survival and reproduc▯on are passed on more frequently to future genera▯ons than characteris▯cs that do not, thereby altering the gene▯c makeup of popula▯ons through ▯me. The trait that promotes success is called the adap▯ve trait and the ﬂow of this adap▯ve trait through genera▯ons is called gene ﬂow. W HAT IS MEANT BY GENETIC VARIATION ’? ROVIDE TWO EXAMPLES . Accidental changes in DNA, called muta▯ons, give rise to gene▯c varia▯on among individuals. Example: Wild raspberries(small) versus raspberries from the grocery store(large); ancient corn(purple) versus corn from the grocery store(yellow) D ESCRIBE TWO REASONS THAT SPECIATION IS THOUGHT TO OCCUR . Species form from popula▯ons that become physically separated over some geographic distance Species form from resource par▯▯oning W HY IS DIVERSITY IMPORTANT ? Diversity is important because many species need to exist to keep the ecosystems in balance in order to keep humans alive W HAT IS THE CAUSE OF THE MASS EXTINCTION THAT IS CURRENTLY HAPPENING ? Climate change caused by human ac▯ons D ISTINGUISH BETWEEN THE CONCEPTS OF HABITAT AND NICHE . Habitat is where an organism lives and all its surrounding bio▯c and abio▯c factors; niche is the organism’s func▯onal role in the ecosystem D ISTINGUISH BETWEEN THE SCOPE OF POPULATION ECOLOGY ’ AND AUTECOLOGY ’ ECOLOGY OF INDIVIDUAL SPECIES ). Popula▯on(syn) ecology —the study of the ecology of a popula▯on Auto ecology —the study of the ecology of a species D ISTINGUISH BETWEEN A SPECIALIST ’AND A GENERALIST ’ IN TERMS OF THE ATTRIBUTES THAT ALLOW THEM TO BE BIOLOGICALLY SUCCESSFUL . HATW IS MEANT BY BIOLOGICALLY SUCCESSFUL ’? Specialist —A species that can survive only in a narrow range of habitats that contain very speciﬁc resources Generalist —a species that can survive in a wide array of habitats or use a wide array of resources Biologically successful —con▯nua▯on of that species’ gene ﬂow throughout the genera▯ons W HAT IS THE FORMULA TO CALCULATE THE DOUBLING TIME OF A POPULATION ? dt = 70/r P OPULATIONS GROW EXPONENTIALLY ? HAT DOES THAT MEAN ? Exponen▯al growth —a popula▯on increases by ﬁxed percentage each year For popula▯ons which grow exponen▯ally, growth starts out slowly, enters a rapid growth phase and then levels oﬀ when the carrying capacity for that species has been reached. A popula▯on may grow exponen▯ally when colonizing in an unoccupied environment or exploi▯ng an unused resource. L IST AND DESCRIBE THE FOUR WAYS THAT POPULATIONS MIGHT GROW OR DECREASE . A popula▯on gains individuals by natality and immigra▯on and loses individuals by mortality and emigra▯on. Natality — births within the popula▯on Mortality — deaths within the popula▯ons Immigra▯on — arrival of individuals from outside the popula▯ons Emigra▯on — departure of individuals from the popula▯ons W HAT IS CARRYING CAPACITY ? Carrying capacity the maximum popula▯on size of a species that a given environment can sustain H OW IS CARRYING CAPACITY RELATED TO POPULATION ? Popula▯on ﬂuctuates above and below the carrying capacity. H OW DO LIMITING FACTORS RESTRAIN POPULATION GROWTH ? Limi▯ng factors —every popula▯on is eventually constrained by physical, chemical, and biological a▯ributes of the environment that restraining popula▯on growth. The logis▯c growth curve shows how exponen▯al growth is slowed and eventually brought to a stands▯ll by limi▯ng factors. H OW CAN CARRYING CAPACITY CHANGE BOTH UP AND DOWN )? Ecological disrup▯on will lower carrying capacity, when limi▯ng factors are not in good supply Ecological ﬂourishing will raise carrying capacity because limi▯ng factors are in good supply D ISTINGUISH BETWEEN R-SELECTED ’ AND ‘SELECTED ’ ORGANISMS . HY IS THIS IMPORTANT ? ‘r-‐selected’ organisms: example —fruit ﬂies: bo▯om of the food chain, lots of oﬀspring, don’t exert much energy, short gesta▯on period, reproduce quickly ‘K-‐selected’ organisms: example —elephants: top of the food chain, few oﬀspring, exert a lot of energy, long gesta▯on period, reproduce slowly Ch. 4 Dis▯nguish between a calorie and a Btu? Which unit (a calorie or a Btu) is typically used to describe energy ﬂow in an ecosystem? W HAT ARE THE THREE FUNCTIONAL GROUPS IN ALL ECOSYSTEMS ? Producers, consumers, decomposers L IST AND DESCRIBE THE RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN ORGANISM AS FOUND IN ABLE 4.1;PAGE 65. Compe▯▯on —when mul▯ple organisms seek the same limited resource Preda▯on —the process by which individuals of one species—the predator—hunt, capture, kill, and consume individuals of another species, the prey Parasi▯sm —in rela▯onship in which one organism, the parasite, depends on another, the host, for nourishment or some other beneﬁts while doing the host harm Herbivory —animal feed on the ▯ssues of planets Mutualism —a rela▯onship in which two or more species beneﬁt from interac▯ng with one another D EFINE THE CONCEPT OF COMPETITION ’. OW DOES COMPETITION RELATE TO CARRYING CAPACITY ? Compe▯▯on —when mul▯ple organisms seek the same limited resource Compe▯▯on occurs more when popula▯on is near carrying capacity. W HAT IS A TROPHIC LEVEL ? HYW ARE TROPHIC LEVELS PYRAMID SHAPED ? HYW ARE THERE A NECESSARILY LIMITED MAXIMUM NUMBER OF LEVELS ? Trophic leve— l rank in the feeding hierarchy. Organisms at higher trophic levels consume those at lower traﬃc levels. Organisms at higher trophic levels require more energy to survive; therefore, they must consume mul▯ple organisms of lower trophic levels. This requires more organisms to exist on the lower trophic levels and fewer organisms to exist on the higher trophic levels, crea▯ng a pyramid shape of all trophic levels. H OW CAN THE REMOVAL OF A KEYSTONE SPECIES IMPACT AN ENTIRE ECOSYSTEM ? Keystone species —A species that has a strong or wide-‐reaching impact far out of propor▯on to its abundance. When a keystone speciesi s removed from an ecosystem, the prey of the keystone species overpopulates, decreasing the popula▯on usually of the dominant plant species. In sum, the removal of the keystone species results in the imbalance of an en▯re ecosystem. W HAT IS MEANT BY AN ECOLOGICAL DISTURBANCE ? OW H DO COMMUNITIES RESPOND TO DISTURBANCE ? Disturbance —event that has rapid and dras▯c impacts on environmental condi▯ons, resul▯ng in changes to the community and ecosystem Resistance —a community that resists change and remains stable despite disturbance is said to show resistance to the disturbance Resilience —a community may show resilience, meaning that it changes in response to a disturbance then later returns to its original state D ISTINGUISH BETWEEN PRIMARY AND SECONDARY DISTURBANCE . Succession —if a disturbance is severe enough to eliminate all or most of the species in a community, the infected site may then undergo a predictable series of changes that ecologists have tradi▯onally called succession Primary succession —follows a disturbance so severe that no vegeta▯on or soil Life remains from the community that has occupied the site Secondary succession —begins when a disturbance drama▯cally alters an exis▯ng community but does not destroy all life and organic ma▯er H OW DO INVASIVE SPECIES POSE THREATS TO COMMUNITY STABILITY ? Invasive species —most introduced species failed to establish popula▯ons, but some can turn invasive, spreading widely and coming to dominate communi▯es; o▯en thrive in disturbed communi▯es W HAT IS THE PURPOSE OF RESTORATION ECOLOGY ? Restora▯on ecology —restora▯on ecologists research historical condi▯ons of ecological communi▯es as they existed before our industrialized civiliza▯on altered them, devising ways to restore alternate areas to an earlier condi▯on Ecological restora▯on —the on-‐the-‐ground eﬀorts to carry out these visions and restore communi▯es W HAT FACTORS INFLUENCE THE LOCATIONS OF BIOMES ? Biome —a major regional complex of similar communi▯es; a large-‐scale ecological unit recognized primarily by its dominant plant type and vegeta▯on structure Temperature an d precipita▯on are the main factors determining where biomes occur. D IFFERENTIATE IN(A VERY GENERAL WAY ) BETWEEN THE TEN TERRESTRIAL BIOMES . R EVIEW THE QUESTIONS AT THE END OF EVERY CHAPTER . Ch. 1 Ques▯ons: 1. How did the agricultural revolu▯on aﬀect human popula▯on size? How did the industrial revolu▯on aﬀect human popula▯on size? Explain what beneﬁts and what environmental impacts have resulted. 2. What is an ecological footprint? Explain what is meant by the term overshoot. 3. What is environmental science? Name several disciplines that environmental science draws upon. 4. Compare and contrast the two meanings of the term science. Name three applica▯ons of science. 5. Describe the scien▯ﬁc method. What is this typical sequence of steps? What needs to occur before a researcher’s results are published? Why is this process important? 6. Compare and contrast anthropocentrism, biocentrism, and ecocentrism. Explain how individuals with each perspec▯ve might evaluate the development of a shopping mall atop a wetland in your town or city. 7. Diﬀeren▯ate the preserva▯on ethic from the conserva▯on ethic. Explain the contribu▯ons of John Muir and Giﬀord Pinchot in the history of environmental ethics. 8. Describe Aldo Leopold's land ethic. How did Leopold deﬁne the “community” to which ethical standards should be applied? 9. Explain the concept of environmental jus▯ce. Give an example of an inequity relevant to environmental jus▯ce that you believe exists in your city, state, or country. 10. Describe in your own words what you think is meant by the term sustainability. Name three ways that students, faculty, or administrators are seeking to make their campuses more sustainable. Ch. 2 Ques▯ons: 1. Which type of feedback loop is more common in nature, and which more commonly results from human ac▯on? For either type of feedback loop, can you think of an example that was not men▯oned in the text? 2. Describe how hypoxic condi▯ons can develop in aqua▯c ecosystems such as the Chesapeake Bay. 3. Diﬀeren▯ate an ion from an isotope. 4. Describe two major forms of energy, and give examples of each. Compare and contrast the ﬁrst law of thermodynamics with the second law of the dynamics. 5. What substances are produced by photosynthesis? Buy cellular respira▯on? 6. Described the typical movement of energy through an ecosystem. Describe the typical movement of ma▯er through an ecosystem. 7. Lists ﬁve ecosystem services provided by func▯oning ecosystems, and rank them according to your perceived value of each. 8. What role do each of the following play in the carbon cycle? 1. Cars 2. Photosynthesis 3. The oceans 4. Earth's crust 9. Dis▯nguish the func▯on performed by nitrogen-‐ﬁxing bacteria from that performed by the denitrifying bacteria. 10. How has human ac▯vity altered the hydrologic cycle? The carbon cycle? The phosphorus cycle? The nitrogen cycle? To what environmental problems have these changes given rise? Ch. 3 Ques▯ons: 1. Deﬁne the concept of natural selec▯on in your own words, explain how it follows logically from a few common observa▯ons of nature. 2. Describe an example of evidence for natural selec▯on and an example of evidence for ar▯ﬁcial selec▯on. 3. Describe the steps involved in allopatric specia▯on. 4. Name two organisms that have become ex▯nct or are threatened with ex▯nc▯on. For each, give a probable reason for its decline. 5. Deﬁne the term species, popula▯on, and community. How does a species diﬀer from a popula▯on? How does a popula▯on diﬀer from a community? 6. Deﬁne and contrast the concepts of habitat and niche. 7. List and describe each of the ﬁve major popula▯on characteris▯cs discussed. Brieﬂy explain how each shapes popula▯on dynamics. 8. Can a species undergo exponen▯al growth forever? Explain. 9. Describe how limi▯ng factors aﬀect carrying capacity. 10. What are some advantages of ecotourism for a state like Hawaii? Can you think of any poten▯al disadvantages? Ch. 4 Ques▯ons: 1. Explain how compe▯▯on promotes resource par▯▯oning. 2. Compare and contrast the three main types of explica▯ve species interac▯ons. How do preda▯on, parasi▯sm, and herbivory diﬀer? 3. Give examples of symbio▯c and non-‐symbio▯c mutualism's. Describe at least one way in which mutualism aﬀects your daily life. 4. Using the concepts of trophic levels and energy ﬂow, explain why the ecological footprint of a vegetarian is smaller than that of a carnivore. 5. Diﬀeren▯ate a food chain from a food web. Which best represents the reality of communi▯es, and why? 6. What is meant by the term keystone species, and what types of organisms are most o▯en considered keystone species? 7. Describe the process of primary succession. How does it diﬀer from secondary succession? Give an example of each. 8. What is restora▯on ecology? Why is it an important scien▯ﬁc pursuit in today's world? 9. What factors most strongly inﬂuenced the type of biome that forms in a par▯cular place on land? What factors determine the type of aqua▯c system that may form in a given loca▯on? 10.Draw a typical climate diagram for a tropical rainforest. Label all parts of the diagram, and describe what informa▯on any ecologist can glean from it. Now draw a climate diagram for a desert. How does it diﬀer from your rain forest climatograph, and what does this tell you about how the two biomes diﬀer? Y OU SHOULD KNOW THE MEANING OF ALL THE BOLD FACED WORDS . Ch. 1 Boldfaced Words: Environment —consists of all the living and Agricultural revolu▯on —the shi▯ around 10,000 nonliving things around us years ago from a Hunter-‐gatherer lifestyle to an Environmental science —the science typic study agricultural way of life in which people begin to of how the natural world works, how are grow crops and raised domes▯c animals environment aﬀects us, and how we aﬀect our Industrial revolu▯on —a shi▯ from rural life, environment animal-‐powered agriculture, and handcra▯ed Natural resources —the substances and energy goods toward an urban society provisioned by resources we take from our environment in that the mass produc▯on of factory-‐made goods and we rely on to survive powered by fossil fuels Renewable natural resources —natural resources Fossil fuels —nonrenewable energy sources such that are replenished over short period as coal, oil and natural gas Nonrenewable natural resources —natural Ecological footprint —expresses the cumula▯ve resources that are in ﬁnite supply and are formed area of biologically produc▯ve land and water far more slowly than we used them. Once we required to provide the resources a person or deplete a nonrenewable resource, it is no longer popula▯on consumes and to dispose of or recycle available the waste the person or popula▯on produces Ecosystem services —an essen▯al service an Overshoot —the amount by which humanity’s ecosystem provides that supports life and makes resource use, as measured by its ecological economic ac▯vity possible. For example, footprint, has surpassed earth long-‐term capacity ecosystems naturally purify air and water, cycle to support us nutrients, provide for plants to be pollinated by Interdisciplinary —borrowing techniques from animals, and receive and recycle the waste we mul▯ple tradi▯onal ﬁelds of study and bringing generate together research results from these ﬁelds into a is examined by specialists in the ﬁeld, and broad synthesis provide comments and cri▯cism (generally Natural sciences —Academic disciplines that anonymously) and judge whether the work study the natural world merits publica▯on in the journal Social sciences —Academic disciplines that study Theory —a widely accepted, well-‐tested human interac▯ons and ins▯tu▯ons explana▯on of one or more cause-‐and-‐eﬀect Environmental studies —an academic rela▯onship that has been extensively validated environmental science program that emphasizes by a great amount of research the social sciences as well as the natural sciences Paradigm —dominant view Environmentalism —a social movement Ethics —a branch of philosophy that involves the dedicated to protec▯ng the natural world—and, study of good and bad, of right and wrong. The by extension, people—from undesirable changes term can also referred to the set of moral brought about by human ac▯ons principles or values held by a person or society Observa▯onal science/ descrip▯ve science — Rela▯vists —an ethicist who maintains that research in which scien▯sts gather basic ethics do and should very with social context informa▯on about organisms, materials, systems, Universalist —an ethicist who maintains that processes that are not yet well known there exist objec▯ve no▯ons of right and wrong Hypothesis-‐driven science —research that that holds across cultures and situa▯ons perceives in a more targeted and structured Ethical standards —the criteria that help manner, Using experiments to test hypotheses in diﬀeren▯ate right from wrong a framework tradi▯onally known as the scien▯ﬁc Environmental ethics —the applica▯on of ethical method standards to rela▯onships between people in Scien▯ﬁc method —a technique for tes▯ng ideas nonhuman en▯▯es with observa▯ons Anthropocentrism —a human-‐centered view of Hypothesis —a statement that a▯empts to our rela▯ons with the environment explain a phenomenon or answer a scien▯ﬁc Biocentrism —a philosophy that describes ques▯on rela▯ve values to ac▯ons, en▯▯es, or proper▯es Predic▯ons —speciﬁc statements that can be on the basis of their eﬀects on all living things or directly and unequivocally tested on the integrity of the bio▯c realm in general Experiment —in ac▯vity designed to test the Ecocentrism —judges ac▯ons in terms of their validity of a predic▯on or a hypothesis eﬀects on whole ecological systems, which Variables— condi▯ons that can change consist of living in nonliving elements and the Independent variable —a variable the scien▯st rela▯onships among them manipulates in an experiment John Muir —a Sco▯sh immigrant to the United Dependent variable —a variable that is the States who made California's Yosemite Valley his aﬀected by manipula▯on of the independent wilderness home. Known for the advoca▯on of variable in an experiment wilderness preserva▯on Controlled experiment —an experiment in which Preserva▯on ethic —we should protect the the treatment is compared against a control in natural environment in a pris▯ne, an altered state order to test the eﬀect of the variable Giﬀord Pinchot —founded the U.S. Forest Service Control —the por▯on of an experiment in which Conserva▯on ethic —people should put natural a variable has been le▯ and manipulated to serve resources to use but we have a responsibility to as a point of comparison with the treatment manage them wisely Treatment— the por▯on of an experiment in Aldo Leopold —a wildlife manager, author, and which a variable has been manipulated in order philosopher, ar▯culated a new rela▯onship to test its eﬀect between people and the environment: embraced Data —informa▯on, and generally quan▯ta▯ve a government policy of shoo▯ng predators, such informa▯on as wolves, to increase popula▯ons of deer and Correla▯on —sta▯s▯cal associa▯on among other game animals variables Environmental jus▯ce —involves the fair and Peer review —the process by which a manuscript equitable treatment of all people with respect to submi▯ed for publica▯on in an academic journal environmental policy and prac▯ce, regardless of Natural capital —Earth’s vast store of resources their income, race, or ethnicity and ecosystem services Sustainability —a guiding principle of Sustainable development —the use of resources environmental science, entailing conserving for economic advancement in a manner that resources, maintaining func▯onal ecological sa▯sﬁes our current needs but does not systems, and developing long-‐term solu▯ons, compromise the future availability of resources such that earth can sustain our civiliza▯on and all Campus sustainability —a term encompassing a life for the future, allowing our descendants to wide variety of eﬀorts by students, faculty, staﬀ, live at least as well as we have lived and administrators of colleges and universi▯es to make a campus opera▯ons more sustainable Ch. 2 Boldfaced Words: Watershed —the en▯re area of land from which system in the same direc▯on. The input and water drains into a given river output drive system further toward one extreme Hypoxia —the condi▯on of the extremely low or another dissolved oxygen concentra▯ons in the body of Runoﬀ —the water from precipita▯on that ﬂows water into streams, rivers, lakes, and ponds, and in System —a network of rela▯onships among a many cases eventually to the ocean group of parts, elements, or components that Airshed —the geographic area that produces air interact with and inﬂuence one another through pollutants likely to end up in a waterway the exchange of energy, ma▯er, and/or Eutrophica▯on —the process of nutrients, informa▯on Increased produc▯on of organic ma▯er, Lithosphere —the outer layer of earth, consisted subsequent ecosystem to grada▯on in a water of crust and other most mental and located just body (nutrient pollu▯on) above the asthenosphere. More generally, the Law of Conserva▯on of Ma▯er —the physical solid part of birds, including the rocks, sediment, loss sta▯ng that ma▯er maybe transformed from and soil at the surface and extending down many one type of substance into others, but that it miles underground cannot be created or destroyed Atmosphere —the thin layer of gases Element —a fundamental type of ma▯er; A surrounding planet Earth chemical substance with a given set of proper▯es, Hydrosphere —all water– salter fresh, liquid, ice, which cannot be broken down into substances or vapor – in surface bodies, underground, and in with other proper▯es the atmosphere Atom —the smallest component of an element Biosphere —the sum total of all the planets living that maintains the chemical proper▯es of that organisms and the abio▯c por▯ons of the element environment with which they interact Protons —a posi▯vely charged par▯cle in the Feedback Loop —a circular process in which a nucleus of an atom systems output serves as input to that same Neutrons —electrically neutral uncharged ar▯cle system in the nucleus of an atom Nega▯ve feedback loop —a feedback loop in Electrons —a posi▯vely charged par▯cle in the which output of one type of act as input that nucleus of an atom moves the system in the opposite direc▯on. The Hydrogen —the chemical element with one input and output essen▯ally neutralize each proton others eﬀects, stabilizing the system Oxygen —the chemical element with eight Dynamic equilibrium —the state reached twin protons and eight neutrons. A key element in the processes with in a system I'm moving in atmosphere that is produced by photosynthesis opposite direc▯ons at equivalent rate so that Nitrogen —the chemical element with seven their eﬀects balance out seven protons and 7 neutrons. The most Homeostasis —the tendency of a system to abundant elements in the atmosphere, a key maintain constant or stable internal condi▯ons element in macromolecules, and a crucial plant Posi▯ve feedback loops —a feedback loop in nutrient which output of one type as input that moves the Carbon —the chemical Element with six protons Basic —the property of the solu▯on in which the and six neutrons, a key element in organic concentra▯on of hydroxide ion is greater than the compounds concentra▯on of hydrogen ions Phosphorus —the chemical elements with 15 Organic compounds —a compound made up of protons and 15 neutrons. An abundant element carbon atoms (and, generally, hydrogen atoms) in the lithosphere, a key element in Hydrocarbons —an organic compound consis▯ng macromolecules, and a crucial plant nutrient solely of hydrogen and carbon atoms Nutrients —an element or compound that Polymers —a chemical compound or a mixture of organisms consume and require for survival compounds consis▯ng of long chains of repeated Isotopes —one of the several forms of an molecules. Important biological molecules, such element having diﬀering numbers of neutrons in as DNA and proteins, are examples of polymers the nucleus of its atoms. Chemically, isotopes of Macromolecules —a very large molecule, such as an element behave almost iden▯cally, but they a protein, nucleic acid, carbohydrate, or lipid have diﬀerent physical proper▯es because they Carbohydrates —an organic compound consis▯ng diﬀer in mass of atoms of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen Ions —and electrically charged atom Proteins —a macromolecule made up of long Molecules —a combina▯on of two or more chains of amino acids atoms Genes —a stretch of DNA that represents the Chemical formula —a shorthand way to indicate unit of hereditary informa▯on the type and number of atoms any knowledge of Cells —the most basic organiza▯onal unit of using numbers and chemical symbols organisms Compound —a molecule is atoms are composed Energy —the capacity to change the posi▯on, of two or more elements physical composi▯on, or temperature of ma▯er; Water —a compound composed of two hydrogen A force that can accomplish work atoms bonded to one oxygen on them, denoted Poten▯al energy —Energy of posi▯on. by the chemical formula H2O. Kine▯c energy —Energy of mo▯on Carbon dioxide —a colorless gas used by plants Chemical energy —poten▯al energy held in the for photosynthesis, given oﬀ by restora▯on, and bonds between atoms released by burning fossil fuels. A primary First law of thermodynamics —Energy is neither greenhouse gases buildup contributes to global created or destroyed climate change. Second law of thermodynamics —Energy is lost Ionic bonds —a type of chemical bonding where in the form of heat electrons are transferred between atoms, Autotrophs/ producers —an organism that can crea▯ng oppositely charged ion set bond due to use the energy from sunlight to produce its own their diﬀering electrical charges food. Includes green plants,
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