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ENV 1301: Study Guide II

by: Anna Frazier

ENV 1301: Study Guide II ENV 1301

Anna Frazier
Baylor University
GPA 3.8

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Extensive filled out review sheet. Black print by Dr. Lehr, everything else by me.
Exploring Environmental Issues
Dr. Larry Lehr
Study Guide
environmental science, Science, Environment, Exploring Issues, 1301, week 4, Study Guide
50 ?




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This 18 page Study Guide was uploaded by Anna Frazier on Wednesday February 3, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to ENV 1301 at Baylor University taught by Dr. Larry Lehr in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 70 views. For similar materials see Exploring Environmental Issues in Environmental Science at Baylor University.

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Date Created: 02/03/16
Anna  Frazier   ENV  1301;  Spring  2016   Test  1  Review;  pages  1-­‐111   Review  the  quiz  ques▯ons  that  were  asked  in  class.     Quiz  Ques▯ons:   • What  is  another  name  for  nutrient  pollu▯on?   • What  are  the  nutrients  related  to  nutrient  pollu▯on?   • What  is  a  biogeochemical  cycle?   • What  are  the  first  and  second  laws  of  energy  and  mass?   Ch.  1   W HAT IS THE SCOPE OF  ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE ?       Environmental  science  —the  scien▯fic  study  of  how  the  natural  world  func▯ons,  how  our   environment  affects  us,  and  how  we  affect  our  environment.   G IVE AN  EXAMPLE OF   AN  ECOSYSTEM SERVICE .       Ecosystem  services  —For  example,  ecosystems  naturally  purify  air  and  water,  cycle  nutrients,   provide  for  plants  to  be  pollinated  by  animals,  and  receive  and  recycle  the  waste  we  generate   H OW DO  HUMANS INFLUENCE ECOSYSTEM SERVICES ?   IVEGAN   EXAMPLE .   Humans  influence  ecosystem  services  in  many  ways,  such  as  farming  a  certain  plot  of  land  un▯l   there  are  no  more  nutrients  le▯,  changing  the  ecosystem.   H OW DOES POPULATION AMPLIFY ANTHROPOGENIC IMPACT ?   More  humans  means  a  greater  anthropogenic  impact.   W HO WROTE  “RAGEDY OF  THE OMMONS ”?   OWH DOES THE NARRATIVE RELATE TO  ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES TODAY ?   W HAT IS THE DOMINATE THEME OF  THE  ESSAY ?   Garre▯  Hardin  wrote  “Tragedy  of  the  Commons.”  The  Tragedy  of  the  Common s  an  economic   problem  in  which  every  individual  tries  to  reap  the  greatest  benefit  from  a  given  resource.  As  the   demand  for  the  resource  overwhelms  the  supply,  every  individual  who  consumes  an  addi▯onal   unit  directly  harms  others  who  can  no  longer  enjoy  the  benefits.  Generally,  the  resource  of   interest  is  easily  available  to  all  individuals.   D IFFERENTIATE BETWEEN FRONTIER MENTALITY ’ AND SUSTAINABILITY ’.       Sustainability  —a  guiding  principle  of  environmental  science,  entailing  conserving  resources,   maintaining  func▯onal  ecological  systems,  and  developing  long-­‐term  solu▯ons,  such  that  earth   can  sustain  our  civiliza▯on  and  all  life  for  the  future,  allowing  our  descendants  to  live  at  least  as   well  as  we  have  lived   Fron▯er  mentality  —a  mindset  that  views  humans  as  superior  to  other  forms  of  life,  rather  than   as  an  integral  part  of  nature.  Sees  the  world  as  an  unlimited  supply  of  resources  for  human  use   regardless  of  the  impacts  on  other  species.  Implicit  in  this  view  are  the  no▯ons  that  bigger  is   be▯er,  con▯nued  material  wealth  will  improve  life,  and  nature  must  be  put  under  subjec▯on.   L IST THE STEPS PERTAINING TO  SCIENTIFIC METHOD .     Scien▯fic  Method  —observa▯ons,  ques▯ons,  hypothesis,  predic▯ons,  test,  results   W HAT IS MEANT BY  HYPOTHESIS DRIVEN SCIENCE ?   Hypothesis-­‐driven  science  —research  that  proceeds  in  a  more  targeted  and  structured  manner,   using  experiments  to  test  hypotheses  in  a  framework  tradi▯onally  known  as  the  scien▯fic   method.   R ELATE THE DEVELOPMENT OF  CONSERVATION AND PRESERVATION IN THE   US P .  13)   Preserva▯on  ethic  —we  should  protect  the  natural  environment  in  a  pris▯ne,  unaltered  state   Conserva▯on  ethic  —we  should  put  natural  resources  to  use  but  we  have  a  responsibility  to   manage  them  wisely   P ROVIDE THE FUNDAMENTAL CONCEPT OF   LDO EOPOLD ’S WORK PERTAINING TO   “HE AND THIC ”.   Aldo  Leopold  —a  wildlife  manager,  author,  and  philosopher  who  ar▯culated  a  new  rela▯onship   between  people  and  the  environment;  embraced  a  government  policy  of  shoo▯ng  predators,   such  as  wolves,  to  increase  popula▯ons  of  deer  and  other  game  animals   E XPLAIN THE CONCEPT OF  ENVIRONMENTAL JUSTICE IN  THE CONTEXT OF  POLLUTION ,HAZARDS , AND ENVIRONMENTAL   HAZARDS .  (*not  sure  i  understand  ques▯on*)   Environmental  jus▯ce  —involves  the  fair  and  equitable  treatment  of  all  people  with  respect  to   environmental  policy  and  prac▯ce,  regardless  of  their  income,  race,  or  ethnicity   W HAT IS MEANT BY  SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT ?   Sustainable  development  —the  use  of  resources  for  economic  advancement  in  a  manner  that   sa▯sfies  our  current  needs  but  does  not  compromise  the  future  availability  of  resources   H OW CAN FOOTPRINTS BE  USED IN  THE EXAMINATION OF  SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT PROJECTS ?       An  ecological  footprint  can  be  used  in  the  development  of  sustainable  development  projects  by   reflec▯ng  which  habits  are  destruc▯ve  to  the  environment  and  which  habits  promote   environmental  health.   Ch.  2   P ROVIDE AN  EXAMPLE OF  A FEEDBACK LOOP ?  S IT POSITIVE OR  NEGATIVE ?   E XPLAIN THE PROCESS OF  EUTROPHICATION .   Eutrophica▯on  is  the  enrichment  of  an  ecosystem  with  chemical  nutrients,  typically  compounds   containing  nitrogen,  phosphorus,  or  both.  Eutrophica▯on  can  be  a  natural  process  in  lakes,   occurring  as  they  age  through  geological  ▯me.  (nutrient  pollu▯on)   W HAT IS THE  DIFFERENCE BETWEEN EUTROPHIC AND OLIGOTROPHIC ?     Eutrophic  a  term  describing  a  water  body  that  has  high  nutrients  and  low  oxygen  condi▯ons.   Oligotrophic  is  a  term  describing  a  water  body  that  has  low  nutrients  and  high  oxygen  condi▯ons.   D ISTINGUISH BETWEEN BIOTIC AND ABIOTIC ASPECTS OF  THE ENVIRONMENT .   Bio▯c  —living   Abio▯c  —nonliving   W HAT IS P H?   XPLAIN THE SCALE WITH WHICH IT IS MEASURED .   pH  a  measure  of  the  concentra▯on  of  hydrogen  ions  in  a  solu▯on.  The  pH  scale  ranges  from  0  to   14:  a  solu▯on  with  a  pH  of  seven  is  neutral;  solu▯ons  with  a  pH  below  seven  are  acidic.   Those  with  a  pH  higher  than  seven  are  basic.  Because  the  scale  is  logarithmic,  each  step  on  a   scale  represents  a  10-­‐fold  difference  in  hydrogen  ion  concentra▯on.   L IST THE SUBATOMIC PARTICLES THAT MAKE UP  AN  ATOM .   Protons  —a  posi▯vely  charged  par▯cle  in  the  nucleus  of  an  atom   Neutrons  —an  electrically  neutral  uncharged  par▯cle  in  the  nucleus  of  an  atom   Electrons  —a  posi▯vely  charged  par▯cle  in  the  nucleus  of  an  atom   W HAT IS AN   ISOTOPE ?   OW H CAN WE  USE ISOTOPES TO  MAKE ELECTRICITY ?     Isotopes  —one  of  the  several  forms  of  an  element  having  differing  numbers  of  neutrons  in  the   nucleus  of  its  atoms.  Chemically,  isotopes  of  an  element  behave  almost  iden▯cally,  but  they  have   different  physical  proper▯es  because  they  differ  in  mass   Isotopes  are  used  to  create  energy  in  at  least  two  ways:    The  isotopes  are  allowed  to  heat  water  into  steam,  and  the  steam  turns  a  generator.    The  isotopes  are  allowed  to  heat  one  end  of  a  “thermopile,"  and  the  thermopile  powers   electronics.  (This  is  how  the  deep  space  probes  get  their  power.)   P ROVIDE THE FIRST AND SECOND LAWS OF  ENERGY AND  MASS .   First  law  of    thermodynamics  —Energy  is  neither  created  nor  destroyed   Second  law  of  thermodynamics  —Energy  is  lost  in  the  form  of  heat   W HAT IS MEANT BY  THE TERM ORGANIC ’ IN THE CONTEXT OF  ECOLOGY ?   OW H DOES THE  DEFINITION DIFFER WHEN   DISCUSSING CHEMISTRY ?   Organic  —derived  from  living  ma▯er  (ecology)   Organic  —deno▯ng  compounds  containing  carbon  (chemistry)   H OW DO  WARM BLOODED ANIMALS DEMONSTRATE THE CONCEPT OF  ENTROPY ’?     Entropy  —the  degree  of  disorder  in  a  system,  substance,  or  process.   Animals  produce  heat  (disorganized  energy).   P ROVIDE THE UNBALANCED FORMULA FOR PHOTOSYNTHESIS AND RESPIRATION .       W HAT IS THE  MOST PRODUCTIVE AQUATIC ECOSYSTEM ON  THE PLANET ?  HE   MOST PRODUCTIVE TERRESTRIAL ECOSYSTEM ?   Wetlandsa   re  the  most  produc▯ve  aqua▯c  ecosystems  in  the  world  because  of  their  proximity  of   water  and  soil.   Tropical  foresta s  re  the  most  produc▯ve  terrestrial  ecosystems  in  the  world  because  of  both   their  areal  extent  and  their  high  average  produc▯vity.   W HAT DOES THE TERM BIOGEOCHEMICAL CYCLE ’ DESCRIBE .  ROVIDE THREE EXAMPLES .   Carbon  cycle  —a  major  nutrient  cycle  consis▯ng  of  the   route  the  carbon  atoms  take  through  the  nested  networks   of  environmental  systems   Nitrogen  cycle  —a  major  nutrient  cycle  consis▯ng  of  the   route  that  nitrogen  atoms  take  through  the  nested   networks  of  environmental  systems     Phosphorous  cycle  —a  major  nutrient  cycle  consis▯ng  of   the  routes  that  phosphorus  atoms  take  through  the  nested   networks  of  environmental  systems   O NE OF  THE DIAGRAMS ON  PAGE  3DISCUSSES ASPECTS OF   BIOGEOCHEMICAL CYCLES RELATED TO  SOURCE ’, FLUX ’ AND   ‘SINK ’.  IFFERENTIATE BETWEEN THOSE COMPONENTS IN TERMS OF  THE  WAY ENERGY AND NUTRIENTS CIRCULATE   THROUGHOUT THE  ENVIRONMENT .     When  a  reservoir  releases  more  materials  than  it  accepts,  it  is  called  a  source,  and  when  a   reservoir  accepts  more  materials  than  it  releases,  it  is  called  a  sink.  The  rate  at  which  materials   move  between  reservoirs  is  termed  a  flux,  And  the  flux  between  any  given  pair  of  reservoirs  can   change  over  ▯me.   Ch.  3   D ESCRIBE THE CONCEPT OF  EVOLUTION USING THE CONCEPTS OF   GENE FLOW AND NATURAL SELECTION .   Evolu▯on  consists  of  changing  popula▯ons  of  organisms  from  genera▯on  to  genera▯on.  Natural   selec▯on:  inherited  characteris▯cs  that  enhance  survival  and  reproduc▯on  are  passed  on  more   frequently  to  future  genera▯ons  than  characteris▯cs  that  do  not,  thereby  altering  the  gene▯c   makeup  of  popula▯ons  through  ▯me.  The  trait  that  promotes  success  is  called  the  adap▯ve  trait   and  the  flow  of  this  adap▯ve  trait  through  genera▯ons  is  called  gene  flow.   W HAT IS MEANT BY  GENETIC VARIATION ’?   ROVIDE TWO  EXAMPLES .   Accidental  changes  in  DNA,  called  muta▯ons,  give  rise  to  gene▯c  varia▯on  among  individuals.   Example:  Wild  raspberries(small)  versus  raspberries  from  the  grocery  store(large);  ancient   corn(purple)  versus  corn  from  the  grocery  store(yellow)   D ESCRIBE TWO REASONS THAT SPECIATION IS THOUGHT TO   OCCUR .   Species  form  from  popula▯ons  that  become  physically  separated  over  some  geographic  distance   Species  form  from  resource  par▯▯oning   W HY IS DIVERSITY IMPORTANT ?     Diversity  is  important  because  many  species  need  to  exist  to  keep  the  ecosystems  in  balance  in   order  to  keep  humans  alive   W HAT IS THE  CAUSE OF   THE MASS EXTINCTION THAT IS CURRENTLY HAPPENING ?     Climate  change  caused  by  human  ac▯ons   D ISTINGUISH BETWEEN THE CONCEPTS OF  HABITAT AND NICHE .   Habitat  is  where  an  organism  lives  and  all  its  surrounding  bio▯c  and  abio▯c  factors;  niche  is  the   organism’s  func▯onal  role  in  the  ecosystem   D ISTINGUISH BETWEEN THE SCOPE OF  POPULATION ECOLOGY ’ AND AUTECOLOGY ’ ECOLOGY OF  INDIVIDUAL SPECIES ).   Popula▯on(syn)  ecology  —the  study  of  the  ecology  of  a  popula▯on   Auto  ecology  —the  study  of  the  ecology  of  a  species   D ISTINGUISH BETWEEN A SPECIALIST ’AND  A GENERALIST ’ IN  TERMS OF   THE ATTRIBUTES THAT ALLOW THEM TO  BE    BIOLOGICALLY SUCCESSFUL .   HATW IS MEANT BY  BIOLOGICALLY SUCCESSFUL ’?   Specialist  —A  species  that  can  survive  only  in  a  narrow  range  of  habitats  that  contain  very   specific  resources   Generalist  —a  species  that  can  survive  in  a  wide  array  of  habitats  or  use  a  wide  array  of   resources   Biologically  successful  —con▯nua▯on  of  that  species’  gene  flow  throughout  the  genera▯ons   W HAT IS THE  FORMULA TO  CALCULATE THE DOUBLING TIME OF  A POPULATION ?     dt  =  70/r   P OPULATIONS GROW EXPONENTIALLY ?   HAT DOES THAT MEAN ?   Exponen▯al  growth  —a  popula▯on  increases  by  fixed  percentage  each  year     For  popula▯ons  which  grow  exponen▯ally,  growth  starts  out  slowly,  enters  a  rapid   growth  phase  and  then  levels  off  when  the  carrying  capacity  for  that  species  has  been   reached.  A  popula▯on  may  grow  exponen▯ally  when  colonizing  in  an  unoccupied   environment  or  exploi▯ng  an  unused  resource.   L IST AND DESCRIBE THE FOUR WAYS THAT POPULATIONS MIGHT GROW OR  DECREASE .   A  popula▯on  gains  individuals  by  natality  and  immigra▯on  and  loses  individuals  by  mortality   and  emigra▯on.   Natality  —  births  within  the  popula▯on   Mortality  —  deaths  within  the  popula▯ons   Immigra▯on  —  arrival  of  individuals  from  outside  the  popula▯ons   Emigra▯on  —  departure  of  individuals  from  the  popula▯ons     W HAT IS CARRYING CAPACITY ?   Carrying  capacity  the  maximum  popula▯on  size  of  a  species  that  a  given  environment  can   sustain   H OW IS CARRYING CAPACITY RELATED TO  POPULATION ?     Popula▯on  fluctuates  above  and  below  the  carrying  capacity.     H OW DO  LIMITING FACTORS RESTRAIN POPULATION GROWTH ?     Limi▯ng  factors  —every  popula▯on  is  eventually  constrained  by  physical,  chemical,  and   biological  a▯ributes  of  the  environment  that  restraining  popula▯on  growth.   The  logis▯c  growth  curve  shows  how  exponen▯al  growth  is  slowed  and  eventually  brought  to  a   stands▯ll  by  limi▯ng  factors.   H OW CAN CARRYING CAPACITY CHANGE BOTH UP  AND DOWN )?   Ecological  disrup▯on  will  lower  carrying  capacity,  when  limi▯ng  factors  are  not  in  good  supply   Ecological  flourishing  will  raise  carrying  capacity  because  limi▯ng  factors  are  in  good  supply   D ISTINGUISH BETWEEN R-­SELECTED ’ AND  ‘SELECTED ’ ORGANISMS .   HY  IS THIS IMPORTANT ?     ‘r-­‐selected’  organisms:  example  —fruit  flies:  bo▯om  of  the  food  chain,  lots  of  offspring,  don’t   exert  much  energy,  short  gesta▯on  period,  reproduce  quickly   ‘K-­‐selected’  organisms:  example  —elephants:  top  of  the  food  chain,  few  offspring,  exert  a  lot  of   energy,  long  gesta▯on  period,  reproduce  slowly   Ch.  4   Dis▯nguish  between  a  calorie  and  a  Btu?   Which  unit  (a  calorie  or  a  Btu)  is  typically  used  to  describe  energy  flow  in  an  ecosystem?     W HAT ARE THE THREE FUNCTIONAL GROUPS IN  ALL ECOSYSTEMS ?   Producers,  consumers,  decomposers   L IST AND DESCRIBE THE  RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN ORGANISM AS  FOUND IN  ABLE  4.1;PAGE  65.     Compe▯▯on  —when  mul▯ple  organisms  seek  the  same  limited  resource       Preda▯on  —the  process  by  which  individuals  of  one  species—the  predator—hunt,  capture,  kill,   and  consume  individuals  of  another  species,  the  prey   Parasi▯sm  —in  rela▯onship  in  which  one  organism,  the  parasite,  depends  on  another,  the  host,   for  nourishment  or  some  other  benefits  while  doing  the  host  harm   Herbivory  —animal  feed  on  the  ▯ssues  of  planets   Mutualism  —a  rela▯onship  in  which  two  or  more  species  benefit  from  interac▯ng  with  one   another   D EFINE THE  CONCEPT OF  COMPETITION ’.  OW   DOES COMPETITION RELATE TO   CARRYING CAPACITY ?     Compe▯▯on  —when  mul▯ple  organisms  seek  the  same  limited  resource   Compe▯▯on  occurs  more  when  popula▯on  is  near  carrying  capacity.   W HAT IS A TROPHIC LEVEL ?   HYW ARE TROPHIC LEVELS PYRAMID SHAPED ?   HYW ARE  THERE A NECESSARILY LIMITED   MAXIMUM NUMBER OF  LEVELS ?     Trophic  leve— l   rank  in  the  feeding  hierarchy.  Organisms  at  higher  trophic  levels  consume  those   at  lower  traffic  levels.  Organisms  at  higher  trophic  levels  require  more  energy  to  survive;   therefore,  they  must  consume  mul▯ple  organisms  of  lower  trophic  levels.  This  requires  more   organisms  to  exist  on  the  lower  trophic  levels  and  fewer  organisms  to  exist  on  the  higher  trophic   levels,  crea▯ng  a  pyramid  shape  of  all  trophic  levels.   H OW CAN THE REMOVAL OF  A KEYSTONE SPECIES IMPACT AN  ENTIRE ECOSYSTEM ?   Keystone  species  —A  species  that  has  a  strong  or  wide-­‐reaching  impact  far  out  of  propor▯on  to   its  abundance.  When  a  keystone  speciesi  s  removed  from  an  ecosystem,  the  prey  of  the   keystone  species  overpopulates,  decreasing  the  popula▯on  usually  of  the  dominant  plant   species.  In  sum,  the  removal  of  the  keystone  species  results  in  the  imbalance  of  an  en▯re   ecosystem.   W HAT IS MEANT BY AN   ECOLOGICAL DISTURBANCE ?  OW  H DO  COMMUNITIES RESPOND TO  DISTURBANCE ?   Disturbance  —event  that  has  rapid  and  dras▯c  impacts  on  environmental  condi▯ons,  resul▯ng  in   changes  to  the  community  and  ecosystem   Resistance  —a  community  that  resists  change  and  remains  stable  despite  disturbance  is  said  to   show  resistance  to  the  disturbance   Resilience  —a  community  may  show  resilience,  meaning  that  it  changes  in  response  to  a   disturbance  then  later  returns  to  its  original  state   D ISTINGUISH BETWEEN PRIMARY AND SECONDARY DISTURBANCE .   Succession  —if  a  disturbance  is  severe  enough  to  eliminate  all  or  most  of  the  species  in  a   community,  the  infected  site  may  then  undergo  a  predictable  series  of  changes  that  ecologists   have  tradi▯onally  called  succession   Primary  succession  —follows  a  disturbance  so  severe  that  no  vegeta▯on  or  soil  Life   remains  from  the  community  that  has  occupied  the  site   Secondary  succession  —begins  when  a  disturbance  drama▯cally  alters  an  exis▯ng   community  but  does  not  destroy  all  life  and  organic  ma▯er   H OW DO  INVASIVE SPECIES POSE THREATS TO  COMMUNITY STABILITY ?   Invasive  species  —most  introduced  species  failed  to  establish  popula▯ons,  but  some  can  turn   invasive,  spreading  widely  and  coming  to  dominate  communi▯es;  o▯en  thrive  in  disturbed   communi▯es   W HAT IS THE PURPOSE OF   RESTORATION ECOLOGY ?   Restora▯on  ecology  —restora▯on  ecologists  research  historical  condi▯ons  of  ecological   communi▯es  as  they  existed  before  our  industrialized  civiliza▯on  altered  them,  devising  ways  to   restore  alternate  areas  to  an  earlier  condi▯on     Ecological  restora▯on  —the  on-­‐the-­‐ground  efforts  to  carry  out  these  visions  and  restore   communi▯es   W HAT FACTORS INFLUENCE THE LOCATIONS OF  BIOMES ?     Biome  —a   major   regional   complex  of   similar   communi▯es;  a  large-­‐scale  ecological  unit  recognized  primarily  by  its  dominant  plant  type  and   vegeta▯on  structure   Temperature an   d  precipita▯on  are  the  main  factors  determining  where  biomes  occur.   D IFFERENTIATE IN(A VERY GENERAL WAY ) BETWEEN THE TEN TERRESTRIAL BIOMES .     R EVIEW THE QUESTIONS AT THE  END OF  EVERY CHAPTER .   Ch.  1  Ques▯ons:   1. How  did  the  agricultural  revolu▯on  affect  human  popula▯on  size?  How  did  the  industrial  revolu▯on   affect  human  popula▯on  size?  Explain  what  benefits  and  what  environmental  impacts  have  resulted.   2. What  is  an  ecological  footprint?  Explain  what  is  meant  by  the  term  overshoot.   3. What  is  environmental  science?  Name  several  disciplines  that  environmental  science  draws  upon.   4. Compare  and  contrast  the  two  meanings  of  the  term  science.  Name  three  applica▯ons  of  science.   5. Describe  the  scien▯fic  method.  What  is  this  typical  sequence  of  steps?  What  needs  to  occur  before  a   researcher’s  results  are  published?  Why  is  this  process  important?   6. Compare  and  contrast  anthropocentrism,  biocentrism,  and  ecocentrism.  Explain  how  individuals  with   each  perspec▯ve  might  evaluate  the  development  of  a  shopping  mall  atop  a  wetland  in  your  town  or   city.   7. Differen▯ate  the  preserva▯on  ethic  from  the  conserva▯on  ethic.  Explain  the  contribu▯ons  of  John   Muir  and  Gifford  Pinchot  in  the  history  of  environmental  ethics.   8. Describe  Aldo  Leopold's  land  ethic.  How  did  Leopold  define  the  “community”  to  which  ethical   standards  should  be  applied?   9. Explain  the  concept  of  environmental  jus▯ce.  Give  an  example  of  an  inequity  relevant  to   environmental  jus▯ce  that  you  believe  exists  in  your  city,  state,  or  country.   10.  Describe  in  your  own  words  what  you  think  is  meant  by  the  term  sustainability.  Name  three  ways   that  students,  faculty,  or  administrators  are  seeking  to  make  their  campuses  more  sustainable.   Ch.  2  Ques▯ons:   1. Which  type  of  feedback  loop  is  more  common  in  nature,  and  which  more  commonly  results  from   human  ac▯on?  For  either  type  of  feedback  loop,  can  you  think  of  an  example  that  was  not  men▯oned   in  the  text?   2. Describe  how  hypoxic  condi▯ons  can  develop  in  aqua▯c  ecosystems  such  as  the  Chesapeake  Bay.   3. Differen▯ate  an  ion  from  an  isotope.   4. Describe  two  major  forms  of  energy,  and  give  examples  of  each.  Compare  and  contrast  the  first  law  of   thermodynamics  with  the  second  law  of  the  dynamics.   5. What  substances  are  produced  by  photosynthesis?  Buy  cellular  respira▯on?   6. Described  the  typical  movement  of  energy  through  an  ecosystem.  Describe  the  typical  movement  of   ma▯er  through  an  ecosystem.     7. Lists  five  ecosystem  services  provided  by  func▯oning  ecosystems,  and  rank  them  according  to  your   perceived  value  of  each.   8. What  role  do  each  of  the  following  play  in  the  carbon  cycle?   1. Cars   2. Photosynthesis   3. The  oceans   4. Earth's  crust   9. Dis▯nguish  the  func▯on  performed  by  nitrogen-­‐fixing  bacteria  from  that  performed  by  the  denitrifying   bacteria.   10. How  has  human  ac▯vity  altered  the  hydrologic  cycle?  The  carbon  cycle?  The  phosphorus  cycle?  The   nitrogen  cycle?  To  what  environmental  problems  have  these  changes  given  rise?   Ch.  3  Ques▯ons:   1. Define  the  concept  of  natural  selec▯on  in  your  own  words,  explain  how  it  follows  logically  from  a  few   common  observa▯ons  of  nature.   2. Describe  an  example  of  evidence  for  natural  selec▯on  and  an  example  of  evidence  for  ar▯ficial   selec▯on.   3. Describe  the  steps  involved  in  allopatric  specia▯on.   4. Name  two  organisms  that  have  become  ex▯nct  or  are  threatened  with  ex▯nc▯on.  For  each,  give  a   probable  reason  for  its  decline.   5. Define  the  term  species,  popula▯on,  and  community.  How  does  a  species  differ  from  a  popula▯on?   How  does  a  popula▯on  differ  from  a  community?   6. Define  and  contrast  the  concepts  of  habitat  and  niche.   7. List  and  describe  each  of  the  five  major  popula▯on  characteris▯cs  discussed.  Briefly  explain  how  each   shapes  popula▯on  dynamics.   8. Can  a  species  undergo  exponen▯al  growth  forever?  Explain.   9. Describe  how  limi▯ng  factors  affect  carrying  capacity.   10. What  are  some  advantages  of  ecotourism  for  a  state  like  Hawaii?  Can  you  think  of  any  poten▯al   disadvantages?   Ch.  4  Ques▯ons:   1. Explain  how  compe▯▯on  promotes  resource  par▯▯oning.     2. Compare  and  contrast  the  three  main  types  of  explica▯ve  species  interac▯ons.  How  do  preda▯on,   parasi▯sm,  and  herbivory  differ?   3. Give  examples  of  symbio▯c  and  non-­‐symbio▯c  mutualism's.  Describe  at  least  one  way  in  which   mutualism  affects  your  daily  life.   4. Using  the  concepts  of  trophic  levels  and  energy  flow,  explain  why  the  ecological  footprint  of  a   vegetarian  is  smaller  than  that  of  a  carnivore.   5. Differen▯ate  a  food  chain  from  a  food  web.  Which  best  represents  the  reality  of  communi▯es,  and   why?   6. What  is  meant  by  the  term  keystone  species,  and  what  types  of  organisms  are  most  o▯en  considered   keystone  species?   7. Describe  the  process  of  primary  succession.  How  does  it  differ  from  secondary  succession?  Give  an   example  of  each.   8. What  is  restora▯on  ecology?  Why  is  it  an  important  scien▯fic  pursuit  in  today's  world?   9. What  factors  most  strongly  influenced  the  type  of  biome  that  forms  in  a  par▯cular  place  on  land?   What  factors  determine  the  type  of  aqua▯c  system  that  may  form  in  a  given  loca▯on?   10.Draw  a  typical  climate  diagram  for  a  tropical  rainforest.  Label  all  parts  of  the  diagram,  and  describe   what  informa▯on  any  ecologist  can  glean  from  it.  Now  draw  a  climate  diagram  for  a  desert.  How  does   it  differ  from  your  rain  forest  climatograph,  and  what  does  this  tell  you  about  how  the  two  biomes   differ?   Y OU SHOULD KNOW THE MEANING OF  ALL THE BOLD FACED WORDS .   Ch.  1  Boldfaced  Words:
 Environment  —consists  of  all  the  living  and   Agricultural  revolu▯on  —the  shi▯  around  10,000   nonliving  things  around  us   years  ago  from  a  Hunter-­‐gatherer  lifestyle  to  an   Environmental  science  —the  science  typic  study   agricultural  way  of  life  in  which  people  begin  to   of  how  the  natural  world  works,  how  are   grow  crops  and  raised  domes▯c  animals   environment  affects  us,  and  how  we  affect  our   Industrial  revolu▯on  —a  shi▯  from  rural  life,   environment   animal-­‐powered  agriculture,  and  handcra▯ed   Natural  resources  —the  substances  and  energy   goods  toward  an  urban  society  provisioned  by   resources  we  take  from  our  environment  in  that   the  mass  produc▯on  of  factory-­‐made  goods  and   we  rely  on  to  survive   powered  by  fossil  fuels   Renewable  natural  resources  —natural  resources   Fossil  fuels  —nonrenewable  energy  sources  such   that  are  replenished  over  short  period   as  coal,  oil  and  natural  gas   Nonrenewable  natural  resources  —natural   Ecological  footprint  —expresses  the  cumula▯ve   resources  that  are  in  finite  supply  and  are  formed   area  of  biologically  produc▯ve  land  and  water   far  more  slowly  than  we  used  them.  Once  we   required  to  provide  the  resources  a  person  or   deplete  a  nonrenewable  resource,  it  is  no  longer   popula▯on  consumes  and  to  dispose  of  or  recycle   available   the  waste  the  person  or  popula▯on  produces   Ecosystem  services  —an  essen▯al  service  an   Overshoot  —the  amount  by  which  humanity’s   ecosystem  provides  that  supports  life  and  makes   resource  use,  as  measured  by  its  ecological   economic  ac▯vity  possible.  For  example,   footprint,  has  surpassed  earth  long-­‐term  capacity   ecosystems  naturally  purify  air  and  water,  cycle   to  support  us   nutrients,  provide  for  plants  to  be  pollinated  by   Interdisciplinary  —borrowing  techniques  from   animals,  and  receive  and  recycle  the  waste  we   mul▯ple  tradi▯onal  fields  of  study  and  bringing   generate   together  research  results  from  these  fields  into  a   is  examined  by  specialists  in  the  field,  and   broad  synthesis   provide  comments  and  cri▯cism  (generally   Natural  sciences  —Academic  disciplines  that   anonymously)  and  judge  whether  the  work   study  the  natural  world   merits  publica▯on  in  the  journal   Social  sciences  —Academic  disciplines  that  study   Theory  —a  widely  accepted,  well-­‐tested   human  interac▯ons  and  ins▯tu▯ons     explana▯on  of  one  or  more  cause-­‐and-­‐effect   Environmental  studies  —an  academic   rela▯onship  that  has  been  extensively  validated   environmental  science  program  that  emphasizes   by  a  great  amount  of  research   the  social  sciences  as  well  as  the  natural  sciences  Paradigm  —dominant  view   Environmentalism  —a  social  movement   Ethics  —a  branch  of  philosophy  that  involves  the   dedicated  to  protec▯ng  the  natural  world—and,   study  of  good  and  bad,  of  right  and  wrong.  The   by  extension,  people—from  undesirable  changes   term  can  also  referred  to  the  set  of  moral   brought  about  by  human  ac▯ons   principles  or  values  held  by  a  person  or  society   Observa▯onal  science/  descrip▯ve  science  — Rela▯vists  —an  ethicist  who  maintains  that   research  in  which  scien▯sts  gather  basic   ethics  do  and  should  very  with  social  context   informa▯on  about  organisms,  materials,  systems,   Universalist  —an  ethicist  who  maintains  that   processes  that  are  not  yet  well  known   there  exist  objec▯ve  no▯ons  of  right  and  wrong   Hypothesis-­‐driven  science  —research  that   that  holds  across  cultures  and  situa▯ons   perceives  in  a  more  targeted  and  structured   Ethical  standards  —the  criteria  that  help   manner,  Using  experiments  to  test  hypotheses  in   differen▯ate  right  from  wrong   a  framework  tradi▯onally  known  as  the  scien▯fic   Environmental  ethics  —the  applica▯on  of  ethical   method   standards  to  rela▯onships  between  people  in   Scien▯fic  method  —a  technique  for  tes▯ng  ideas   nonhuman  en▯▯es   with  observa▯ons   Anthropocentrism  —a  human-­‐centered  view  of   Hypothesis  —a  statement  that  a▯empts  to   our  rela▯ons  with  the  environment   explain  a  phenomenon  or  answer  a  scien▯fic   Biocentrism  —a  philosophy  that  describes   ques▯on   rela▯ve  values  to  ac▯ons,  en▯▯es,  or  proper▯es   Predic▯ons  —specific  statements  that  can  be   on  the  basis  of  their  effects  on  all  living  things  or   directly  and  unequivocally  tested   on  the  integrity  of  the  bio▯c  realm  in  general   Experiment  —in  ac▯vity  designed  to  test  the   Ecocentrism  —judges  ac▯ons  in  terms  of  their   validity  of  a  predic▯on  or  a  hypothesis   effects  on  whole  ecological  systems,  which   Variables—   condi▯ons  that  can  change   consist  of  living  in  nonliving  elements  and  the   Independent  variable  —a  variable  the  scien▯st   rela▯onships  among  them   manipulates  in  an  experiment   John  Muir  —a  Sco▯sh  immigrant  to  the  United   Dependent  variable  —a  variable  that  is  the   States  who  made  California's  Yosemite  Valley  his   affected  by  manipula▯on  of  the  independent   wilderness  home.  Known  for  the  advoca▯on  of   variable  in  an  experiment   wilderness  preserva▯on   Controlled  experiment  —an  experiment  in  which   Preserva▯on  ethic  —we  should  protect  the   the  treatment  is  compared  against  a  control  in   natural  environment  in  a  pris▯ne,  an  altered  state   order  to  test  the  effect  of  the  variable   Gifford  Pinchot  —founded  the  U.S.  Forest  Service   Control  —the  por▯on  of  an  experiment  in  which   Conserva▯on  ethic  —people  should  put  natural   a  variable  has  been  le▯  and  manipulated  to  serve   resources  to  use  but  we  have  a  responsibility  to   as  a  point  of  comparison  with  the  treatment   manage  them  wisely   Treatment—   the  por▯on  of  an  experiment  in   Aldo  Leopold  —a  wildlife  manager,  author,  and   which  a  variable  has  been  manipulated  in  order   philosopher,  ar▯culated  a  new  rela▯onship   to  test  its  effect   between  people  and  the  environment:  embraced   Data  —informa▯on,  and  generally  quan▯ta▯ve   a  government  policy  of  shoo▯ng  predators,  such   informa▯on   as  wolves,  to  increase  popula▯ons  of  deer  and   Correla▯on  —sta▯s▯cal  associa▯on  among   other  game  animals   variables   Environmental  jus▯ce  —involves  the  fair  and   Peer  review  —the  process  by  which  a  manuscript   equitable  treatment  of  all  people  with  respect  to   submi▯ed  for  publica▯on  in  an  academic  journal   environmental  policy  and  prac▯ce,  regardless  of   Natural  capital  —Earth’s  vast  store  of  resources   their  income,  race,  or  ethnicity   and  ecosystem  services   Sustainability  —a  guiding  principle  of   Sustainable  development  —the  use  of  resources   environmental  science,  entailing  conserving   for  economic  advancement  in  a  manner  that   resources,  maintaining  func▯onal  ecological   sa▯sfies  our  current  needs  but  does  not   systems,  and  developing  long-­‐term  solu▯ons,   compromise  the  future  availability  of  resources   such  that  earth  can  sustain  our  civiliza▯on  and  all   Campus  sustainability  —a  term  encompassing  a   life  for  the  future,  allowing  our  descendants  to   wide  variety  of  efforts  by  students,  faculty,  staff,   live  at  least  as  well  as  we  have  lived   and  administrators  of  colleges  and  universi▯es  to   make  a  campus  opera▯ons  more  sustainable
 Ch.  2  Boldfaced  Words:
 Watershed  —the  en▯re  area  of  land  from  which   system  in  the  same  direc▯on.  The  input  and   water  drains  into  a  given  river   output  drive  system  further  toward  one  extreme   Hypoxia  —the  condi▯on  of  the  extremely  low   or  another   dissolved  oxygen  concentra▯ons  in  the  body  of   Runoff  —the  water  from  precipita▯on  that  flows   water   into  streams,  rivers,  lakes,  and  ponds,  and  in   System  —a  network  of  rela▯onships  among  a   many  cases  eventually  to  the  ocean   group  of  parts,  elements,  or  components  that   Airshed  —the  geographic  area  that  produces  air   interact  with  and  influence  one  another  through   pollutants  likely  to  end  up  in  a  waterway   the  exchange  of  energy,  ma▯er,  and/or   Eutrophica▯on  —the  process  of  nutrients,   informa▯on   Increased  produc▯on  of  organic  ma▯er,   Lithosphere  —the  outer  layer  of  earth,  consisted   subsequent  ecosystem  to  grada▯on  in  a  water   of  crust  and  other  most  mental  and  located  just   body  (nutrient  pollu▯on)   above  the  asthenosphere.  More  generally,  the   Law  of  Conserva▯on  of  Ma▯er  —the  physical   solid  part  of  birds,  including  the  rocks,  sediment,   loss  sta▯ng  that  ma▯er  maybe  transformed  from   and  soil  at  the  surface  and  extending  down  many   one  type  of  substance  into  others,  but  that  it   miles  underground   cannot  be  created  or  destroyed   Atmosphere  —the  thin  layer  of  gases   Element  —a  fundamental  type  of  ma▯er;  A   surrounding  planet  Earth   chemical  substance  with  a  given  set  of  proper▯es,   Hydrosphere  —all  water–  salter  fresh,  liquid,  ice,   which  cannot  be  broken  down  into  substances   or  vapor  –  in  surface  bodies,  underground,  and  in   with  other  proper▯es   the  atmosphere   Atom  —the  smallest  component  of  an  element   Biosphere  —the  sum  total  of  all  the  planets  living   that  maintains  the  chemical  proper▯es  of  that   organisms  and  the  abio▯c  por▯ons  of  the   element   environment  with  which  they  interact   Protons  —a  posi▯vely  charged  par▯cle  in  the   Feedback  Loop  —a  circular  process  in  which  a   nucleus  of  an  atom   systems  output  serves  as  input  to  that  same   Neutrons  —electrically  neutral  uncharged  ar▯cle   system   in  the  nucleus  of  an  atom   Nega▯ve  feedback  loop  —a  feedback  loop  in   Electrons  —a  posi▯vely  charged  par▯cle  in  the   which  output  of  one  type  of  act  as  input  that   nucleus  of  an  atom   moves  the  system  in  the  opposite  direc▯on.  The   Hydrogen  —the  chemical  element  with  one   input  and  output  essen▯ally  neutralize  each   proton   others  effects,  stabilizing  the  system   Oxygen  —the  chemical  element  with  eight   Dynamic  equilibrium  —the  state  reached  twin   protons  and  eight  neutrons.  A  key  element  in  the   processes  with  in  a  system  I'm  moving  in   atmosphere  that  is  produced  by  photosynthesis   opposite  direc▯ons  at  equivalent  rate  so  that   Nitrogen  —the  chemical  element  with  seven   their  effects  balance  out   seven  protons  and  7  neutrons.  The  most   Homeostasis  —the  tendency  of  a  system  to   abundant  elements  in  the  atmosphere,  a  key   maintain  constant  or  stable  internal  condi▯ons   element  in  macromolecules,  and  a  crucial  plant   Posi▯ve  feedback  loops  —a  feedback  loop  in   nutrient   which  output  of  one  type  as  input  that  moves  the   Carbon  —the  chemical  Element  with  six  protons   Basic  —the  property  of  the  solu▯on  in  which  the   and  six  neutrons,  a  key  element  in  organic   concentra▯on  of  hydroxide  ion  is  greater  than  the   compounds   concentra▯on  of  hydrogen  ions   Phosphorus  —the  chemical  elements  with  15   Organic  compounds  —a  compound  made  up  of   protons  and  15  neutrons.  An  abundant  element   carbon  atoms  (and,  generally,  hydrogen  atoms)     in  the  lithosphere,  a  key  element  in   Hydrocarbons  —an  organic  compound  consis▯ng   macromolecules,  and  a  crucial  plant  nutrient   solely  of  hydrogen  and  carbon  atoms   Nutrients  —an  element  or  compound  that   Polymers  —a  chemical  compound  or  a  mixture  of   organisms  consume  and  require  for  survival   compounds  consis▯ng  of  long  chains  of  repeated   Isotopes  —one  of  the  several  forms  of  an   molecules.  Important  biological  molecules,  such   element  having  differing  numbers  of  neutrons  in   as  DNA  and  proteins,  are  examples  of  polymers   the  nucleus  of  its  atoms.  Chemically,  isotopes  of   Macromolecules  —a  very  large  molecule,  such  as   an  element  behave  almost  iden▯cally,  but  they   a  protein,  nucleic  acid,  carbohydrate,  or  lipid   have  different  physical  proper▯es  because  they   Carbohydrates  —an  organic  compound  consis▯ng   differ  in  mass   of  atoms  of  carbon,  hydrogen,  and  oxygen   Ions  —and  electrically  charged  atom   Proteins  —a  macromolecule  made  up  of  long   Molecules  —a  combina▯on  of  two  or  more   chains  of  amino  acids   atoms   Genes  —a  stretch  of  DNA  that  represents  the   Chemical  formula  —a  shorthand  way  to  indicate   unit  of  hereditary  informa▯on   the  type  and  number  of  atoms  any  knowledge  of   Cells  —the  most  basic  organiza▯onal  unit  of   using  numbers  and  chemical  symbols   organisms   Compound  —a  molecule  is  atoms  are  composed   Energy  —the  capacity  to  change  the  posi▯on,   of  two  or  more  elements   physical  composi▯on,  or  temperature  of  ma▯er;   Water  —a  compound  composed  of  two  hydrogen   A  force  that  can  accomplish  work   atoms  bonded  to  one  oxygen  on  them,  denoted   Poten▯al  energy  —Energy  of  posi▯on.   by  the  chemical  formula  H2O.   Kine▯c  energy  —Energy  of  mo▯on   Carbon  dioxide  —a  colorless  gas  used  by  plants   Chemical  energy  —poten▯al  energy  held  in  the   for  photosynthesis,  given  off  by  restora▯on,  and   bonds  between  atoms   released  by  burning  fossil  fuels.  A  primary   First  law  of    thermodynamics  —Energy  is  neither   greenhouse  gases  buildup  contributes  to  global   created  or  destroyed   climate  change.   Second  law  of  thermodynamics  —Energy  is  lost   Ionic  bonds  —a  type  of  chemical  bonding  where   in  the  form  of  heat   electrons  are  transferred  between  atoms,   Autotrophs/  producers  —an  organism  that  can   crea▯ng  oppositely  charged  ion  set  bond  due  to   use  the  energy  from  sunlight  to  produce  its  own   their  differing  electrical  charges   food.  Includes  green  plants,


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