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FAD Exam 1 SG

by: Michaela Maynard

FAD Exam 1 SG FAD2230

Michaela Maynard
GPA 3.75

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This covers all the material that will be on Exam 1. There is discussion comments included as well as a few iClicker questions. There are definitions as well as many examples and simple explanations.
Family Relationships
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This 21 page Study Guide was uploaded by Michaela Maynard on Wednesday February 3, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to FAD2230 at Florida State University taught by Ferraro in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 184 views.


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Date Created: 02/03/16
FAD2230 1/8/15 Ch. 1—Why study families and other close relationships?  Why study families? o Families are a central institution  Social institution—sphere of public life with a set of beliefs and rules organized meet human needs  Bronfenbrenner’s Ecological theory  US Census bureau o Family- 2+ people living together related by  Birth  Marriage  Adoption o Does not include unmarried homosexuals/heterosexuals  Social science definition o Family- relationship by blood, marriage, or affection o Members may  Cooperate economically  Care for children  Consider identity to be connected  Definition of stepfamilies has been adapted  Types of families o Family of orientation/origin—family you are born into o Family of procreation—family created when you marry (does not necessarily need children) o Fictive kin—nonrelatives, bonds of affection (person not biologically related to you that you consider family)  Why define family? o Legal reasons o Policy implications  Taxes, health insurance/benefits o Social implications (DTR-define the relationship) o Shared meaning  Purpose of family? o Economic cooperation  Help provide food, shelter, etc. o Care, warmth, protection, intimacy o Reproduce and socialize children  Socialization- teach healthy relationships, proper interactions, acceptable behavior  Teaching children the rules/expectations of society  Modeling the rules/expectations of society o Regulate sexual behavior  Intercourse within family is socially unacceptable o Social placement, status, and roles o Property and inheritance  Determining heirs  Themes of this class o Theme 1- linking micro/macro level perspectives on families o Theme 2- families are always changing o Theme 3- the importance of social science theory and research  Our relationships are inextricably related to the social structure found in our society o Social structure- stable framework of social relationships that guides our reactions with others  Theme 1- linking micro/macro level perspectives on families o Micro level factors  Focused on individual and his/hers interactions  We have human agency—we are not passive participants in society o Macro level factors  Focused on how marriage, families, and close relationships are interconnected with society and social structure o Micro components  Personal choices, behaviors, feelings, communication, decisions, constraints, values, interactions o Macro components  Culture, history, power and inequality, social institutions, social status, social movements o Micro/macro factors that impact dating  Macro  Stereotypical forces- homosexual relationships  Religion- certain things are acceptable in relationships  Micro  Opposite values of partner  Previous relationships  Communication- stonewalling, passive aggressive o Micro/macro factors that impact divorce  Macro  Economic/money issues  Culture- older generations vs. current  Micro  Different parenting styles- co-parenting  Time/money management 1/11/16  Theme 2- families are always changing o Marriage- institutional arrangement b/n persons to publically recognize social and intimate bonds  Why important?  Benefits, privileges, shared meaning(ceremony, typical wear, etc.), commitment o William Stephens (1963) definition of marriage  Socially legit sexual union  Begun with a public announcement  Undertaken with some idea of permanence  Assumed with a more or less explicit marriage contract that spells out reciprocal obligations of spouses  Ex- monogamy, procreation, good parenting, economic stability, respect, love o Family patterns across cultures (macro)  Marriage patterns  Monogamy-marriage b/n one woman and one man  Polygamy- system that allows for more than one spouse at a time (illegal in US- still practiced) o Polygyny- pattern in which husbands have more than one wife o Polyandry- system allows for women to have more than one spouse at a time  Ex- places where female children suffer from infanticide leading to a lower female population  Patterns of authority  Patriarchy- norms/expectation that men have natural right to be in positions of authority over women  Matriarchy- “ “ power and authority vested in women  Egalitarian- expectation that power and authority are equally vested in both men and women  Patterns of descent  Bilateral- descent traced through both male and female sides of the family  Patrilineal- descent traced through only mans family line  Matrilineal- descent exclusively traced through women’s families (more rare) o Ex- native American cultures  Patterns of residence  Neolocal- expectation that newly married couple establishes a residence and lives there independently  Patrilocal- expectation that newly married couple lives with husbands family  Matrilocal- expectation that newly married couple live with family of the wife o Colonial America  Nuclear family (immediate family- mom, dad, kids- 6+)  Families were primary social institution (work, school, health care, etc.)  Family composition (6+ children in each family, no divorce/remarriage)  Marriages and divorce  Arranged marriages  Remarried when widowed  Connecticut’s Divorce law: o “Adultery, fraudulent contract, or willful desertion for 3 years with total neglect of duty, or seven years provisional absence being not heard of after due enquiry made and certified”  Massachusetts b/n 1639-1692: 27 divorces granted o b/n 1692-1796: Governor of Mass. Heard all 115 divorce petitions  Children as property of their fathers  Seen as mini adults  Experience for indentured servants and slaves  Slave families were frequently broken up and sold off  Many slave owners fathered children with their slaves o Industrialization, Urbanization, and immigration  Large urban industry  Children and families  Social stratification  Poor and working class  Middle and upper class o 20 century families  WWI, WWII, Great Depression (macro)  Women in the workplace  Men overseas, women take over jobs in the homeland  Increased technology—automobiles allowed families to choose were they want to live not based on where they work  Companionate family—no more arranged marriages  American theme—criticism for men taking paternity leaver o Profile of US families  Marry later (25-27 yrs)  Smaller families (1/5 couple wont have children)  More working moms (2/3 work)  Elderly pop. Increased (1900-4% Now- fastest growing population)  More single parent households and binuclear— multiple families interacting 1/13/16  Theme 3- the importance of social science research o Different goals or research  Describe phenomenon (prevalence)  Examine factors associated with phenomenon (correlation)  Explain cause and effect (causation)  Examine meanings and experiences o Types of research  Quantitative Research  Responses= quantifiable/numeric; choose from a pre-determined group of possible answers o “Check the appropriate response..”  Qualitative research  Reponses= open-ended/not restricted to a pre- determined group of possible answers o “Tell me about your experience with..”  Methods of research  Survey- form of research that gather info about attitudes or behaviors through the answer that people give to questions o Limitations- response participation varies, bias o Typically quantitative, but can be qualitative  In depth interview- method that allows an interviewer to obtain responses to questions o Qualitative  Experiment- controlled method for determining cause and effect o Quantitative  Focus group- small group of people who are brought together to discuss a particular topic o Qualitative  Observational study- research method that goes into the natural setting and observes people in action o Role of researcher- active participant, discussion, teaching, passive observer o Qualitative  Secondary analysis- method in which the data was collected for some other purpose but still is useful to the researcher o Can be both qualitative and quantitative o How do we study families?  Research question  theory  hypothesis Research methodology  Theory- general framework, explanation, or tool used to understand and describe the real world (Smith and Hamon, 2012) table on page 22  Research question describes  What you want to know (IV and DV variables)  The population you want to study  Research example  Research question: Do FSU students who have experienced a parental divorce have less favorable views of marriage?  Goal: Describe phenomenon (prevalence  IV- whether their parents were divorced  DV- their views on marriage  Hypothesis: If the students parents were divorced, they would have a negative view of marriage o What do we know about the class of 2013?  Out of 100 members of a HS class, roughly  71 have experience physical assault  64 have had sexual intercourse  32 have experienced some form of child maltreatment  28 victimized sexually  23 smoked marijuana is the past 30 days  22 living in poverty  21 had an STI in the past year  3-4 females have been/are pregnant; 1 had abortion  1-2 in foster care FAD2230 1/15/16 Ch 2- Social status: Sex and gender, race and ethnicity, social class  Our choices, even personal ones, do not exist in a vacuum o Society impacts us  Social stratification o Hierarchal ranking of categories of people within society o All groups are NOT treated equally o More, less, or different opportunities  Can’t change race, gander, etc.  Sociological Imagination o Personal experiences are shaped by forces within our society o Society empowers and constrains us  Women expected to be stay at home mothers  Basics—What is the difference between the terms sex and gender? o Sex- biological differences o Gender- culturally and socially constructed differences o Androgyny- having both masculine and feminine traits  Related to gender  Are men and women really from different planets? (no) o Biological differences o Some cognitive differences  No difference in intelligence—processing skills can differ  Examined 46 meta-analyses related to o Cognitive abilities, Communication, Social an personality variable, Psychological well-being o Findings  Very few differences  78% of “gender differences” were small except in  motor performance  measures of sexuality o Why does everyone talk about the differences?  Gender socialization- taught the cultural norms associated with being male/female  Who teaches us?—agents of socialization  Parents, teachers, toys, peers, the media, schools  Agents of socialization o Parents- girls will receive more nurture/help than boys, communication varies with baby, nursery/bedroom decorations, activities child is enrolled in, rough house (boys) vs. play house(girls) o Schools- hidden curriculum (enforcing girls to learn compliance), description of men and women roles(egg and sperm) o Toys- dolls vs. trucks, video games (women not seen as protagonists, instead highly sexualized) o Peers- girls who play outside with the boys are tomboys, boys who aren’t super tough are seen as sissies o Mass Media- women seen as damsel in distress while men are the super strong, tough, manly, heroes who deserve whatever woman they set their mind on (Gaston in Beauty and the Beast)  How does gender influence family an close relationships? o Woman do 2/3 times domestic labor than men 1/20/16  Refresh my memory o Sex- biological o Gender- culturally and socially constructed differences  Race vs. Ethnicity o What’s the difference?  Race- real or perceived physical traits deemed important by society  Ethnicity- shared cultural characteristics o Ethnicity is the more useful term because race is almost entirely socially constructed o Minority group  What makes them minority?  A category of people who have less power than the dominant group, and who are subject to unequal treatment o Social capital- social networking connections, which can be a valuable resource o Different experiences based on skin color race  Prejudice (attitude)- stereotypes  Discrimination (behavior)  Individual discrimination- one or small group engaging in discriminatory actions  Institutional discrimination- macro level (ex. Columbus, Brown vs. board of education), more engrained in mainstream society  White privilege o By Peggy McIntosh o “White privilege is like an invisible weightless knapsack of special provisions…”  Racial/Ethnic family groups o Cultural equivalent- emphasizes similarities to mainstream white families o Cultural deviant- views distinguishing qualities of minority groups as negative or pathological o Cultural variant- emphasizes cultural and contextual factors when understanding minority family groups  Cultural trends on families o Fastest growing minority group? Why?  Hispanics- because of their high birth rates and high immigration rates o The “model minority”?  Asians- because they are seen as genius families have higher education availability, born into stable married family, etc.) o The highest infant mortality rate and lowest life expectancy?  Native Americans- because of high violence and suicide rates as well as substance use, much bigger emphasis on extended family (3/4 homes consist of extended families) 1/22/16  Social class o Socioeconomic status  Occupational prestige(job/rank—doctor is seen more prestigious than teacher), education, income  Classes in the US- Open class system o Gilbert and Kahl(1993) identified 6 social classes in US.  Upper class- 3% (old money)  Upper middle- 20% (doctors, etc)  Middle class- 40% (average income- work stability)  Working class-20% (lower average income- lots of blue collar)  Working poor-15% (just above poverty line- many single parent families)  Underclass-3% (unemployed)  American dream: social mobility o Upward movement from one class to another  Most will stay in the same social class they were born into  Caste system in India  o Supreme court of India ruled that social organization based on caste is inherited and cannot be changed o BUT discrimination against lower castes is illegal  46.2 million people live in Poverty in US o 1/6 Americans o Divorce can put a lot of strain on a family that had been just over the poverty line. One income then has to support two households instead of two incomes for one household.  How do you move out of poverty? o Education  FSU(in state): $21,065  Poverty line of family of 4- $23,000 ish  Influence of poverty on kids o Poor health/nutrition- cheaper to get a McDonalds cheeseburger than fresh food o “Lower quality” home environment- inconsistent parenting o Parental stress and mental health problems- higher prevalence of mental health issues in lower classes can spill over to effect child o Child behavior problems and mental health- higher levels of anxiety, acting out, violence o Fewer resources for learning o Housing problems- unstable, constant transitions o Poor quality neighborhood- high levels of crime  FAD2230 1/25/2016 Social exchange theory  Social exchange theory o Theory(Our “lens” of families)  Provide basic assumptions about nature and society  Range from macro to micro perspective  Based in utilitarian thinking  Rational choice and social exchange framework o Utility: ability of something got satisfy needs or wants, the quality or stats of being useful/profitable/beneficial o Rooted on utilitarianism- philosophical perspective that suggests that individuals rationally weigh the rewards and costs associated with behavioral choices o Utilitarian thinking  Social exchange theory and rationale choice theory  Share many of the same core concepts, assumptions, and propositions (both rooted in utilitarian thinking)  F. Ivan Nye’s (1979) application of Exchange Theory is rooted in these theories  For our purposes we will work from this interpretation and discuss the application of “Exchange Theory”  The organization of a theory o Assumption  A premise that must be accepted o Concept  Perceived pattern or regularity that exists within a theory o Proposition  A mechanism which links concepts  Exchange theory o Examines motivation (e.g.- what propels a person to act?)  Why would you… ask someone on a date/get a divorce/go out/go to family reunion/etc.? o Assumptions  Methodological individualism- (the individual is real) individual actions reflect society and social structure  Prediction and understanding come about by understanding the individual actors motivation  Why did you do that?  Actors are motivated by self-interests  Which option has the most benefit to me personally?  Actors are rational  Assumes we can calculate the ratio of costs to the rewards o Concepts  Rewards and costs  Profit or maximizing utility  Comparison level (CL) and comparison level for alternatives (CL+)  Comparing your situation/goal to another’s situation  Rationality (value of rewards changes)  Exchanges and equity- decisions are not made in isolation  Human capital and social capital- what is gained from interaction  Generalizable sources of rewards o Propositions  Actors will choose whichever behavior maximizes profit  Actors in a situation in which there are no rewards seek to minimize costs- run red light or be more late to work  What does exchange theory tell us about family? o Voluntaristic notion- we have choices, so when we engage in a relationship or a family, it was because we wanted to or that was our best option o Thus families and having kids must in some way be rewarding  Applying exchange theory to families and intimate relationships o How can exchange theory be used to understand/interpret actors behavior? o What assumptions, concepts, or propositions can you identify? o Based on exchange theory, make a prediction about what the individual/couple/family might do next 1/27/16  Symbolic interactionism framework o Symbolic interaction  Key word: symbol  Symbols can be anything that carry shared meaning  Pay attention to how events and things are interpreted  Foundation- George Herbert Mead o It is all about signs, symbols, and meaning  Not static- does not stay the same, it will change over time  Ex. “Groovy” then, “on fleek” now o Symbol- any sign agreed upon by convention  The symbol system must be relatively stable to achieve agreement o By sharing common symbols, humans can adapt to and survive their environment  Assumptions o Human behavior must be understood by the meaning of the actor  When looking at a specific behavior, we must understand the situation as perceived by acotr o Actors define the meaning of context and situation  Ex- actor is running from stampede. The situation is perceived as dangerous o Individuals have minds that perceive, reason, sense, and imagine o Society precedes the individual  Concepts o The self is made up of the “I” (how I see myself) and “me” (how others might see me)  Looking glass self- the notion that the individual is capable of perceiving how their behaviors are viewed and that this information informs the self o Feedback loop  1- action  2- reaction (actual outcome)  3- Notice reaction  4- Internal change (as a result of noticing reaction to own action in comparison with a pre-set criteria or desired income  EX- Anthony is lecturing (1) half the class is on FB (2) Anthony notices they are bored (3) so he uses a personal example to get their attention (4) o Socialization is the process by which we acquire the symbols, beliefs, and attitudes of our culture o Role- the place of an individual, that he/she take within a situation, group or society  To participate in a role means it is expected that one must follow the rules of that role  Roles should be clear  Role strain is when individuals do not have enough resources to enact a role or roles  Ex- juggling many roles or having a strain on just one o Identity is formed upon the multiple roles an individual plays  Society defines your identity based on the meaning placed on roles  Individuals organize roles into a hierarchy in each situation  Enacting role of student while in class  Propositions that tell us something about families o Proposition is a mechanism that links concepts o Quality of role enactment (behavior) in a relationship affects satisfaction with that relationship  Quality of behavior affects satisfaction in relationship o The greater the perceived clarity of role expectations, the higher the quality of role enactment (behavior)  The clearer the expectations the better the behavior o The more individuals perceive consensus in their expectations about a role, the less their role strain  Consistency  Applying symbolic interactionism to families and intimate relationships o How can symbolic interaction theory be used to understand/interpret their behavior?  She perceives his roles very differently than he sees himself  Her perception: school teacher with cancer  His perception: independent, dangerous  He’s trying to balance the husband/father role with the role of provider o What assumptions, concepts, or, propositions can you identify?  Feedback loop  The self 1/29/16  Life course developmental theory  Life course developmental framework o 3 complimentary theories  Individual life span theory- individual development within context, how an individual is shaped  Family developmental theory- patterns and changes within family, dynamic  Life course theory- specific stages o It is about STAGE not age  Assumptions o Developmental processes are inevitable and important in understanding family o The family group is affected by ALL the levels of analysis o Time is multidimensional  Always moving forward through time, cant go back in time  Social process time- specific markers used to define stages  Marker- specific events that occur that impact the family (marriage, birth, death)  Concepts o Family changes and development o Positions (mother, sister, aunt etc.), norms (don’t have incest!), and roles (norms attached to a kinship position, the place that an individual takes within a family, mother, nurturer)  Stage graded o Events- any significant occurrence that has meaning to a family (birth, death, marriage) o Family stages - what goes on within a family over a period of time (beginning duration ending) o Transitions- the points of beginning or end (occurs through an event)  On or off time  Off time ex- having a child before graduating high school o Developmental tasks  Sensorimotor (0-2 years)  Preoperational (2-6 yrs.)  Concrete operational (7-12yrs)  Formal operational (12-adult yrs.) o Period, age, cohort  9/11(terrorism) and tech are important in our generation o Family life course- progression of steps (start to end point)  Family life course stages o Married couple without children o Child bearing families (oldest birth to 30 months) o Families with preschool children (oldest child 30 months to 6 years) o Families with school age children (oldest child 6-13yrs) o Families with teens (oldest child 13-20 years) o Families with launching centers(first child gone to last child leaving home) o Middle-aged parents (empty nest to retirement) o Aging family members (retirement to death)  Propositions o Families are more likely to experience disruptions when internal family norms deviate from institutional family norms o When societal timing and sequencing norms are out of sync with family development, more likely disruption will occur (generally bad outcomes) o Transitions from one stage to another are predicted by the current stage and duration of time spent in that stage  Determined by age of oldest child  Application o Couple from up- their course through life 2/1/16 IClicker Q- Grandma Jane says TV will rot child’s brain. Mom disagrees (a period effect) IClicker Q- social process time refers to an understanding of the passage of time based upon (specific family markers)- birth, death, etc. IClicker Q- Which is macro level? (NOT social exchange, symbolic interaction, development theory)  Systems Framework o General systems theory (1930s-40s) o First application to the family  Toward a theory of Schizophrenia (1956)  Notion that the schizophrenic individual is a symptom of the family system pathology rather than an individual pathology  Double bind o Root of the term “dysfunctional family” o Whole is greater than the sum of its parts  Members influence the family system  Assumptions o All parts of the system are interconnected o Understanding is only possible by viewing the whole o A systems behavior affects its environment and in turn the environment affects the systems o “Systems” are not reality (heuristics)  Practical application to the study of families. Not saying there is a specific system that exists  Concepts o System- a set of elements in interaction with each other so that what affects one element affects all other elements o Boundaries- Two types  1.) System and environment  2.) Between members of the system  Degree of permeability- refers to how open or closed the boundaries may be o Rules of transformation- rules about how information is exchanged o Feedback  Ex.- child gets a bad grade on a test, mom and dad help him (input) and child gets better grade (output) o Equilibrium  Homeostasis (Ex- air conditioner) o Subsystems  Sibling relationship within family system  Don’t appear in isolation- can impact other subsystems and system o System levels  First order- basic processes  Second order- very complex processes that occur within a system and can affect first order  Comparator  Propositions that tell us about families o The adaptability of the family system is…  Positively related to resources of the system  Negatively related to conflict and tension in the system o Second-order goals define the priorities among first-order goals, BUT they are less likely to be revised and abandoned  Second order process(being a good parent), first order process (specific parenting behavior)  Applying family systems example 1 o Everybody loves Raymond o Mom and dad are mad at each other. Mom and Dad are both mad at grandpa o Naming specific subsystem exchanges in the whole family system o Input and output effects  Output- Michael’s story  Input- shocked/embarrassed reaction of parents/family  Applying family systems example 2 o Debra explains subsystem dynamics between family members  Very negative o Degree of Permeability- nuclear family and grandparents is very open o Homeostasis- interactions (venting) o Comparator- mismatch between first and second level processes FAD2230 2/3/16 Ch. 7- Building Relationships  Purpose of friendship? o Give support o Outlet o Teach us about ourselves and others o Live longer o Better health (physical and mental) o Enhance self-esteem  Friendships (Same sex) o Do friendships operate he same way for men and women?  Jonson 2004- females do not have a greater number of friends o Different types of connection  Men- focus on activity  Women- verbal and self-disclosing  Cross sex friendships o Does friendship lead to romantic feeling of dating? OR can men and women be “just friends”?  Women view cross sex relationships differently (can be friends)  If not attracted to the other person friendship can occur  You’re able to see what the other person is like in a relationship and you can see how they act  Just friends? (Harvey 2003) o 65% received/sent mixed messages about attraction o 47% were initially attracted (friend was not); struggled to remain friends o 32% reported friend was attracted to them o 30% don’t discuss romantic feelings because it has caused discomfort in the past o 26% included some romantic/sexual behavior (“extension of friendship”) o 9% had been romantically involved, and now struggling to be friends  Why date? o Desire for marriage/family/mate selection o Desire for intimacy is a common thread o Fun o Social status o Expectations of others?  How do you define… o Dating? o Getting to know each other? o Hooking up? o Hanging out? o Just talking? o Shared meaning is needed!! o How we define our dating patterns differs every generation  Where do you start? o Pool of eligible  The group of individual who, by virtue of background or birth, are considered most likely to make compatible marriage partners  Homogamy- we tend to form relationships with those that are very similar to ourselves  Propinquity (geographic closeness)


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