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FSU / Family Development / FAD 2230 / Why study families?

Why study families?

Why study families?


School: Florida State University
Department: Family Development
Course: Family Relationships: A Life Span Development Approach
Professor: Mallory greer
Term: Fall 2016
Cost: 50
Name: FAD Exam 1 SG
Description: This covers all the material that will be on Exam 1. There is discussion comments included as well as a few iClicker questions. There are definitions as well as many examples and simple explanations.
Uploaded: 02/03/2016
21 Pages 194 Views 6 Unlocks

FAD2230 1/8/15 Ch. 1—Why study families and other close  relationships?

Why study families?

∙ Why study families?

o Families are a central institution

 Social institution—sphere of public life with a set of  beliefs and rules organized meet human needs

 Bronfenbrenner’s Ecological theory

∙ US Census bureau

o Family- 2+ people living together related by

 Birth

 Marriage

 Adoption

o Does not include unmarried homosexuals/heterosexuals ∙ Social science definition

o Family- relationship by blood, marriage, or affection o Members may

 Cooperate economically

 Care for children

 Consider identity to be connected

∙ Definition of stepfamilies has been adapted

What are the types of families?

∙ Types of families

o Family of orientation/origin—family you are born into o Family of procreation—family created when you marry  (does not necessarily need children) Don't forget about the age old question of What is field strength?

o Fictive kin—nonrelatives, bonds of affection (person not  biologically related to you that you consider family)

∙ Why define family?

o Legal reasons Don't forget about the age old question of What is a paradigm shift?

o Policy implications

 Taxes, health insurance/benefits We also discuss several other topics like Social cognition is a study of what?

o Social implications (DTR-define the relationship)

o Shared meaning

∙ Purpose of family?

o Economic cooperation

 Help provide food, shelter, etc.

o Care, warmth, protection, intimacy

o Reproduce and socialize children

Why define family?

 Socialization- teach healthy relationships, proper  interactions, acceptable behavior  

∙ Teaching children the rules/expectations of  


∙ Modeling the rules/expectations of society

o Regulate sexual behavior

 Intercourse within family is socially unacceptable o Social placement, status, and roles

o Property and inheritance

 Determining heirs Don't forget about the age old question of How to measure the unemployment rate?

∙ Themes of this class

o Theme 1- linking micro/macro level perspectives on  families

o Theme 2- families are always changing

o Theme 3- the importance of social science theory and  research

∙ Our relationships are inextricably related to the social structure  found in our society

o Social structure- stable framework of social relationships  that guides our reactions with others

∙ Theme 1- linking micro/macro level perspectives on families o Micro level factors

 Focused on individual and his/hers interactions

 We have human agency—we are not passive  

participants in society

o Macro level factors If you want to learn more check out What is adams' opinion of women?

 Focused on how marriage, families, and close  

relationships are interconnected with society and  

social structure

o Micro components

 Personal choices, behaviors, feelings,  

communication, decisions, constraints, values,  


o Macro components

 Culture, history, power and inequality, social  

institutions, social status, social movements

o Micro/macro factors that impact dating

 Macro

∙ Stereotypical forces- homosexual relationships

∙ Religion- certain things are acceptable in  


 Micro

∙ Opposite values of partner

∙ Previous relationships

∙ Communication- stonewalling, passive  


o Micro/macro factors that impact divorce

 Macro

∙ Economic/money issues

∙ Culture- older generations vs. current

 Micro

∙ Different parenting styles- co-parenting

∙ Time/money management


∙ Theme 2- families are always changing

o Marriage- institutional arrangement b/n persons to  publically recognize social and intimate bonds If you want to learn more check out What is the definition of descriptive statistics?

 Why important?

∙ Benefits, privileges, shared  

meaning(ceremony, typical wear, etc.),  


o William Stephens (1963) definition of marriage

 Socially legit sexual union

 Begun with a public announcement

 Undertaken with some idea of permanence

 Assumed with a more or less explicit marriage  

contract that spells out reciprocal obligations of  


∙ Ex- monogamy, procreation, good parenting,  

economic stability, respect, love

o Family patterns across cultures (macro)

 Marriage patterns

∙ Monogamy-marriage b/n one woman and one  


∙ Polygamy- system that allows for more than  

one spouse at a time (illegal in US- still  


o Polygyny- pattern in which husbands  

have more than one wife

o Polyandry- system allows for women to  

have more than one spouse at a time

 Ex- places where female children  

suffer from infanticide leading to a  

lower female population

 Patterns of authority

∙ Patriarchy- norms/expectation that men have  

natural right to be in positions of authority over


∙ Matriarchy- “ “ power and authority vested

in women

∙ Egalitarian- expectation that power and  

authority are equally vested in both men and  


 Patterns of descent

∙ Bilateral- descent traced through both male  and female sides of the family

∙ Patrilineal- descent traced through only mans  family line

∙ Matrilineal- descent exclusively traced through  women’s families (more rare)

o Ex- native American cultures

 Patterns of residence

∙ Neolocal- expectation that newly married  

couple establishes a residence and lives there  


∙ Patrilocal- expectation that newly married  

couple lives with husbands family

∙ Matrilocal- expectation that newly married  

couple live with family of the wife

o Colonial America

 Nuclear family (immediate family- mom, dad, kids 6+)

 Families were primary social institution (work, school, health care, etc.)

 Family composition (6+ children in each family, no  divorce/remarriage)

 Marriages and divorce

∙ Arranged marriages

∙ Remarried when widowed

∙ Connecticut’s Divorce law:

o “Adultery, fraudulent contract, or willful  

desertion for 3 years with total neglect of

duty, or seven years provisional absence  

being not heard of after due enquiry  

made and certified”

∙ Massachusetts b/n 1639-1692: 27 divorces  


o b/n 1692-1796: Governor of Mass. Heard  

all 115 divorce petitions

 Children as property of their fathers

∙ Seen as mini adults

 Experience for indentured servants and slaves ∙ Slave families were frequently broken up and  sold off

∙ Many slave owners fathered children with their  slaves

o Industrialization, Urbanization, and immigration  Large urban industry

 Children and families

 Social stratification

∙ Poor and working class

∙ Middle and upper class

o 20th century families

 WWI, WWII, Great Depression (macro)

 Women in the workplace

∙ Men overseas, women take over jobs in the  


 Increased technology—automobiles allowed families  to choose were they want to live not based on where  they work

 Companionate family—no more arranged marriages  American theme—criticism for men taking paternity  leaver

o Profile of US families

 Marry later (25-27 yrs)

 Smaller families (1/5 couple wont have children)

 More working moms (2/3 work)

 Elderly pop. Increased (1900-4% Now- fastest  

growing population)

 More single parent households and binuclear—

multiple families interacting


∙ Theme 3- the importance of social science research o Different goals or research

 Describe phenomenon (prevalence)

 Examine factors associated with phenomenon  


 Explain cause and effect (causation)

 Examine meanings and experiences

o Types of research

 Quantitative Research

∙ Responses= quantifiable/numeric; choose from

a pre-determined group of possible answers

o “Check the appropriate response..”

 Qualitative research

∙ Reponses= open-ended/not restricted to a pre

determined group of possible answers

o “Tell me about your experience with..”

 Methods of research

∙ Survey- form of research that gather info about

attitudes or behaviors through the answer that  

people give to questions

o Limitations- response participation  

varies, bias

o Typically quantitative, but can be  


∙ In depth interview- method that allows an  

interviewer to obtain responses to questions

o Qualitative

∙ Experiment- controlled method for determining cause and effect

o Quantitative

∙ Focus group- small group of people who are  brought together to discuss a particular topic

o Qualitative

∙ Observational study- research method that  

goes into the natural setting and observes  

people in action

o Role of researcher- active participant,  

discussion, teaching, passive observer

o Qualitative

∙ Secondary analysis- method in which the data  was collected for some other purpose but still  

is useful to the researcher

o Can be both qualitative and quantitative

o How do we study families?

 Research question  theory  hypothesis Research  methodology

 Theory- general framework, explanation, or tool used to understand and describe the real world (Smith and Hamon, 2012) table on page 22

 Research question describes

∙ What you want to know (IV and DV variables) ∙ The population you want to study

 Research example

∙ Research question: Do FSU students who have  experienced a parental divorce have less  

favorable views of marriage?

∙ Goal: Describe phenomenon (prevalence

∙ IV- whether their parents were divorced

∙ DV- their views on marriage

∙ Hypothesis: If the students parents were  

divorced, they would have a negative view of  


o What do we know about the class of 2013?

 Out of 100 members of a HS class, roughly

∙ 71 have experience physical assault ∙ 64 have had sexual intercourse

∙ 32 have experienced some form of child  maltreatment

∙ 28 victimized sexually

∙ 23 smoked marijuana is the past 30 days ∙ 22 living in poverty

∙ 21 had an STI in the past year

∙ 3-4 females have been/are pregnant; 1 had  abortion

∙ 1-2 in foster care

FAD2230 1/15/16 Ch 2- Social status: Sex and gender, race and ethnicity, social class

∙ Our choices, even personal ones, do not exist in a vacuum o Society impacts us

∙ Social stratification

o Hierarchal ranking of categories of people within society o All groups are NOT treated equally

o More, less, or different opportunities

 Can’t change race, gander, etc.

∙ Sociological Imagination

o Personal experiences are shaped by forces within our  society

o Society empowers and constrains us

 Women expected to be stay at home mothers

∙ Basics—What is the difference between the terms sex and  gender?

o Sex- biological differences

o Gender- culturally and socially constructed differences o Androgyny- having both masculine and feminine traits  Related to gender

∙ Are men and women really from different planets? (no) o Biological differences

o Some cognitive differences

 No difference in intelligence—processing skills can  differ

∙ Examined 46 meta-analyses related to  

o Cognitive abilities, Communication, Social an personality  variable, Psychological well-being

o Findings

 Very few differences

 78% of “gender differences” were small except in  ∙ motor performance

∙ measures of sexuality

o Why does everyone talk about the differences?

 Gender socialization- taught the cultural norms  

associated with being male/female

 Who teaches us?—agents of socialization

∙ Parents, teachers, toys, peers, the media,  


∙ Agents of socialization

o Parents- girls will receive more nurture/help than boys,  communication varies with baby, nursery/bedroom

decorations, activities child is enrolled in, rough house  (boys) vs. play house(girls)

o Schools- hidden curriculum (enforcing girls to learn  compliance), description of men and women roles(egg and  sperm)

o Toys- dolls vs. trucks, video games (women not seen as  protagonists, instead highly sexualized)

o Peers- girls who play outside with the boys are tomboys,  boys who aren’t super tough are seen as sissies

o Mass Media- women seen as damsel in distress while men  are the super strong, tough, manly, heroes who deserve  whatever woman they set their mind on (Gaston in Beauty  and the Beast)

∙ How does gender influence family an close relationships? o Woman do 2/3 times domestic labor than men


∙ Refresh my memory

o Sex- biological

o Gender- culturally and socially constructed differences ∙ Race vs. Ethnicity

o What’s the difference?

 Race- real or perceived physical traits deemed  important by society

 Ethnicity- shared cultural characteristics

o Ethnicity is the more useful term because race is almost  entirely socially constructed

o Minority group

 What makes them minority?

∙ A category of people who have less power than

the dominant group, and who are subject to  

unequal treatment

o Social capital- social networking connections, which can be  a valuable resource

o Different experiences based on skin color race

 Prejudice (attitude)- stereotypes

 Discrimination (behavior)

∙ Individual discrimination- one or small group  

engaging in discriminatory actions

∙ Institutional discrimination- macro level (ex.  

Columbus, Brown vs. board of education), more

engrained in mainstream society

∙ White privilege

o By Peggy McIntosh

o “White privilege is like an invisible weightless knapsack of  special provisions…”

∙ Racial/Ethnic family groups

o Cultural equivalent- emphasizes similarities to mainstream  white families

o Cultural deviant- views distinguishing qualities of minority  groups as negative or pathological  

o Cultural variant- emphasizes cultural and contextual  factors when understanding minority family groups  ∙ Cultural trends on families

o Fastest growing minority group? Why?

 Hispanics- because of their high birth rates and high  immigration rates

o The “model minority”?

 Asians- because they are seen as genius families  have higher education availability, born into stable  

married family, etc.)

o The highest infant mortality rate and lowest life  


 Native Americans- because of high violence and  suicide rates as well as substance use, much bigger  emphasis on extended family (3/4 homes consist of  extended families)


∙ Social class

o Socioeconomic status

 Occupational prestige(job/rank—doctor is seen more  prestigious than teacher), education, income

∙ Classes in the US- Open class system

o Gilbert and Kahl(1993) identified 6 social classes in US.  Upper class- 3% (old money)

 Upper middle- 20% (doctors, etc)

 Middle class- 40% (average income- work stability)  Working class-20% (lower average income- lots of  blue collar)

 Working poor-15% (just above poverty line- many  single parent families)

 Underclass-3% (unemployed)

∙ American dream: social mobility

o Upward movement from one class to


 Most will stay in the same social

class they were born into

∙ Caste system in India 

o Supreme court of India ruled that

social organization based on caste is

inherited and cannot be changed

o BUT discrimination against lower

castes is illegal

∙ 46.2 million people live in Poverty in US

o 1/6 Americans

o Divorce can put a lot of strain on a

family that had been just over the poverty line. One  income then has to support two households instead of two  incomes for one household.

∙ How do you move out of poverty?

o Education

 FSU(in state): $21,065

 Poverty line of family of 4- $23,000 ish

∙ Influence of poverty on kids

o Poor health/nutrition- cheaper to get a McDonalds  cheeseburger than fresh food

o “Lower quality” home environment- inconsistent parenting o Parental stress and mental health problems- higher  prevalence of mental health issues in lower classes can  spill over to effect child

o Child behavior problems and mental health- higher levels  of anxiety, acting out, violence

o Fewer resources for learning

o Housing problems- unstable, constant transitions o Poor quality neighborhood- high levels of crime

FAD2230 1/25/2016 Social exchange theory

∙ Social exchange theory

o Theory(Our “lens” of families)

 Provide basic assumptions about nature and society  Range from macro to micro perspective

 Based in utilitarian thinking

∙ Rational choice and social exchange framework

o Utility: ability of something got satisfy needs or wants, the  quality or stats of being useful/profitable/beneficial

o Rooted on utilitarianism- philosophical perspective that  suggests that individuals rationally weigh the rewards and  costs associated with behavioral choices

o Utilitarian thinking

 Social exchange theory and rationale choice theory ∙ Share many of the same core concepts,  

assumptions, and propositions (both rooted in  

utilitarian thinking)

∙ F. Ivan Nye’s (1979) application of Exchange  

Theory is rooted in these theories

∙ For our purposes we will work from this  

interpretation and discuss the application of  

“Exchange Theory”

∙ The organization of a theory

o Assumption

 A premise that must be accepted

o Concept

 Perceived pattern or regularity that exists within a  theory

o Proposition

 A mechanism which links concepts

∙ Exchange theory

o Examines motivation (e.g.- what propels a person to act?)  Why would you… ask someone on a date/get a  

divorce/go out/go to family reunion/etc.?

o Assumptions

 Methodological individualism- (the individual is real)  individual actions reflect society and social structure

 Prediction and understanding come about by  

understanding the individual actors motivation  

∙ Why did you do that?

 Actors are motivated by self-interests

∙ Which option has the most benefit to me  


 Actors are rational

∙ Assumes we can calculate the ratio of costs to  

the rewards

o Concepts

 Rewards and costs

 Profit or maximizing utility

 Comparison level (CL) and comparison level for  

alternatives (CL+)

∙ Comparing your situation/goal to another’s  


 Rationality (value of rewards changes)

 Exchanges and equity- decisions are not made in  isolation

 Human capital and social capital- what is gained from interaction

 Generalizable sources of rewards

o Propositions

 Actors will choose whichever behavior maximizes  profit

 Actors in a situation in which there are no rewards  seek to minimize costs- run red light or be more late  to work

∙ What does exchange theory tell us about family? o Voluntaristic notion- we have choices, so when we engage  in a relationship or a family, it was because we wanted to  or that was our best option

o Thus families and having kids must in some way be  rewarding

∙ Applying exchange theory to families and intimate relationships o How can exchange theory be used to understand/interpret  actors behavior?

o What assumptions, concepts, or propositions can you  identify?

o Based on exchange theory, make a prediction about what  the individual/couple/family might do next


∙ Symbolic interactionism framework

o Symbolic interaction

 Key word: symbol

 Symbols can be anything that carry shared meaning  Pay attention to how events and things are  


∙ Foundation- George Herbert Mead

o It is all about signs, symbols, and meaning

 Not static- does not stay the same, it will change  over time

∙ Ex. “Groovy” then, “on fleek” now

o Symbol- any sign agreed upon by convention

 The symbol system must be relatively stable to  

achieve agreement

o By sharing common symbols, humans can adapt to and  survive their environment

∙ Assumptions

o Human behavior must be understood by the meaning of  the actor

 When looking at a specific behavior, we must  

understand the situation as perceived by acotr

o Actors define the meaning of context and situation  Ex- actor is running from stampede. The situation is  perceived as dangerous

o Individuals have minds that perceive, reason, sense, and  imagine

o Society precedes the individual

∙ Concepts

o The self is made up of the “I” (how I see myself) and “me”  (how others might see me)

 Looking glass self- the notion that the individual is  capable of perceiving how their behaviors are viewed and that this information informs the self

o Feedback loop

 1- action

 2- reaction (actual outcome)

 3- Notice reaction

 4- Internal change (as a result of noticing reaction to  own action in comparison with a pre-set criteria or  

desired income

 EX- Anthony is lecturing (1) half the class is on FB (2)  Anthony notices they are bored (3) so he uses a  

personal example to get their attention (4)

o Socialization is the process by which we acquire the  symbols, beliefs, and attitudes of our culture

o Role- the place of an individual, that he/she take within a  situation, group or society

 To participate in a role means it is expected that one  must follow the rules of that role

 Roles should be clear

 Role strain is when individuals do not have enough  resources to enact a role or roles

∙ Ex- juggling many roles or having a strain on  

just one

o Identity is formed upon the multiple roles an individual  plays

 Society defines your identity based on the meaning  placed on roles

 Individuals organize roles into a hierarchy in each  situation

∙ Enacting role of student while in class

∙ Propositions that tell us something about families o Proposition is a mechanism that links concepts

o Quality of role enactment (behavior) in a relationship  affects satisfaction with that relationship

 Quality of behavior affects satisfaction in relationship o The greater the perceived clarity of role expectations, the  higher the quality of role enactment (behavior)

 The clearer the expectations the better the behavior o The more individuals perceive consensus in their  expectations about a role, the less their role strain

 Consistency  

∙ Applying symbolic interactionism to families and intimate  relationships

o How can symbolic interaction theory be used to  

understand/interpret their behavior?

 She perceives his roles very differently than he sees  himself

∙ Her perception: school teacher with cancer

∙ His perception: independent, dangerous

 He’s trying to balance the husband/father role with  the role of provider

o What assumptions, concepts, or, propositions can you  identify?

 Feedback loop

 The self


∙ Life course developmental theory

∙ Life course developmental framework

o 3 complimentary theories

 Individual life span theory- individual development  within context, how an individual is shaped

 Family developmental theory- patterns and changes  within family, dynamic

 Life course theory- specific stages

o It is about STAGE not age

∙ Assumptions

o Developmental processes are inevitable and important in  understanding family

o The family group is affected by ALL the levels of analysis o Time is multidimensional

 Always moving forward through time, cant go back in time

 Social process time- specific markers used to define  stages

∙ Marker- specific events that occur that impact  

the family (marriage, birth, death)

∙ Concepts

o Family changes and development

o Positions (mother, sister, aunt etc.), norms (don’t have  incest!), and roles (norms attached to a kinship position,  the place that an individual takes within a family, mother,  nurturer)

 Stage graded

o Events- any significant occurrence that has meaning to a  family (birth, death, marriage)

o Family stages - what goes on within a family over a period  of time (beginning duration ending)  

o Transitions- the points of beginning or end (occurs through  an event)

 On or off time

∙ Off time ex- having a child before graduating  

high school

o Developmental tasks

 Sensorimotor (0-2 years)

 Preoperational (2-6 yrs.)

 Concrete operational (7-12yrs)

 Formal operational (12-adult yrs.)

o Period, age, cohort

 9/11(terrorism) and tech are important in our  


o Family life course- progression of steps (start to end point) ∙ Family life course stages

o Married couple without children

o Child bearing families (oldest birth to 30 months) o Families with preschool children (oldest child 30 months to  6 years)

o Families with school age children (oldest child 6-13yrs) o Families with teens (oldest child 13-20 years)

o Families with launching centers(first child gone to last child leaving home)

o Middle-aged parents (empty nest to retirement)

o Aging family members (retirement to death)

∙ Propositions

o Families are more likely to experience disruptions when  internal family norms deviate from institutional family  norms

o When societal timing and sequencing norms are out of  sync with family development, more likely disruption will  occur (generally bad outcomes)

o Transitions from one stage to another are predicted by the  current stage and duration of time spent in that stage   Determined by age of oldest child

∙ Application

o Couple from up- their course through life


IClicker Q- Grandma Jane says TV will rot child’s brain. Mom disagrees  (a period effect)

IClicker Q- social process time refers to an understanding of the  passage of time based upon (specific family markers)- birth, death, etc. IClicker Q- Which is macro level? (NOT social exchange, symbolic  interaction, development theory)

∙ Systems Framework

o General systems theory (1930s-40s)

o First application to the family

 Toward a theory of Schizophrenia (1956)

∙ Notion that the schizophrenic individual is a  

symptom of the family system pathology rather

than an individual pathology

∙ Double bind

o Root of the term “dysfunctional family”

o Whole is greater than the sum of its parts

 Members influence the family system

∙ Assumptions

o All parts of the system are interconnected

o Understanding is only possible by viewing the whole o A systems behavior affects its environment and in turn the  environment affects the systems

o “Systems” are not reality (heuristics)

 Practical application to the study of families. Not  

saying there is a specific system that exists

∙ Concepts

o System- a set of elements in interaction with each other so  that what affects one element affects all other elements o Boundaries- Two types

 1.) System and environment

 2.) Between members of the system

 Degree of permeability- refers to how open or closed  the boundaries may be

o Rules of transformation- rules about how information is  exchanged

o Feedback

 Ex.- child gets a bad grade on a test, mom and dad  help him (input) and child gets better grade (output) o Equilibrium

 Homeostasis (Ex- air conditioner)

o Subsystems  

 Sibling relationship within family system

 Don’t appear in isolation- can impact other  

subsystems and system

o System levels

 First order- basic processes

 Second order- very complex processes that occur  within a system and can affect first order

∙ Comparator

∙ Propositions that tell us about families

o The adaptability of the family system is…

 Positively related to resources of the system

 Negatively related to conflict and tension in the  


o Second-order goals define the priorities among first-order  goals, BUT they are less likely to be revised and abandoned  Second order process(being a good parent), first  order process (specific parenting behavior)

∙ Applying family systems example 1

o Everybody loves Raymond

o Mom and dad are mad at each other. Mom and Dad are  both mad at grandpa

o Naming specific subsystem exchanges in the whole family  system

o Input and output effects

 Output- Michael’s story

 Input- shocked/embarrassed reaction of  


∙ Applying family systems example 2

o Debra explains subsystem dynamics between family  members

 Very negative

o Degree of Permeability- nuclear family and grandparents is  very open

o Homeostasis- interactions (venting)

o Comparator- mismatch between first and second level  processes

FAD2230 2/3/16 Ch. 7- Building Relationships

∙ Purpose of friendship?

o Give support

o Outlet

o Teach us about ourselves and others

o Live longer

o Better health (physical and mental)

o Enhance self-esteem

∙ Friendships (Same sex)

o Do friendships operate he same way for men and women?  Jonson 2004- females do not have a greater number  of friends

o Different types of connection

 Men- focus on activity

 Women- verbal and self-disclosing

∙ Cross sex friendships

o Does friendship lead to romantic feeling of dating? OR can  men and women be “just friends”?

 Women view cross sex relationships differently (can  be friends)

 If not attracted to the other person friendship can  


 You’re able to see what the other person is like in a  relationship and you can see how they act

∙ Just friends? (Harvey 2003)

o 65% received/sent mixed messages about attraction  o 47% were initially attracted (friend was not); struggled to  remain friends  

o 32% reported friend was attracted to them

o 30% don’t discuss romantic feelings because it has caused  discomfort in the past

o 26% included some romantic/sexual behavior (“extension  of friendship”)

o 9% had been romantically involved, and now struggling to  be friends

∙ Why date?

o Desire for marriage/family/mate selection

o Desire for intimacy is a common thread

o Fun

o Social status

o Expectations of others?

∙ How do you define…

o Dating?

o Getting to know each other?

o Hooking up?

o Hanging out?

o Just talking?

o Shared meaning is needed!!

o How we define our dating patterns differs every generation ∙ Where do you start?

o Pool of eligible

 The group of individual who, by virtue of background  or birth, are considered most likely to make  

compatible marriage partners

 Homogamy- we tend to form relationships with those  that are very similar to ourselves

 Propinquity (geographic closeness)

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