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CSU - BC 103 - LIFE 103- Animals week 3 - Class Notes

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CSU - BC 103 - LIFE 103- Animals week 3 - Class Notes

School: Colorado State University
Department: Biology
Course: Biology of Organisms-Animals and Plants
Professor: Jennifer Dewey
Term: Fall 2016
Tags: Biology
Name: LIFE 103- Animals week 3
Description: Trends, trade-offs, and mechanisms through evolution
Uploaded: 04/09/2016
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background image Trends in Evolution:  ● Larger brains 
● Larger and more muscles 
● Upright limb posture (appendages directly underneath body weight) 
● Nocturnal habits (led to development of 3 middle ear bones and whiskers for sensing at 
night)    ● Homeothermy­ maintenance of a stable internal body temperature despite environmental  influences; can be regulated through behavior or metabolism  ○ Example: Pelycosaurs (not a dinosaur)­ evolved large flat organ on top of their  bodies with lots of blood flow through; could cool themselves or turn to sun to 
absorb heat 
○ Opposite=Poikilothermy­ internal body temperature varies with environmental  conditions  These developments cost a lot metabolically­ need  solutions  for trade­offs:  ● Heterodonty­ specialized teeth; could preprocess food so that digestive system absorbed  more for each gram consumed  ● Secondary palate­ membrane that separates digestive tract from respiratory system; could  breath while eating so that there is a constant supply of oxygen  ● Endothermy­ use of metabolism for heat; can regulate internal body temperature by  metabolism. Also blood vessels kept in fossilized bones.   
 
 
 
Body Structure and Function:  Fundamental challenges= obtain nutrients and oxygen, excrete wastes, move 
Natural selection lead to the more successful solutions being favored. If a trait has an adaptive 
function, its “form reflects its function.” This is seen at all levels: 
­ Molecular: Enzymes have a specific structure for a specific substrate        Phospholipids have characteristics (nonpolar and polar sides) to form bilayer  ­ Cellular: Cells have a certain shape for their job; nerve vs epithelial vs muscle  ­ Tissue: Groups of epithelial cells can be flat for a covering, vertically aligned to increase 
surface area, or shaped round a vessel 
Embryonic tissue layers (endoderm, mesoderm, ectoderm) for specific function 
*Give rise to different types of tissues, each with different function: 
­Connective (support, connect or separate) 
­Nervous (regulation and communication for control) 
background image ­Muscle (movement) 
­Epithelial (line/cover) 
­ Organs  ­ Organ systems  ­ Organism: body shape for fastest movement through water, or stride length for fastest 
movement on land 
­ Specific solutions vary: For flight, pterodactyl has a single elongated digit to 
support flight membrane, while birds fused distal bony elements to support 
feathers, and bats elongated 4 digits. 
 
Themes of Form and Function: 
A) Body size  Larger animals need more food, take longer to mature, and reproduce slowly, but they lose heat 
and water slowly. Smaller animals are the opposite with the tradeoffs.  
~Metabolic rate­ amount of oxygen used per unit time­ a measure of cellular activity 
As animal size DECreases, metabolic weight per unit body mass increases (a shrew eats more 
per unit body weight than an elephant, even though it needs less total food). 
~Longevity­ how long the typical lifespan of an animal is 
As body mass increases, longevity increases. 
Combining these relationships, the larger the animal, the slower the metabolic rate and the longer 
lifespan. The smaller the animal, the faster the metabolic rate and the shorter the lifespan. 
 
B) Surface area to volume ratios  Surface area is needed for exchange (to obtain nutrients and oxygen and excrete wastes). 
Therefore as animal size increases, there must be a solution. 
Ex: salmon hatchlings begin with nearly all oxygen exchange occurring through their  skin, but as they grow older, gills take over. 
In complex animals, each group of cells are specialized to increase surface area in their specific 
environment. 
Ex: cells that line the intestines form many folds, lung tissue is arranged for the most  surface area with capillaries, and blood vessels branch throughout kidney.  Adaptations: ­flattening            ­folding                        ­branching 
 
C) Homeostasis and thermoregulation  ~Homeostasis= keeping internal chemical and physical situations within a tolerable range despite 
external environment 

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School: Colorado State University
Department: Biology
Course: Biology of Organisms-Animals and Plants
Professor: Jennifer Dewey
Term: Fall 2016
Tags: Biology
Name: LIFE 103- Animals week 3
Description: Trends, trade-offs, and mechanisms through evolution
Uploaded: 04/09/2016
4 Pages 33 Views 26 Unlocks
  • Better Grades Guarantee
  • 24/7 Homework help
  • Notes, Study Guides, Flashcards + More!
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