History 1020 Exam 1 Study Guide
History 1020 Exam 1 Study Guide HIST 1020 Mike Smith
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HIST 1020 STUDY GUIDE: WEEKS 13 Lecture 1: On the Edge of Revolution 1. Describe the most common form of government in premodern times. Who had the right to rule? What idea or ideas were used to justify this type of government? Monarchy was the most common form of government in premodern times. They were ruled by kings, queens, or emperors. They received this “right to rule” by receiving sovereignty. This is the claim or ability to enforce rules over a define territory. In the U.S., sovereignty lies with the people. Since religion and politics were very closely intertwined in premodern societies, a common argument for legitimacy is “God has appointed me because…”. This is otherwise known as divine right. 2. In premodern societies there were several barriers that prevented rulers from establishing firm control over their kingdoms and people. What were these barriers? How did rulers try to overcome these barriers? Barriers to monarchal power: o Getting a group of people to carry out your orders and your will To make up for this, they would form alliances with powerful people. They would exchange money (to pay officials) and support to rule for fancy titles or special privileges. This causes a struggle between the two forces because they are in competition with each other. o Transportation Since there was no technology yet, walking or riding a horse could take up to three to four months for a message to get from the monarch to the people. The kings have to learn to share power and trust their nobility to relay messages. o Collecting information This kind of has the same solution as transportation… trusting their nobility to collect information. 3. What does the term “subsistence economy” mean? A subditence economy is one in which the vast number of people produce just enough food and other materials to provide for their own needs. 4. Most premodern societies were based on a hierarchical and unequal “status system” in which people were divided into strictly defined groups and each group was assigned its own unique function in society. What might societies choose to arrange themselves in such a fashion? 1 Societies choose nobility (day to day functions of government), merchants (provide king with luxury products and services), ad peasants (crops and paid taxes). 5. What was the “Columbian Exchange” and what was its impact on the world? What was the industrious revolution and why was it important? Columbian exchange was when people in the Americas exchanged goods with people in Europe. It’s impact was huge and took a toll on the population because of the sudden appearance of potato and peanuts from Americas because of the boost in the food supply. This did not lead to an increase in technology, but in food. The industrious revolution meant that farmers began to start engaging in work other than just farming. They used spare time to produce goods to sell in the market.. For example: basket weaving and building wooden goods. Lecture 2 The Origins of the French Revolution 6. The steady growth of the middle class in the 1500s1700s was a trend of great economic, social and political importance. What effect did a growing middle class have on pre modern subsistence economies? In what ways did an expanding middle class undermine or challenge the existing social structure? What was the political significance of the middle class? The market activity increased which in turn made the towns in which the markets were located rich because of trade. The growth of towns led to ton dwellers. The new middle class didn’t fit into the existing social structure. They were not struggling to survive like the farmers, but they didn’t enjoy privileges like the aristocracy and nobles. They begin to want to be involved in politics and government. They can achieve this because they make up a large part of the population. 7. Although the intellectual movement known as “the Enlightenment” was incredibly diverse and complex, we can identify certain basic features of “Enlightenment thought.” What were these basic features? They believe society CAN be improved and made better through a process of understanding the laws that govern human nature. They ask questions like “What is Human Nature?” and “What makes animals different from humans?” 8. Prerevolutionary France is sometimes referred to as “Old Regime” France. What are the distinguishing features of the Old Regime French government and Old Regime French society? Old Regime has an Absolute Monarch. The French Church was so weak against the French Monarch. Also, French Kings Craved so much power over their people that was unparalleled to other countries. 2 8. What were the Frist, Second, and Third Estates in Old Regime France? First estate was the roman Catholic Church. They were exempt of taxation but were allowed to tax the French people. Second Estate was the nobility, These were the people who served in King’s armies and in government… ex. Dukes, counts, marquis. Hold government office. Third estate held 8090% of the estate. They had no special privileges and had to do dirty work. King had to share a little power with first and second states and none with third estate. Lecture 3 France’s Modern Revolution 9. What percentage of France’s population belonged to the Third Estate? 8090% of the population belongs to the Third Estate. 10. The 1780s were a decade of increasing hardship and economic distress for the French peasants. What were some of the main causes of the French peasants’ troubles? Because of the cheap goods from England, the French peasants’ side jobs were threatened. It caused a food shortage in France and Framer’s riots, also known as grain riots. 11. What is the historical significance of Jacques Necker’s Compte rendu au roi (1781)? The Compte rendu au roi was significant because it was the first documentation of French finances. It kept a record of all transactions made by the King. This way, the French people could see exactly how their tax money is being spent. It sparks debate but in general, makes the public have a better outlook of the king. 12. Why did the Assembly of Notables reject Calonnes proposal to introduce a new land tax? The Assembly of Notables was actually made up of mostly nobles. The nobles are the people who own huge amounts of land, so they would be the ones affected by land tax. 13. Prior to its opening in 1789, what was the main controversy surrounding the convention of the Estates General? 14. Who was Abbé Sieyès and what role did he play in the debate about the Estates General. He was a clergyman but very sympathetic towards the third estate. He think sthat they can just ignore the church and nobility. 3 Lecture 4 We Cannot Be Calm Until All Europe is in Flames 16. What was the Tennis Court Oath? What did the oath demand? King Louis had shut down all meeting rooms in the palace to stifle the rebellion, so the national assembly met on his tennis courts. It demanded that “we are going to challenge the power of the king” and “we are not going to stop until we draw up a constitution”. 17. What was the significance of the Storming of the Bastille? What effect did the event have on the political situation in France? This storming of the Bastille proved that there was a large population of people supporting the National Assembly. It gave Luis XVI the hesitation not to fight the National Assembly with force, he realized he had to actually deal with it and make them happy. This event was one of the first times the people because involved in the government… people are intervening directly with an issue. 18. What was purpose and effect of the August Decrees passed in 1789? The purpose of the August decrees was to remove the privileges of belonging to a certain estate. With this decree, the Clergymen stand up and say that they will pay taxes and are subject to the same punishments and laws that everyone else have. With the conclusion of these decrees, everyone is considered equal under the law and there is no political distinction between the estates. 19. What were some of the basic principles that were outlined by the Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen? This was a list of basic human rights that all individuals should enjoy. This was the first clear statement of human rights… comparable to U.S.’s bill of rights. Also, it shifted King Louis XVI from “King of France” to “King of the French” which symbolized he was in charge of a people and not a vast territory. 20. How did the National Assembly plan to pay off Frances debts? They planned to seize property owned by the Roman Catholic Church to pay off the debts. 21. What did the Civil Constitution of the Clergy require France’s priests and bishops to do? The Civil Constitution of the Clergy required France’s priests and bishops to pledge their loyalty to the French government to remain legitimate. 22. Who were the Émigrés? What was their role in the French Revolution? Emigres were the people who fled the revolution in the beginning and did not like the changes that were occurring in France. They posed threats on France’s borders. 23. What was the significance of Louis XVI’s attempted escape and capture in Varnnes? What was the significance of the Declaration of Pillnitz? 4 King Louis’ flee from france signifies that he is not a supporter of the national assembly and has been lying all along. 24. Why did Louis XVI and Jacques Brissot both support the idea of declaring war on Austria and Prussia? Lecture 5 From Republic of Virtue to French Empire 25.Why did the National Assembly chose to abolish the French monarchy and turn France into a republic? ** 26. How did the establishment of a French Republic change the nature of France’s war with Austria and Prussia? ** 27. What impact did Louis XVI’s execution have on public opinion both within France and Europe? ** 28. From the fall of 1793 through the summer of 1794 the National Convention adopted a series of drastic emergency measures designed to suppress domestic rebellion and ensure French success in the war with its enemies. Identify the various emergency measures the National Convention adopted and also be able to identify the intended purpose of each measure. 29. Who were the main supporters of the Terror? 30. During the Reign of Terror the National Convention also introduced a series of sweeping cultural changes meant to create a new “revolutionary culture.” What were some of the changes that were made during this time and what was the logic behind these changes? 31. The Thermidor Coup established a new French government which is usually referred to the Directory and is sometimes described as a “bourgeois republic.” What does this phrase “bourgeois republic” mean? How did the French government change as a result of the Thermidor Coup? Lecture 6 In the Shadow of Revolution 32. What was the political situation in Europe after the signing of the Campo Formio treaty in 1797? France was in the third phase of the revolution. 5 33. What was the purpose of the French invasion of Egypt in 1789? What did the Directory hope to achieve by the invasion? The French invaded Egypt to cut off a major trade route for Britain to India. The Directory hoped to cut off communication between India and Britain. 34. After seizing power, Napoleon introduced some major changes to French government in society that blended elements of “Old Regime” France while retaining many of the changes introduced by the French Revolution. What were some of the important changes that Napoleon made and how did they combine elements of “old” and “new” France? [think about Napoleon’s policies toward the Roman Catholic Church, his restoration of the nobility, and his attitudes toward law and government] Napoleon passed the Code of Napoleon in 1804 that was a set of comprehensive laws. He created a new system of justice where everyone is equal under the sam laws… there is no privilege group. You can work your way up to nobility by distinguish yourself in military or work for the government. It declares a beginning of a French empire (bringing back monarchy) but he does protect peoples’ liberties and equality under the law. 35. What was the significance of the Peninsular War? It was very damaging for France and made then vulnerable to Britain. It turns into a very expensive guerilla war. 36. Why did Napoleon decide to invade Russia? Napoleon knew that Britain and Russia were dependent on each other. The leader of Russia broke Napoleon’s agreement and attempted trade with Britain. Napoleon then created the Grand Army of Germany and France and other European countries. 37. What did Napoleon’s attempted invasion of Russia end in failure? In the Battle of Borodino the Russians were defeated. Napoleon continued to march through Russia and get to Moscow. The Russians were smart and burned the city of Moscow so Napoleon wouldn’t have access to supplies. This was a tough blow to the Grand Army and he lost like 40,000 troops and led to the defeat of Napoleon. 38. What was the significance of the Charter of 1814? Who issued it and what did it promise? It restored monarchy, but was not quite back to the old regime. It was issued by Louis XVIII and he promised to uphold civic equality, agrees to share power with parliament with two separate houses. Important Terms and Concepts 6 premodern: the way society worked before the industrious revolution monarchy: ruled by a monarch gain the right to rule by achieving sovereignty sovereignty: the claim of ability to enforce rules over a defined territory subsistence economy: an economy where families only farm and create only enough food and goods for their immediate family… no markets biological old regime: low level of agricultural technology used subsistence economy legitimacy: it justifies sovereignty usually “appointed by God” divine right: the right to rule that comes from a higher power status system: one way to organize and maintain stability within a political system nobility: day to day functions of government merchants: provide king with luxury products and services peasants: crops and paid taxes early modern period: european age of exploration: Europeans began to travel and find trade routes colombian exchange farmers’ technology improved industrious revolution Columbian Exchange: the exchange of knowledge and goods and disease between the America’s and Europe 7 caused a boost in population because of the introduction of new crops improving farmer: farmers began to discuss ideal techniques for farming the techniques spread across Europe and increased technology industrious revolution: farmers began to engage in secondary work like creating goods to sell in the market market economy: an economy where not only do people farm, but they also farm extra and create other goods on the side to sell or trade in a market a market economy led to a need for centralized location of trade, and increased the wealth and population of towns middle class: doesn’t really fit into the existing social structure… somewhere between the peasants and the elite relatively well educated have leisure time to read and educate and strength their skills tenant farmer: a farmer that pays rent to farm on someone else’s land Enlightenment: a time of progress and thinking and also part of the shift from premodern to modern societies enlightenment thinkers believe that it is possible to discover the laws of human society and improve them with this knowledge Old Regime France: the government in France prior to the Revolution Absolute Monarch: king had ALL power Jacques Necker: swiss protestant who was a very good banker King Louis XVI hired him to handle finances… this was a ploy to convince Europe that he is serious about getting them out of debt lies and says that more money is coming in that going out… which is the opposite of what is going on Compte redu au roi (1781): the first way to document French finances 8 now the French public can see exactly how their money is being spent Assembly of Notables (1788): it was 144 of the best men (mostly nobles) to argue about property tax they met to vote on property taxes but the only people that would be affected by the taxes were the nobles who were voting… this made the voting biased. Estates General: a meeting of advisors and representatives that only met when the king declared them to meet talked of making a permanent legislative body Abbe Sieyès: clergyman that was sympathetic towards third estate What is the Third Estate (1789) National Assembly: the third population group voted to change taxes… this was a symbolic move to claim power for themselves Tennis Court Oath (1789): King Louis shut down meeting rooms in the palace so the national assembly met on his tennis court constitutional monarchy: they came up with a power sharing agreement: parliament, legislative power. it limited the power of the king Storming of the Bastille (1789): showed that there were many supporters of the national assembly. sans culottes: the name the common people of Paris claimed in support of the revolution translates to without fancy clothes August Decrees (1789): they destroy the French government in one night makes all estates equal under the law Declaration of the Right of Man and Citizen (1789): the basic outline of the new philosophy the first clear statement of the idea of human rights… all individuals should enjoy certain kinds of rights 9 Civil Constitution of the Clergy (1790): this requires members of the clergy to pledge their loyalty to the French government to remain legitimate assignat: bond with value based on land once belonging to the church refractory priests: clergy members that did NOT accept the oath to government Maximillien Robespierre: leader of the jacobins Jacobins (Montagnards): they oppose war because they fear that France will lose and it will destroy the constitutional monarchy Jacques Brissot: leads group in the national assembly Declaration of Pillnitz (1791): A statement agreed upon by Leopold II and Fredrick William II to intervene if Louis XVI was threatened by revolution National Convention: supporters fear that the old regime will come back and that the people that were a part of the national convention will be found and disciplined Sans Culottes raid King Louis Palace the legislative branch created by the second constitution, which created a republic in France and ended the monarchy in late 1792 led by Jacobin Vendée: a counterrevolutionary rebellion goal is to throw out war, national convention, and bring back monarch levee en masse: the drafting of citizens for the first time “all citizens must contribute to the war effort” Committee of Public Safety: 10 Tries to crush all internal revolt Revolutionary Tribunals: they killed every living thing they could find Law of Suspects (1793): makes it a crime to engage in any anti or counter revolutionary activity Law of 22 Prairial (1794): people were not allowed ant defense when accused of a crime allows government to arrest or excute anyone they want guillotine: instrument of execution to behead subjects republican baptism: mass execution by drowning during the reign or=f terror nationalism: the loyalty and pride associated with one’s country la patrie: means that you can be executed for crimes against the nation La Marseillaise: the french national anthem Cult of the Supreme Being: an artificial religion created by Maximilien Robespierre Thermidor Coup: Directory: the third phase of the revolution Napoleon Bonaparte: an officer of war that came from a lower noble background… his parents were a apart of the poor nobility Conspiracy of Equals (1796): a planned rebellion by the Jacobins 11 convinced that the French revolution has create a new elite of wealthy people and the only way to make people equal is to abolish private property Coup of 18 Bumaire (1799): military stages a coup and overthrows directory and establishes a new government Concordat of 1801: the agreement states that in return for agreeing to respect the church and let it operate on it’s own rules… the church has to accept that they have lost all of their property Code Napoleon (1804): mixed elements of the old and new empire French Empire (1804): Napoleon gives France what they want: peace and stability after the revolution he knows that the old ways of France are no longer, so he tries to combine the two ways of life Battle of Austerlitz (1805): ends with France as the dominant country on the European continent aside from Britain Continental System: blockade of the british where no European country may trade with Britain and gets most countries to sign Peninsular War: ends badly and gives Britain an in to attack France Grand Army: The army that was created to invade Russia Battle of Borodino (1812): Russians are defeated Russians burn Moscow and cut napoleon off from materials Bourbon Restoration (1814): Charter of 1814: basic constitution where Louis XVIII promises to uphold civic equality, agrees to share power with parliament with two separate houses monarchy is restored 12 13
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