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LARC160 Final Exam Study Guide

by: clcindy.lin

LARC160 Final Exam Study Guide LARC200

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These are the terms and questions the professor (Dennis Nola) have given to the class to study for the exam. There are definition for all the terms and answers to all the questions.
Intro to Landscape Architecture
Dennis Nola
Study Guide
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This 14 page Study Guide was uploaded by clcindy.lin on Wednesday February 3, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to LARC200 at University of Maryland taught by Dennis Nola in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 19 views.

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Date Created: 02/03/16
LARC160 Final Exam Review: TERMS     Behavior mapping: Looking how people use an area, move, and congregate o William Whyte principle/guideline: good urban area is made up of food,  water, triangulation, and sunlight.   Evergreen tree: needle like leaves don’t fall off  Deciduous: leaves fall off  “canopy tree”: Tree that grow up and above others  Plant habitat: the local living environment of an organism  Native: always been there  Exotic: outcast, not naturalized  Naturalized:  placed there but fits in  Plant community/association:  Plant communities/plant community association  are plants that like to grow next to each other to exchange nutrients. Never plant  plants that are not in the same community together because they require  different nutrients causing one plant to die.  Xeriscaping: Minimizing water use, plants that don’t need a lot of attention.  Hardiness zone: Areas that is geographically defined with specific category of  plant life. Defined by temperature (minimum degrees a plant can withstand). o MD hardiness zone: 7a or 7b   “plants in their natural habitat”: native plants  “introduced” plants:   Floodplain: A floodplain is an area of land that is prone to flooding. A floodplain  usually is a flat area, adjacent to a river, with areas of higher elevation on both  sides. We often describe floodplains in terms of 100­year storms; the 100­year  floodplain is the baseline for developmental planning. o Floods cause nutrients and sediments to deposit into the soil to fertilize  vegetation around the stream/river.  Contour: A contour line (often just called a "contour") is an imaginary line that  joins points of equal elevation (height) above a given level, such as mean sea  level. The contour interval is the elevation difference between adjacent contour  lines. The contour interval should be the same over a single map. The map  should also provide a starting and ending altitude for the contours, helping to  differentiate between uphill and downhill. o existing contour lines are solid o proposed contour lines are dashed o dashed contour line: Sometimes intermediate contours are present in  flatter areas; these can be dashed or dotted lines at half the noted  contour interval. Ex: if the contour interval is 40 feet, a dotted contour line  would be at 20 feet between two contour lines. o There are several rules to note when interpreting terrain contour lines:  The rule of V's: sharp­pointed vees usually are in stream valleys,  with the drainage channel passing through the point of the vee,  with the v pointing upstream. This is a consequence of erosion.  The rule of O's: closed loops are normally uphill on the inside and downhill on the outside, and the innermost loop is the highest  area. If a loop instead represents a depression, some maps note  this by short lines radiating from the inside of the loop, called  "hachures". o Spacing of contours: close contours indicate a steep slope; distant  contours a shallow slope. Two or more contour lines merging indicate a  cliff. By counting the number of contours that cross a segment of a  stream, you can approximate the stream gradient.  Gradient: A gradient line refers to the tangent of the angle of that surface to the  horizontal (Rise/run). A larger number indicates higher or steeper degree of "tilt".  (slope) o 2% for turf, 1% for hard surfaces (e.g. asphalt and concrete)  Spot elevation: A spot elevation is a point on a map or chart that has its  elevation noted, usually in terms of vertical distance from sea level.   Topographic maps: Topographic maps show both the geography of an area  and physical features of the terrain  100­year storm: A 100­year storm refers to rainfall totals that have a one  percent probability of occurring at that location in that year. This means that a  100­year storm event will happen on average every 100 years but it is possible  for two or many more 100­year storm events to happen in the same year.  LID: Low­impact design o Reduce storm water runoffs, reduce flooding, and recharge underground  water o Ex: Rain garden/bioretention, bioswales, green roofs  Extensive green roof: Extensive roofs are shallow, ranging in depth from 2 cm  to 12.7 cm (<1 in. to 5 in.) Extensive green roofs are for vegetation only; no  pedestrian traffic is allowed.  Intensive green roof: Intensive roofs are thicker with a minimum depth of 12.8  cm (> 5 in.), and can support a wider variety of plants but are heavier and require more maintenance. People are free to walk about the space.  Axis:  a physical or visual line that defines the placement and orientation of a  structure. Symmetrical objects have a single centered axis. An axis does not  have to be centered, but it can be the point of rotation for all elements around it.   Symmetry: balanced distribution and arrangment or equal on  opposite sides.   Hierarchy: articulation of the importance or significance of a form or space by its  size, shape, or placement relative to the other forms and spaces of organization.   Datum: refers to a line, plane, or volume of reference to which other elements in  a composition can relate to.   Complete Streets and Designing for Happy Communities  Complete street: a street built for everyone (pedestrians, bikers, cars, etc.).  They are designed and operate to create safe access for all users. Also include  green streets, too.   Green street: streets that include vegetation (help control stormwater runoff)  Combined street:  many elements of street design, construction, and operation can achieve both complete streets that work for all travelers and green streets that improve environmental sustainability.  Controlled access roads: Another word for highway. They provide unhindered  flow of traffic, with no traffic signals, intersections or property access. They are  free of any at­grade crossings with other roads, railways, or pedestrian paths,  which are instead carried by overpasses and underpasses across the highway.  Entrances and exits to the highway are provided at interchanges by slip roads  (ramps), which allow for speed changes between the highway and arterial roads  and collector roads.  Limited access roads: A limited access road, is a highway or arterial road for  high­speed traffic, which has many or most characteristics of a controlled access  road, such as limited or no access to adjacent property, some degree of  separation of opposing traffic flow, use of grade separated interchanges to some  extent, prohibition of some modes of transport such as bicycles or horses and  very few or no intersecting cross­streets.  Minor collector roads: A collector road is a low­to­moderate­capacity road,  which serves to move traffic from local streets to arterial roads. Unlike arterials,  collector roads are designed to provide access to residential properties.  Habitat: the local living environment of an organism.         Asks these questions:                     • Is it evergreen or deciduous? • Where does it grow regionally? • What is its plant community (i.e., what other plants typically grow near it in its natural setting? • What is its hardiness zone?  Driving statistics provided in Complete Streets: ­Essentially, more people would rather walk places than drive cars if  given the choice. ­⅓ of Americans don’t drive. ­Almost 50% of Americans feel unsafe crossing roads.  How complete streets can reduce road widths: ­Sidewalks and bike lanes can minimize the road widths because they are taking up a portion of the entire road.  Understand the design principles that should be followed in circulation design. Landscape Ecology  In what ways can plants contribute texture, form, color, and line to the  experience of a landscape?  What other contributions can they make to the  senses?:  ­Provide shade ­Create symmetry  ­Hold soil.  ­Clean air. ­Make a space look prettier.  ­Provide habitat and food.   Ecosystem fragmentation (habitat fragmentation): Habitat fragmentation is  the process by which habitat loss results in the division of large, continuous  habitats into smaller, more isolated remnants. o Why is it detrimental to ecosystem sustainability:  Leads to the  formation of edge habitats in which organisms are eliminated or forced  into fragments along and between fields of development  How can greenways reduce the impacts of fragmentation:  Greenways increase the effective size of existing reserve; greenways connect  the reserves to protect land for the species  “First flush”: the stormwater runoff at the beginning of a rainstorm. o Contaminants carried in first flush: Nitrogen, phosphorus, metals,  pathogens, biological oxygen demand, suspended soil  10 vs. a 100­year storm.  10 year: more frequent and less intense  100: less frequent and more intense/big  Why we can’t design for 100­year storms with our current storm­drainage  system: o Pipes would be too big and expensive and they would get clogged with rubbish during non-100 year storms.  “time of concentration”: is the time required for a particle of water to flow from  the hydraulically most distant point on a watershed to the design/site of the  project.   limitations of first flush remediation techniques: • Not as effective for areas greater than 100 acres. • Time of concentration can affect distribution of contaminants throughout  the hydrograph. • Highly permeable soils can filter contaminants before entering surface  flows. • Complex basin shapes can affect distribution of contaminants  throughout the hydrograph.  How has the traditional American residential landscape been laid out? How does this differ from conservation subdivision concept that has gained  popularity in recent years? o traditionally a plot of land would be equally divided for houses, and now sub-division separates areas of preservation from areas for housing that are more dense Low­Impact Development  low­impact development: LID: o Goal is to use techniques that infiltrate, store and evaporate detain  stormwater to reduce runoff, recharge groundwater o Be environmentally sound and cost effective o Reduce storm water runoffs, reduce flooding, and recharge underground  water o Ex: Rain garden/bioretention, bioswales, green roofs  Techniques used to reduce the environmental impact of development: o  rain gardens: A rain garden is a garden which takes advantage of rainfall and  stormwater runoff in its design and plant selection. Usually, it is a small garden  which is designed to withstand the extremes of moisture and concentrations of  nutrients, particularly Nitrogen and Phosphorus, that are found in stormwater  runoff.  bio­swales: Bioswales are landscape elements designed to remove silt  and pollution from surface runoff water. They consist of a swaled drainage course with gently sloped sides (less than six percent) and filled with  vegetation, compost and/or riprap.  Understand conditions under which rain gardens must be designed with  underdrains.   o Underdrains are used to help move the water away from the rain garden faster, so any site that can’t hold as much water and receives a lot of runoff will want to have an underdrain. Graphics  Functional diagram: is then used to locate the activity spaces on the site and  from this diagram a conceptual plan is developed.  Site analysis: dedicated to the study of the climatic, geographical, historical,  legal, and infrastructural context of a specific site. It answers the “so what”.   Plan view graphic: response to all site factors, clear perception of the needs  and relationships in the site. (drawing in scale).  Landscape Performance  Ten One Planet Principles.  Zero Carbon  Zero Waste  Sustainable Transport  Sustainable Materials  Local and Sustainable Food  Sustainable Water  Land Use and Wildlife  Culture and Heritage  Equity and Local Economy  Health and Happiness  Why it’s important for us as designers to quantify the benefits and impacts  of our designs.  Determine from design parameters  Gather secondary data  Value & functions of wetlands.  Recreation  Environmental education  Visual quality  Uniqueness/Heritage  Habitat  Water quality improvements  Sustainable features of Portage Lakefront and Riverwalk as discussed in  lecture.  Portage Lakefront and Riverwalk protect and restores critical dune habitat while  providing public access and recreation opportunities on Lake Michigan.  By limiting construction to the footprint of previously existing roads and buildings,  the design maximizes habitat restoration area and takes advantage of natural  drainage patterns.  All stormwater is infiltrated on site, native plants are showcased, and recycled  materials are used to demonstrate a sustainable melding of recreation and  ecological sensitivity.  Professional Practice  ASLA definition of landscape architecture: Landscape architecture  encompasses the analysis, planning, design, management, and stewardship of  the natural and built environments.                                                                                                  Women in landscape Architecture movie Isabelle Greene ∙      Made the Valentine Garden ∙      Trained as both a botanist and artist ∙      Grandfather was an architect ∙      Known for her work in the dry southern California climate Pamela Palmer ∙      Made the Blue Oaks Hill Garden, the contemporary Courtyard, and the Horizon  Garden   ∙      Incorporates water in her work ∙      Believes it has calming and healing effect in landscapes Andrea Cochran ∙      Stone Edge Farm, Walden studios, The Curran House ∙      2 main influences ∙      early modernist landscape architects Dan Kiley, Garrett Eckbo, and James Rose for  their reinvention of space ∙      Minimalist Robert Irwin who reinterpreted our perception of space Mia Lehrer ∙      Vista Hermosa Park, working on the Los Angeles River Basin ∙      Urbanist, urban ecology ∙      Known for “guerilla planning” ∙      Also known for creating and blue skiing plans for parks and public spaces Katherine Spitz ∙      Architect, LA artist and landscape architect ∙      Likes projects that incorporate all 3 ∙      Chase garden Pico boulevard? ∙      Creating urban spaces that maintain connection to larger geography ∙      Concerns:  pedestrian safety and convenience ∙      Uses plants as if paint on canvas Questions:    Can a section cut have a different vertical and horizontal scale? Why or  why not? o No. That would be really inconsistent and would almost certainly confuse  anyone looking at the section cut. Also, sections are analytical orthogonal drawings; they are used to examine and explore interior spaces of  objects, and thus need to be measured and depicted precisely to convey  the necessary information about proportion.  What is the formula to calculate slope? o Horizontal distance over vertical distance (x2­x1/y2­y1)  What is slope ratio? o Slope ratio is the amount of horizontal distance compare to rise in 1 unit  vertical distance  What provokes the UMD alumni’s fondest memories on campus according  to the Alumni poll? o The fountain o Mckeldin Mall← alley of trees on both side  What is the number 1 killer of trees planted in the landscape? o Compacted soil, i.e. people walking over the roots  Why is compacted soil bad for trees? o Compacted soil eliminates air pockets in the soil and suffocates the roots. o Tress have vital feeder roots in the top few cm of soil around the tree, and this is where the tree gets a majority of its oxygen from, once compacted  the feeder roots can’t take in oxygen and it won’t be long before the tree  dies.  What are key principles of TOD? o Transit­Oriented Development (TOD) o Mixed area of commercial and residential o maximize public transportation and ridership o example: Arlington county Virginia  What are green streets? o Green Streets are streets with vegetation that reduce runoffs and  stormwater runoffs.  What is a key component of storm water mitigation? o Having a local cleaning place (rain gardens etc) o on site absorption of first flush  What are some of the contaminants typically contained in stormwater? o Nitrogen, phosphorus, metals, pathogens, trace organics, suspended soils, and biological oxygen demand  What are examples of natural systems? o Sun, soil, wind, water, drainage, wildlife, vegetation, slope, climate,  wildfire  What are examples of built systems as related to land development? o Roads, walks, utilities, buildings, structures, plazas, earthwork  How do cultural systems influence design? o Social interaction, group dynamics, government, and media can all  influence design by defining how people perceive the world around them.  Design should account for these practices to ensure that the correct  meaning is conveyed and no taboos are committed.  What are some of the impacts of urbanizations? o Farming and urbanization leads to the creation of edge habitats where organisms are eliminated or forced into fragments along and between fields and development. o Bio Simplification occurs by loss of biodiversity and the re- planting of monocultures. o Opportunistic species thrive such as bull thistle, sumac, ragweed, poison ivy or racoons, opossums, rabbits, coyotes, etc.  Ecologically sound design principles include. o Design that minimizes environmentally destructive impacts by integrating  itself with living processes  What is first flush as related to stormwater runoff? o First flush is the storm water runoff at the beginning of a rainstorm  What are some characteristics of a wetland?  Presence of shallow water  Presence of high organic soil that are distinct from upland soil  Presence of vegetation species that are adapted to wet soils, surface water,  and/or flooding  What are some of the values of wetlands?  Recreation  Environmental education  Visual quality  Uniqueness/heritage  Habitat  Water quality improvements  Do wetlands last forever? o no  What is hydrophilic vegetation? o Aquatic plants are plants that have adapted to living in aquatic  environments (saltwater or freshwater).  What are the conditions common to emergent plants? o Shallow waters  How is water most commonly conveyed in an urban watershed? o Storm drains that lead to rivers that lead into large bodies of water  Why is preserving, mimicking, or recreating natural systems not sufficient  for comprehensive stormwater management practices? ­natural systems are able to stand up to natural pressures. Humans create added strain  on an environment so the natural system “as is” is no longer sufficient. Natural  systems  need to be enhanced to accommodate the added strain human development put  on it  What is ASHTO? o American Association of Highway and Transportation Officials: is a  standards setting body which publishes specifications, test protocols and  guidelines which are used in highway design and construction throughout  the United States.  What are functions of a bioswale? o Bioswales are linear, vegetated ditches which allow for the collection,  conveyance, filtration, and infiltration of stormwater. It improves water  quality, reduce runoff volume, and enhance landscape aesthetics.  What region(s) are we located in? o Western edge of the coastal plain  What are some of the landscape performance principles discussed in  lecture? o zero carbon o zero waste o sustainable transport o sustainable materials o local and sustainable food o sustainable water o land use and wildlife o culture and heritage o equity and local economy o health and happiness  Why is Landscape Architecture a licensed profession? o All 50 states require landscape architects to earn a license to practice,  ensuring that the designs protect the health, safety, and welfare of all  users. In fact, you can't even call yourself a landscape architect without a  license. The job of the landscape architect first and foremost is to ensure  the safety of people and the environment; they are enlisted not just to  make spaces beautiful, but also to solve environmental problems. This  type of work necessitates standardization, and standardization  necessitates licensing.  What are landscape architects legal responsibilities? ­SAFETY ­Safeguards health, safety, property, and the public’s welfare with the       enhancement of both the natural and built environment.  What is the LARE? o Landscape Architect Registration Examination o The L.A.R.E. is a four­part fully computerized examination designed to  determine whether applicants for landscape architectural licensure  possess sufficient knowledge, skills and abilities to provide services  without endangering the health, safety and welfare of the public.  Are continuing education credits required for professional Landscape  Architects in the state of Maryland? o Yes, 24 credits are required. Every 2 years  What does “design build” refer to? ­A  method to deliver a project in which the design and construction  services are contracted by a single entity known as the design–builder or  design–build contractor.  What does public practice refer to? o Working for an organization of the public usually something owned by the  state or government  What are the key functions of Red Ribbon Park? o True “green” landscape architecture o provides seating, lighting o Environmental interpretation o orientation  What are the key elements of a successful urban open space according to  William Whyte? o Food, water, triangulation, and sunlight  Urban tree planting pits should have these characteristics. o Place for roots to grow o filtering o watering o protection of compacting soil  Horizontal curves in road geometry are comprised of these elements. o alignment o consists of straight sections of road, known as tangents, connected by  circular horizontal curves  What percent of Americans do not drive? o Nearly 1/3 o 21% of Americans over 65. o Children under 16. o Many low income Americans do not have access to automobiles.  How can complete streets benefit communities? o Improve safety by reducing crashes, balance transportation systems, and  encourage more walking and bicycling.  Health  Economic  Capacity  Change travel patterns  What are the benefits of walkable communities? o Walkable communities = happier communities (Livable Communities) o Residents of walkable communities:  are more likely to be socially engaged and trusting  report being in good health and happy more often.  What are the limitations of first flush remediation? o Not as effective for catchment areas greater than 100 acres. o Time of concentration can affect distribution of contaminants throughout  the hydrograph o Highly permeable soils can filter contaminants before entering surface  flows. o Complex basin shapes can affect distribution of contaminants throughout  the hydrograph o Some contaminants exhibit first flush characteristics while others do not.   What are ecosystem services? o Ecosystem services are the benefits provided by ecosystems that  contribute to making human life both possible and worth living. o Such as the production of food and water; regulating, such as the control  of climate and disease; supporting, such as nutrient cycles and crop  pollination  What are the benefits of plant ecologies? o Provide nutrients and oxygen to breath.  What are the benefits of soil ecologies? o Cleans water and pollution, nitrogen fixation, decomposition  What are the benefits of hydrology ecosystems?  What are the key design functions of the Uptown Normal circle? o Provides a place for pedestrians to hangout and relax in an urban society  “green space” o Provides on water stormwater management o Provides traffic circle  What are some of the key ecosystem characteristics that result in a decline  in biodiversity and biological productivity? o habitat destruction o habitat fragmentation  What are some of the landscape performance benefits according to the  LAF? (LAF: Landscape Architecture Foundation ­ their mission is to support the  preservation, improvement and enhancement of the environment. They invest in research and  scholarships to achieve sustainability.)  Economic(property value, Operation and maintenance savings, job creation and  economic development)  Social(Public health and safety, crime prevention, recreational and social value,  educational value)  Water(stormwater management, water conservation, water quality, flood  protection)  Carbon, Energy and Air quality(energy use and emission, air quality, urban  heat island, carbon storage and sequestration)  Habitat(habitat preservation, restoration/creation)  Soils(Preservation)  Site(transportation, land efficiency/preservation)  Materials and waste(reused/recycled materials, local materials)  What are the professional societies common to the landscape architecture  profession? o Bachelor of Landscape Architecture (BLA) and a Bachelor of Science in  Landscape Architecture (BSLA) o The first­professional Master of Landscape Architecture (MLA)(3 years) o The second­professional Master of Landscape Architecture (MLA) (2  years) o The MA/MS in Landscape Architecture is for persons who want to  conduct research in landscape architecture, but do not seek to be  registered professional practitioners. o Required in all 50 US states and the Canadian Provinces (from lecture  slides) o Education from an accredited landscape architecture degree program o Apprenticeship (usually 2 years) o Formal examination  What are the requirements common to landscape architecture license in  the entire country?  Since they design the backbone of places where people live, they have to make sure they are prioritizing safety among all else -- they have to do so without endangering the health, safety and welfare of the  public.  What is the difference between site inventory and site analysis? o Site analysis answers the question “so what?” o (Site inventory ­ what you see; site analysis ­ how to improve)    What is the ASLA’s definition of landscape architecture? o Landscape architecture encompasses the analysis, planning, design,  management, and stewardship of the natural and built environments.  (From PowerPoint) o Landscape architects are recognized as leaders in green infrastructure,  active transportation, and sustainability.  *Stewardship­ is an ethic that embodies the responsible planning and  management of resources. The concepts of stewardship can be applied to the  environment and nature, economics, health, property, information, theology, etc.  According to Roger Ulrich what three things do workers experience that  have views of nature from their workstations compared to employees with  views to built environments? o Less stress, better health status, and higher job satisfaction  What are three  categories of landscape assessment related to design  solution observations? o natural system, built system, and cultural system   How did the agricultural revolution change human culture? o It created a sense of community. First time hunters and gatherers could  settle in one place and have all the food they needed. It also created  specialization of jobs in those small villages, leading to art and learning  and many more things. Taking plants that they had gathered and being  able to store them, also being able to stay in one place and grow things.  What is the IPCC definition of adaptation? o Any change in the structure or functioning of an organism that makes it  better suited to its environment o Adjustment in natural or human systems in response to actual or  expected climatic stimuli or their effects, which moderates harm or  exploits beneficial opportunities” ­IPCC Glossary   Simonds and Starke definition of adaptation? o The two key things to our survival are: o Perception (being aware of all conditions and apply factors) o Deduction (deriving through reasons and use appropriate means of  procedures)    What are some of the benefits of natural landscape systems? o Supply, transport, treat, and store water o Modify the climate o Oxygenate and purify the air o Produce food o Treat or assimilate waste o Build land o Maintain beaches o Provide protection from hurricane  How does Steiner define suitability analysis? o “The Process of determining the fitness, or the appropriateness, of a  given tract of land for a specified use” (Steiner, 1991, p. 132)  What is culture lost referring to in the Knox Towers project? o An area for students to socialize ­ Specifically ­ The area in the middle of  the Knox boxes that used to be present is now gone, and replaced with a  private area reserved for students who rent a place in the towers.  Know the difference between schematic plan, site plan, and illustrative  drawing. o Schematic plan­ draft sizes, spacial relationships, spatially explicit o Site plan­ measured drawing o Illustrative drawing­ o site analysis­ ideas, reference to physical, biological, and cultural  attributes


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