LARC160 Final Exam Study Guide
LARC160 Final Exam Study Guide LARC200
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This 14 page Study Guide was uploaded by clcindy.lin on Wednesday February 3, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to LARC200 at University of Maryland taught by Dennis Nola in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 19 views.
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Date Created: 02/03/16
LARC160 Final Exam Review: TERMS Behavior mapping: Looking how people use an area, move, and congregate o William Whyte principle/guideline: good urban area is made up of food, water, triangulation, and sunlight. Evergreen tree: needle like leaves don’t fall off Deciduous: leaves fall off “canopy tree”: Tree that grow up and above others Plant habitat: the local living environment of an organism Native: always been there Exotic: outcast, not naturalized Naturalized: placed there but fits in Plant community/association: Plant communities/plant community association are plants that like to grow next to each other to exchange nutrients. Never plant plants that are not in the same community together because they require different nutrients causing one plant to die. Xeriscaping: Minimizing water use, plants that don’t need a lot of attention. Hardiness zone: Areas that is geographically defined with specific category of plant life. Defined by temperature (minimum degrees a plant can withstand). o MD hardiness zone: 7a or 7b “plants in their natural habitat”: native plants “introduced” plants: Floodplain: A floodplain is an area of land that is prone to flooding. A floodplain usually is a flat area, adjacent to a river, with areas of higher elevation on both sides. We often describe floodplains in terms of 100year storms; the 100year floodplain is the baseline for developmental planning. o Floods cause nutrients and sediments to deposit into the soil to fertilize vegetation around the stream/river. Contour: A contour line (often just called a "contour") is an imaginary line that joins points of equal elevation (height) above a given level, such as mean sea level. The contour interval is the elevation difference between adjacent contour lines. The contour interval should be the same over a single map. The map should also provide a starting and ending altitude for the contours, helping to differentiate between uphill and downhill. o existing contour lines are solid o proposed contour lines are dashed o dashed contour line: Sometimes intermediate contours are present in flatter areas; these can be dashed or dotted lines at half the noted contour interval. Ex: if the contour interval is 40 feet, a dotted contour line would be at 20 feet between two contour lines. o There are several rules to note when interpreting terrain contour lines: The rule of V's: sharppointed vees usually are in stream valleys, with the drainage channel passing through the point of the vee, with the v pointing upstream. This is a consequence of erosion. The rule of O's: closed loops are normally uphill on the inside and downhill on the outside, and the innermost loop is the highest area. If a loop instead represents a depression, some maps note this by short lines radiating from the inside of the loop, called "hachures". o Spacing of contours: close contours indicate a steep slope; distant contours a shallow slope. Two or more contour lines merging indicate a cliff. By counting the number of contours that cross a segment of a stream, you can approximate the stream gradient. Gradient: A gradient line refers to the tangent of the angle of that surface to the horizontal (Rise/run). A larger number indicates higher or steeper degree of "tilt". (slope) o 2% for turf, 1% for hard surfaces (e.g. asphalt and concrete) Spot elevation: A spot elevation is a point on a map or chart that has its elevation noted, usually in terms of vertical distance from sea level. Topographic maps: Topographic maps show both the geography of an area and physical features of the terrain 100year storm: A 100year storm refers to rainfall totals that have a one percent probability of occurring at that location in that year. This means that a 100year storm event will happen on average every 100 years but it is possible for two or many more 100year storm events to happen in the same year. LID: Lowimpact design o Reduce storm water runoffs, reduce flooding, and recharge underground water o Ex: Rain garden/bioretention, bioswales, green roofs Extensive green roof: Extensive roofs are shallow, ranging in depth from 2 cm to 12.7 cm (<1 in. to 5 in.) Extensive green roofs are for vegetation only; no pedestrian traffic is allowed. Intensive green roof: Intensive roofs are thicker with a minimum depth of 12.8 cm (> 5 in.), and can support a wider variety of plants but are heavier and require more maintenance. People are free to walk about the space. Axis: a physical or visual line that defines the placement and orientation of a structure. Symmetrical objects have a single centered axis. An axis does not have to be centered, but it can be the point of rotation for all elements around it. Symmetry: balanced distribution and arrangment or equal forms.space on opposite sides. Hierarchy: articulation of the importance or significance of a form or space by its size, shape, or placement relative to the other forms and spaces of organization. Datum: refers to a line, plane, or volume of reference to which other elements in a composition can relate to. Complete Streets and Designing for Happy Communities Complete street: a street built for everyone (pedestrians, bikers, cars, etc.). They are designed and operate to create safe access for all users. Also include green streets, too. Green street: streets that include vegetation (help control stormwater runoff) Combined street: many elements of street design, construction, and operation can achieve both complete streets that work for all travelers and green streets that improve environmental sustainability. Controlled access roads: Another word for highway. They provide unhindered flow of traffic, with no traffic signals, intersections or property access. They are free of any atgrade crossings with other roads, railways, or pedestrian paths, which are instead carried by overpasses and underpasses across the highway. Entrances and exits to the highway are provided at interchanges by slip roads (ramps), which allow for speed changes between the highway and arterial roads and collector roads. Limited access roads: A limited access road, is a highway or arterial road for highspeed traffic, which has many or most characteristics of a controlled access road, such as limited or no access to adjacent property, some degree of separation of opposing traffic flow, use of grade separated interchanges to some extent, prohibition of some modes of transport such as bicycles or horses and very few or no intersecting crossstreets. Minor collector roads: A collector road is a lowtomoderatecapacity road, which serves to move traffic from local streets to arterial roads. Unlike arterials, collector roads are designed to provide access to residential properties. Habitat: the local living environment of an organism. Asks these questions: • Is it evergreen or deciduous? • Where does it grow regionally? • What is its plant community (i.e., what other plants typically grow near it in its natural setting? • What is its hardiness zone? Driving statistics provided in Complete Streets: Essentially, more people would rather walk places than drive cars if given the choice. ⅓ of Americans don’t drive. Almost 50% of Americans feel unsafe crossing roads. How complete streets can reduce road widths: Sidewalks and bike lanes can minimize the road widths because they are taking up a portion of the entire road. Understand the design principles that should be followed in circulation design. Landscape Ecology In what ways can plants contribute texture, form, color, and line to the experience of a landscape? What other contributions can they make to the senses?: Provide shade Create symmetry Hold soil. Clean air. Make a space look prettier. Provide habitat and food. Ecosystem fragmentation (habitat fragmentation): Habitat fragmentation is the process by which habitat loss results in the division of large, continuous habitats into smaller, more isolated remnants. o Why is it detrimental to ecosystem sustainability: Leads to the formation of edge habitats in which organisms are eliminated or forced into fragments along and between fields of development How can greenways reduce the impacts of fragmentation: Greenways increase the effective size of existing reserve; greenways connect the reserves to protect land for the species “First flush”: the stormwater runoff at the beginning of a rainstorm. o Contaminants carried in first flush: Nitrogen, phosphorus, metals, pathogens, biological oxygen demand, suspended soil 10 vs. a 100year storm. 10 year: more frequent and less intense 100: less frequent and more intense/big Why we can’t design for 100year storms with our current stormdrainage system: o Pipes would be too big and expensive and they would get clogged with rubbish during non-100 year storms. “time of concentration”: is the time required for a particle of water to flow from the hydraulically most distant point on a watershed to the design/site of the project. limitations of first flush remediation techniques: • Not as effective for areas greater than 100 acres. • Time of concentration can affect distribution of contaminants throughout the hydrograph. • Highly permeable soils can filter contaminants before entering surface flows. • Complex basin shapes can affect distribution of contaminants throughout the hydrograph. How has the traditional American residential landscape been laid out? How does this differ from conservation subdivision concept that has gained popularity in recent years? o traditionally a plot of land would be equally divided for houses, and now sub-division separates areas of preservation from areas for housing that are more dense LowImpact Development lowimpact development: LID: o Goal is to use techniques that infiltrate, store and evaporate detain stormwater to reduce runoff, recharge groundwater o Be environmentally sound and cost effective o Reduce storm water runoffs, reduce flooding, and recharge underground water o Ex: Rain garden/bioretention, bioswales, green roofs Techniques used to reduce the environmental impact of development: o rain gardens: A rain garden is a garden which takes advantage of rainfall and stormwater runoff in its design and plant selection. Usually, it is a small garden which is designed to withstand the extremes of moisture and concentrations of nutrients, particularly Nitrogen and Phosphorus, that are found in stormwater runoff. bioswales: Bioswales are landscape elements designed to remove silt and pollution from surface runoff water. They consist of a swaled drainage course with gently sloped sides (less than six percent) and filled with vegetation, compost and/or riprap. Understand conditions under which rain gardens must be designed with underdrains. o Underdrains are used to help move the water away from the rain garden faster, so any site that can’t hold as much water and receives a lot of runoff will want to have an underdrain. Graphics Functional diagram: is then used to locate the activity spaces on the site and from this diagram a conceptual plan is developed. Site analysis: dedicated to the study of the climatic, geographical, historical, legal, and infrastructural context of a specific site. It answers the “so what”. Plan view graphic: response to all site factors, clear perception of the needs and relationships in the site. (drawing in scale). Landscape Performance Ten One Planet Principles. Zero Carbon Zero Waste Sustainable Transport Sustainable Materials Local and Sustainable Food Sustainable Water Land Use and Wildlife Culture and Heritage Equity and Local Economy Health and Happiness Why it’s important for us as designers to quantify the benefits and impacts of our designs. Determine from design parameters Gather secondary data Value & functions of wetlands. Recreation Environmental education Visual quality Uniqueness/Heritage Habitat Water quality improvements Sustainable features of Portage Lakefront and Riverwalk as discussed in lecture. Portage Lakefront and Riverwalk protect and restores critical dune habitat while providing public access and recreation opportunities on Lake Michigan. By limiting construction to the footprint of previously existing roads and buildings, the design maximizes habitat restoration area and takes advantage of natural drainage patterns. All stormwater is infiltrated on site, native plants are showcased, and recycled materials are used to demonstrate a sustainable melding of recreation and ecological sensitivity. Professional Practice ASLA definition of landscape architecture: Landscape architecture encompasses the analysis, planning, design, management, and stewardship of the natural and built environments. Women in landscape Architecture movie Isabelle Greene ∙ Made the Valentine Garden ∙ Trained as both a botanist and artist ∙ Grandfather was an architect ∙ Known for her work in the dry southern California climate Pamela Palmer ∙ Made the Blue Oaks Hill Garden, the contemporary Courtyard, and the Horizon Garden ∙ Incorporates water in her work ∙ Believes it has calming and healing effect in landscapes Andrea Cochran ∙ Stone Edge Farm, Walden studios, The Curran House ∙ 2 main influences ∙ early modernist landscape architects Dan Kiley, Garrett Eckbo, and James Rose for their reinvention of space ∙ Minimalist Robert Irwin who reinterpreted our perception of space Mia Lehrer ∙ Vista Hermosa Park, working on the Los Angeles River Basin ∙ Urbanist, urban ecology ∙ Known for “guerilla planning” ∙ Also known for creating and blue skiing plans for parks and public spaces Katherine Spitz ∙ Architect, LA artist and landscape architect ∙ Likes projects that incorporate all 3 ∙ Chase garden Pico boulevard? ∙ Creating urban spaces that maintain connection to larger geography ∙ Concerns: pedestrian safety and convenience ∙ Uses plants as if paint on canvas Questions: Can a section cut have a different vertical and horizontal scale? Why or why not? o No. That would be really inconsistent and would almost certainly confuse anyone looking at the section cut. Also, sections are analytical orthogonal drawings; they are used to examine and explore interior spaces of objects, and thus need to be measured and depicted precisely to convey the necessary information about proportion. What is the formula to calculate slope? o Horizontal distance over vertical distance (x2x1/y2y1) What is slope ratio? o Slope ratio is the amount of horizontal distance compare to rise in 1 unit vertical distance What provokes the UMD alumni’s fondest memories on campus according to the Alumni poll? o The fountain o Mckeldin Mall← alley of trees on both side What is the number 1 killer of trees planted in the landscape? o Compacted soil, i.e. people walking over the roots Why is compacted soil bad for trees? o Compacted soil eliminates air pockets in the soil and suffocates the roots. o Tress have vital feeder roots in the top few cm of soil around the tree, and this is where the tree gets a majority of its oxygen from, once compacted the feeder roots can’t take in oxygen and it won’t be long before the tree dies. What are key principles of TOD? o TransitOriented Development (TOD) o Mixed area of commercial and residential o maximize public transportation and ridership o example: Arlington county Virginia What are green streets? o Green Streets are streets with vegetation that reduce runoffs and stormwater runoffs. What is a key component of storm water mitigation? o Having a local cleaning place (rain gardens etc) o on site absorption of first flush What are some of the contaminants typically contained in stormwater? o Nitrogen, phosphorus, metals, pathogens, trace organics, suspended soils, and biological oxygen demand What are examples of natural systems? o Sun, soil, wind, water, drainage, wildlife, vegetation, slope, climate, wildfire What are examples of built systems as related to land development? o Roads, walks, utilities, buildings, structures, plazas, earthwork How do cultural systems influence design? o Social interaction, group dynamics, government, and media can all influence design by defining how people perceive the world around them. Design should account for these practices to ensure that the correct meaning is conveyed and no taboos are committed. What are some of the impacts of urbanizations? o Farming and urbanization leads to the creation of edge habitats where organisms are eliminated or forced into fragments along and between fields and development. o Bio Simplification occurs by loss of biodiversity and the re- planting of monocultures. o Opportunistic species thrive such as bull thistle, sumac, ragweed, poison ivy or racoons, opossums, rabbits, coyotes, etc. Ecologically sound design principles include. o Design that minimizes environmentally destructive impacts by integrating itself with living processes What is first flush as related to stormwater runoff? o First flush is the storm water runoff at the beginning of a rainstorm What are some characteristics of a wetland? Presence of shallow water Presence of high organic soil that are distinct from upland soil Presence of vegetation species that are adapted to wet soils, surface water, and/or flooding What are some of the values of wetlands? Recreation Environmental education Visual quality Uniqueness/heritage Habitat Water quality improvements Do wetlands last forever? o no What is hydrophilic vegetation? o Aquatic plants are plants that have adapted to living in aquatic environments (saltwater or freshwater). What are the conditions common to emergent plants? o Shallow waters How is water most commonly conveyed in an urban watershed? o Storm drains that lead to rivers that lead into large bodies of water Why is preserving, mimicking, or recreating natural systems not sufficient for comprehensive stormwater management practices? natural systems are able to stand up to natural pressures. Humans create added strain on an environment so the natural system “as is” is no longer sufficient. Natural systems need to be enhanced to accommodate the added strain human development put on it What is ASHTO? o American Association of Highway and Transportation Officials: is a standards setting body which publishes specifications, test protocols and guidelines which are used in highway design and construction throughout the United States. What are functions of a bioswale? o Bioswales are linear, vegetated ditches which allow for the collection, conveyance, filtration, and infiltration of stormwater. It improves water quality, reduce runoff volume, and enhance landscape aesthetics. What region(s) are we located in? o Western edge of the coastal plain What are some of the landscape performance principles discussed in lecture? o zero carbon o zero waste o sustainable transport o sustainable materials o local and sustainable food o sustainable water o land use and wildlife o culture and heritage o equity and local economy o health and happiness Why is Landscape Architecture a licensed profession? o All 50 states require landscape architects to earn a license to practice, ensuring that the designs protect the health, safety, and welfare of all users. In fact, you can't even call yourself a landscape architect without a license. The job of the landscape architect first and foremost is to ensure the safety of people and the environment; they are enlisted not just to make spaces beautiful, but also to solve environmental problems. This type of work necessitates standardization, and standardization necessitates licensing. What are landscape architects legal responsibilities? SAFETY Safeguards health, safety, property, and the public’s welfare with the enhancement of both the natural and built environment. What is the LARE? o Landscape Architect Registration Examination o The L.A.R.E. is a fourpart fully computerized examination designed to determine whether applicants for landscape architectural licensure possess sufficient knowledge, skills and abilities to provide services without endangering the health, safety and welfare of the public. Are continuing education credits required for professional Landscape Architects in the state of Maryland? o Yes, 24 credits are required. Every 2 years What does “design build” refer to? A method to deliver a project in which the design and construction services are contracted by a single entity known as the design–builder or design–build contractor. What does public practice refer to? o Working for an organization of the public usually something owned by the state or government What are the key functions of Red Ribbon Park? o True “green” landscape architecture o provides seating, lighting o Environmental interpretation o orientation What are the key elements of a successful urban open space according to William Whyte? o Food, water, triangulation, and sunlight Urban tree planting pits should have these characteristics. o Place for roots to grow o filtering o watering o protection of compacting soil Horizontal curves in road geometry are comprised of these elements. o alignment o consists of straight sections of road, known as tangents, connected by circular horizontal curves What percent of Americans do not drive? o Nearly 1/3 o 21% of Americans over 65. o Children under 16. o Many low income Americans do not have access to automobiles. How can complete streets benefit communities? o Improve safety by reducing crashes, balance transportation systems, and encourage more walking and bicycling. Health Economic Capacity Change travel patterns What are the benefits of walkable communities? o Walkable communities = happier communities (Livable Communities) o Residents of walkable communities: are more likely to be socially engaged and trusting report being in good health and happy more often. What are the limitations of first flush remediation? o Not as effective for catchment areas greater than 100 acres. o Time of concentration can affect distribution of contaminants throughout the hydrograph o Highly permeable soils can filter contaminants before entering surface flows. o Complex basin shapes can affect distribution of contaminants throughout the hydrograph o Some contaminants exhibit first flush characteristics while others do not. What are ecosystem services? o Ecosystem services are the benefits provided by ecosystems that contribute to making human life both possible and worth living. o Such as the production of food and water; regulating, such as the control of climate and disease; supporting, such as nutrient cycles and crop pollination What are the benefits of plant ecologies? o Provide nutrients and oxygen to breath. What are the benefits of soil ecologies? o Cleans water and pollution, nitrogen fixation, decomposition What are the benefits of hydrology ecosystems? What are the key design functions of the Uptown Normal circle? o Provides a place for pedestrians to hangout and relax in an urban society “green space” o Provides on water stormwater management o Provides traffic circle What are some of the key ecosystem characteristics that result in a decline in biodiversity and biological productivity? o habitat destruction o habitat fragmentation What are some of the landscape performance benefits according to the LAF? (LAF: Landscape Architecture Foundation their mission is to support the preservation, improvement and enhancement of the environment. They invest in research and scholarships to achieve sustainability.） Economic(property value, Operation and maintenance savings, job creation and economic development) Social(Public health and safety, crime prevention, recreational and social value, educational value) Water(stormwater management, water conservation, water quality, flood protection) Carbon, Energy and Air quality(energy use and emission, air quality, urban heat island, carbon storage and sequestration) Habitat(habitat preservation, restoration/creation) Soils(Preservation) Site(transportation, land efficiency/preservation) Materials and waste(reused/recycled materials, local materials) What are the professional societies common to the landscape architecture profession? o Bachelor of Landscape Architecture (BLA) and a Bachelor of Science in Landscape Architecture (BSLA) o The firstprofessional Master of Landscape Architecture (MLA)(3 years) o The secondprofessional Master of Landscape Architecture (MLA) (2 years) o The MA/MS in Landscape Architecture is for persons who want to conduct research in landscape architecture, but do not seek to be registered professional practitioners. o Required in all 50 US states and the Canadian Provinces (from lecture slides) o Education from an accredited landscape architecture degree program o Apprenticeship (usually 2 years) o Formal examination What are the requirements common to landscape architecture license in the entire country? Since they design the backbone of places where people live, they have to make sure they are prioritizing safety among all else -- they have to do so without endangering the health, safety and welfare of the public. What is the difference between site inventory and site analysis? o Site analysis answers the question “so what?” o (Site inventory what you see; site analysis how to improve) What is the ASLA’s definition of landscape architecture? o Landscape architecture encompasses the analysis, planning, design, management, and stewardship of the natural and built environments. (From PowerPoint) o Landscape architects are recognized as leaders in green infrastructure, active transportation, and sustainability. *Stewardship is an ethic that embodies the responsible planning and management of resources. The concepts of stewardship can be applied to the environment and nature, economics, health, property, information, theology, etc. According to Roger Ulrich what three things do workers experience that have views of nature from their workstations compared to employees with views to built environments? o Less stress, better health status, and higher job satisfaction What are three categories of landscape assessment related to design solution observations? o natural system, built system, and cultural system How did the agricultural revolution change human culture? o It created a sense of community. First time hunters and gatherers could settle in one place and have all the food they needed. It also created specialization of jobs in those small villages, leading to art and learning and many more things. Taking plants that they had gathered and being able to store them, also being able to stay in one place and grow things. What is the IPCC definition of adaptation? o Any change in the structure or functioning of an organism that makes it better suited to its environment o Adjustment in natural or human systems in response to actual or expected climatic stimuli or their effects, which moderates harm or exploits beneficial opportunities” IPCC Glossary Simonds and Starke definition of adaptation? o The two key things to our survival are: o Perception (being aware of all conditions and apply factors) o Deduction (deriving through reasons and use appropriate means of procedures) What are some of the benefits of natural landscape systems? o Supply, transport, treat, and store water o Modify the climate o Oxygenate and purify the air o Produce food o Treat or assimilate waste o Build land o Maintain beaches o Provide protection from hurricane How does Steiner define suitability analysis? o “The Process of determining the fitness, or the appropriateness, of a given tract of land for a specified use” (Steiner, 1991, p. 132) What is culture lost referring to in the Knox Towers project? o An area for students to socialize Specifically The area in the middle of the Knox boxes that used to be present is now gone, and replaced with a private area reserved for students who rent a place in the towers. Know the difference between schematic plan, site plan, and illustrative drawing. o Schematic plan draft sizes, spacial relationships, spatially explicit o Site plan measured drawing o Illustrative drawing o site analysis ideas, reference to physical, biological, and cultural attributes
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