Nutrition 2030 Module 2 Exam Study Guide
Nutrition 2030 Module 2 Exam Study Guide 86563 - NUTR 2030 - 001
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86563 - NUTR 2030 - 001
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This 10 page Study Guide was uploaded by Kaitlin Samuels on Wednesday February 3, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to 86563 - NUTR 2030 - 001 at Clemson University taught by Deborah Ann Hutcheon in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 152 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Principles of Human Nutrition in Nutrition and Food Sciences at Clemson University.
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Date Created: 02/03/16
Module 2 Exam Study Guide AMDR • Carbohydrates: 45-65% • Fat: 20-35% • Protein: 10-35% Calories • Carbohydrates (CHO): 4 kcal/gram • Protein: 4 kcal/gram • Fat: 9 kcal/gram • Alcohol: 7 kcal/gram • Water, Vitamins, & Minerals: 0 kcal/gram CHO: Building blocks of CHO is sugar (plant-based substance; comes from sugar cane or sugar bean) • Hydrate of carbon • Primarily found in plant based compounds • Main source of energy • Food: o Grains: ex. wheat, barley, rice, corn o Legumes (starchy beans): ex. Black beans, kidney beans, soy beans o Starchy Vegetables (made of long chains of glucose): corn, potatoes, green peas, pumpkin, butternut squash o Milk & Yogurt o Fruit: any fruit based food (fruit juice, canned fruit, frozen fruit, dried fruit, etc) • Two Types of CHO: o Simple CHO: monosaccharides &disaccharides; want to minimize intake o Complex CHO: oligosaccharides & polysaccharides; 3 or more sugar molecules; take a while for the body to absorb • Monosaccharides-simplest sugar o Glucose o Fructose: primary sugar found in fruit and honey o Galactose: predominant sugar in milk • Disaccharides o Maltose: 2 glucose molecules; found in grains, some beers, and malt flavor o Sucrose: glucose & fructose molecules; table sugar, brown sugar, powdered sugar o Lactose: glucose & galactose molecules; milk sugar • Oligosaccharides o Bonds aren’t well digested o Found in dried peas & beans; legumes o Made of 3-10 monosaccharide molecules o Raffinose & Stachyose (2 common oligosaccharides) • Polysaccharides o >10 sugar molecules (mostly glucose) o 3 Types of Polysaccharides: Starch: long chains of glucose found in plant products • Good sources: legumes, unripe fruit (also ripe fruit, but unripe has more), grains, starchy vegetables Fiber: can get from exoskeleton of some sea creatures (ex. Lobster, crab shell, etc.); predominantly comes from plant products • AI: 14 g/1000 kcal/day; Should intake at least 25 g of fiber (insoluble/soluble) each day o Men: 38 g (19-50 years old); 31 g (>50) o Women: 25 g (19-50 years old); 21 g (>50) Gylcogen: long chains of glucose found in animal/human tissue • Found in muscle & liver tissue: body stores enough glucose here for 24 hours • Glucose, stored as glycogen in the liver, helps regulate blood sugar level • Muscle: glycogen breaks down into glucose to give energy to muscle tissue • Fiber Classification 1. Soluble Fiber o Absorbs liquid & forms a jelly-like substance o Found in internal flesh of fruit (ex. Berries, apple); also found in the internal parts of legumes & grains o Slows down digestion-prevents peaks in blood sugar levels (delays gastric emptying) o Increases transit time; satiety-fullness; keeps you full for longer o Health benefits: can help with weight management, lower blood cholesterol levels, detoxing (GI tract), reduce risk of heart disease & diabetes o Liver: produces bile (made of cholesterol); stored in the gallbladder When we eat fat, bile enters the small intestine-helps us digest fat Soluble fiber can absorb some of the cholesterol from the bile; causes it to be secreted by the body 2. Insoluble Fiber o Brissle-like; found in the skin/outer part of fruit, grains, legumes o Slows transit time; increases fecal bulk o Cleans out the GI (gastrointestinal) tract-detoxifies o Health benefits: help with weight management, reduce risk of cancer • Whole Grains (Complex Grains) o Whole means it contains 3 parts: Endosperm:starchy inner portionof a cereal grain; contains starch-glucose Germ: vitamin rich embryo or seed of the grain; contains B vitamins help body take macronutrients & change them into energy; vitamin E (cell structure), healthy fat; nutrient rich Bran: insoluble outer shell of the grain kernel, contains fiber-especially insoluble fiber, some vitamin B o Examples: brown rice, buckwheat, bulgar (cracked wheat), oatmeal, quinoa • Enriched Grains o Nutrients added to enriched grains: folic acid, riboflavin, iron, thiamin, & niacin o Only contains the endosperm • Refined Grains o Lacks germ & bran; only contains endosperm o Refining also the CHO in the endosperm to be digested more easily; results in a faster increase of blood glucose & an increased demand for insulin • Nutritive Sweetener • “Artificial” Nonnutritive Sweeteners o Sugar: saccharide containing substance from nature, provides the body w/ calories o Sweetener DOES NOT EQUAL sugar o Chemical structure isn’t naturally occurring-artificial o Artificial sweeteners approved in the US: Saccharin: Sweet N Low Aspartame: Equal Acesulfane-K: find it in some processed food Sucralose: Splenda; derived from sugar (replaced–OH with Cl) Neotame: find in some commercial food • “Natural” Nonnutritive o Stevia: South African plant; sold as Stevia in the Raw, PureVia, Truvia o Monk Fruit Extract: found in a South Asian plant; sold as Monk Fruit in the Raw, Nectresse • Sugar Alcohols o CHO with a chemical structure similar to sugar & alcohol but isn’t a sugar or alcohol o Not well digested-can lead to diarrhea o Examples: Isomalt, sorbitol, xylitol, mannitol • Gluten o Protein found in wheat, barley, rye, & oats o Glutenin + gliadin=gluten o It’s what gives bread its structure o Celiac disease: genetic autoimmune disorder-body rejects gluten; having gluten will destroy the GI tract Prevents good nutrient digestion & absorption o IBS/IBD (Irritable bowel syndrome/disorder): sometimes the body becomes sensitive gluten o Gluten-free doesn’t necessarily mean healthier Lower in total CHO, iron, fiber, & B vitamins Higher in total calories, sugar, & sodium • Lactose Intolerance vs Milk Allergy o 2 Proteins in milk: Whey & Casen o Milk allergy: allergic response to anything with milk in it or milk proteins o Lactose Intolerance: produces low amount of lactase to break down lactose into a molecule of galactose & amolecule of glucose Occurs in gastrointestinal system Advised to consume products with < 5 g of lactose Lactate milk: lactase enzyme added to so someone with lactose intolerance can drink without side effects • Naturally Occurring vs Added Sugar o Intrinsic=naturally occurring Foods with naturally occurring sugar tend to be nutrient dense Ex. Fructose & lactose found in fruits & dairy products o Extrinsic= added Found in candy bars, granola, sodas Common forms: granulated sugar, turbinado sugar, brown sugar, honey Provides high amounts of kilocalories-empty calories (provide little nutrition) Energy dense • High Fructose Corn Syrup o Created by adding an enzyme to release more fructose o More liquid form-readily dissolved o Chemical composition-wise (it’s made of glucose & fructose) it’s equivalent to table sugar (sucrose) Lipids • Main Functions in the Body o Absorb, transport, & store fat soluble vitamins o Concentrated source of energy (9 kcal/gram) o Temperature regulation/insulation o Cushioning for internal structures & organs o Component of cellular structures o Precursor for hormones o Provides taste to food & helps you feel full • Classes of Lipids 1. Fatty acids o Building blocks for a fat molecule o Hydrocarbon chain w/ carboxylic acid group o Length: Short chain: 4-6 carbons Medium chain: 8-10 carbons Long chain: 12-24 carbons o Saturated (single bonds): solid at room temperature o Unsaturated ( at least 1 double bond): liquid at room temperature; monounsaturated & polyunsaturated 2. Triacylglycerols (Triglyceride; i.e fat molecule) o Glycerol with 3 fatty acids 3. Sterols & Steroids o 4 ring core structure o Functions: Component of cell membranes Precursor of other steroids: bile acids, sex hormones, adrenocortical hormones, vitamin D (cholecalciferol) o Forms: Plant sterols: plant tissue Cholesterol: predominant sterol; only from animal products/tissue Used to produce steroids, hormones, bile Vital for all structure Produced from saturated fat 4. Phosolipids o Glycerol with 2 fatty acids & a phosphate group o Allows fat & water to coexist-emulsification; cell membrane structure • Lipoproteins o Cholesterol DOES NOT EQUAL high density lipoprotein (HDL) & low density lipoprotein (LDL) o Cholesterol is a lipid substance transported by HDL & LDL o HDL: goes out to cells/arteries to take excess cholesterol, brings it back to the liver so it can be excreted by the body through bile Referred to as “good cholesterol” o LDL: takes cholesterol from our diet/liver & takes it to cells to help make bile Too much LDL-too much cholesterol-becomes unhealthy; “bad cholesterol” Unloads the extra LDL into blood stream-leads to clogged arteries & plaque formation • “Bad Facts”-promotes heart disease o Saturated fat o Trans fat • “Good Fats”-protects from heart disease o Monounsaturated fat o Polyunsaturated fat • Saturated Fatty Acids (SFA) o Solid at room temperature o Sources Primarily found in animal products: red meat, dairy, eggs, butter, lard Vegetables: cocoa butter, palm oil, coconut oil o Positive association with heart disease o Recommended Consumption o American Heart Association: < 6% kcal o Dietary Guideline: < 10% kcal • Trans Fat: should limit & avoid consumption o Partially hydrogenated* vegetable oils Hydrogenation: adding hydrogen to an unsaturated fatty acid-some of the double bonds are converted to single bonds; makes the fatty acid more saturated & solidat room temperature o Naturally & synthetically produced o Lowers HDL cholesterol o Raises total & LDL cholesterol o Induces system inflammation & vascular dysfunction • Monounsaturated Fatty Acids (MUFA) o Ex. Canola oil, olive oil, peanut oil, nuts, olives, avocado o Improves cholesterol (lowers total & LDL cholesterol; lowers triglycerides)-can lower the risk of heart disease o Anti-flammatory effects as part of the Mediterranean diet • Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids (PUFA) o Omega-3 Family: from alpha-linolenic acid Sources:vegetable oils (ex. Soybean, canola), fatty fish & oils*, nuts (walnuts), sees (flaxseed, chia seed) *Methyl-Mercury contamination o Omega-6 Family: from cis-linoleic acid Sources: vegetable oils (sunflower, corn, safflower) • Essential Fatty Acids o 2 polyunsaturated fats that the body can’t make; must be eaten in foods: Linoleic acid: omega-6 fatty acid • 18 carbons with 2 double bonds-first located on the 6 carbon from the omega end Alpha-linolenic acid: omega-6 fatty acid • 18 carbons with 3 double bonds-first located on the 3 carbon form the omega end • Omega-3 Family (n-3) o 4 Major Dietary n-3 Fatty acids Alpha(α)-linolenic acid (ALA): body can’t produce; only found in plant foods • Sources: walnut, soy products, flaxseed, NOT FROM FISH OR ALGAE Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA): only found in fish & algae • Sources: tuna, sardines, mackerel Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) : only found in fish & algae • Sources: tuna, sardines, mackerel Docosapenteonoic Acid • Omegea-6 Family (n-6) o Forms: Cis-Linoleic Acid (LA) Gamma-Linolenic Acid (GLA) Arachidonic Acid (AA) Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) • Glycerol: the 3-carbon backbone of triglyceride Proteins • Structure o 20 amino acids (building blocks of proteins) o Consists of CHON (carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, & nitrogen) • Function o Building material: muscle, bone, skin, cartilage, blood-all body cells (structure) Enzymes & hormones Immunity (anitbodies) o Regulates fluid & acid-base balance o Help store & transport nutrients o Improves satiety & appetite control • Classification of Amino Acids o Essential (indispensable): 9; body doesn’t produce it on its own, but needs it-get it from food o Nonessential (dispensable): 11, body can produce it from essential amino acids • Effects of Too Little Protein o Protein Energy Malnutrition (PEM) o Marasmus: “skin & bones” Signs: severe somatic muscle & fat wasting; preservation of visceral protein (organs) Chronic PEM…severe deprivation or impaired use o Kwashiorkor: “bloated” Signs: edema, visible nutrient intake deficiencies; preservation of somatic protein but wasting of visceral protein Acute PEM…inadequate intake o Sarcopenia: muscle loss with aging Aging promotes decrease LBM & increase in lipogenesis • Effects of Too Much Protein o Increased risk of heart disease & cancer; high protein foods are also high in kcals & “bad” fat o Increased risk of increased body weight…high protein foods are high in kcals o Increased risk of kidney disease-puts more stress on the kidney • Food Sources of Protein o Complete Protein (high quality protein): meat, poultry, fish, dairy, eggs, soybean(soy products) & quinoa* *Soybean & quinoa are the exception to the rule that plant based foods are incomplete proteins o Incomplete Protein: grains, legumes, nuts, seeds, gelatin Doesn’t have all essential proteins or has all, but not enough • Protein Supplement: Creatine o Made in the kidney & liver from arginine & glycine o Storage: muscle (95%) & kidney/brain (5%) o Metabolic function: storehouse for high energy phosphate for ATP regeneration in rapidly-contracting muscle o Creatine kinase: enzyme, diagnose muscle damage o Provides endurance, not bulk o Buffers lactic acid production to reduce soreness o Side effects: weight gain (water retention) o May cause stroke when combine with caffeine & ephedra • Mutual Supplementation (Protein Complementation) o Grains, nuts, seeds=limited lysine (high in methionine) o Legumes (peanuts)=limited in methionine (high in lysine) o Ex. Grain & Legume combo: peanut butter sandwich, hummus & pita bread, black bean burger, lentil soup & bread o Ex. Nut/Seed & Legume combo: trail mix, pad thai • Vegetarian diets o Vegetarian: avoids animal products o Vegan Eats: grains, vegetables, fruits, legumes, nuts, seeds Avoids: any animal product (poultry, meat, fish, eggs o Lacto-vegetarian Eats: grains, vegetables, fruits, legumes, seeds, nuts, dairy foods Avoids: meat, fish, poultry, eggs o Lacto-ovo-vegtarian Eats: grains, vegetables, fruits, legumes, seeds, nuts, dairy foods, eggs Avoids: meat, fish, poultry o Pescetarian : plant-based diet o Health risks: Under consuming certain nutrients, such as proteins, or certain vitamins & minerals Alcohol • Ethyl Alcohol (ethanol) o Production of fermentation: CHO + Yeast= Alcohol o NOT a CHO or lipid o 7 kcal/g (empty kcals) o Classified as: Drug: modifies body function Narcotic: dulls senses & is addictive Carcinogen: substance known to cause cancer o Toxic for cells=cell death Acute: systematic toxin Chronic: liver toxin • Standard Drink o 0.6 fl oz or 14 g alcohol • Alcohol Dehydrogenase (ADH) o Main alcohol metabolizing enzyme o Secreted by gastric cells o Men produce more than women • Microsomal Ethanol Oxidizing System (MEOS) o Produces acetaldehyde* (toxic to the brain) *one of the first compounds produced in the metabolism of ethanol; eventually converted into water & carbon dioxide and excreted from the body o Associated with the smooth ER(endoplasmic rectum) nd o 2 metabolic pathway for oxidizing ethanol; used at high intakes of alcohol o Also involved in drug metabolism o The more alcohol you drink, the active MEOS becomes which can lead to alcohol tolerance* *body adjusts to long-term alcohol use & becomes less sensitive to it so more alcohol is required to get the same euphoric effect • Blood Alcohol Concentration (BAC) o Amount of alcohol in the blood o Measured in grams of alcohol per deciliter, usually expressed as a percent o As BAC increases so does mental impairment & intoxification • Proof o Measure of the amount of ethanol in an alcoholic beverage • Moderate Drinking o Guidelines made by Dietary Guidelines for Americans o Up to 1 drink per day for women o Up to 2 drinks per day for men Digestion & Metabolism • Digestion o End products: Proteins: amino acids CHO: monosaccharides Lipids: fatty acids & glycerol • GI Tract o Upper Digestion beginsin the mouth Amalase (CHO) Lipase (fats Esophagus: transports food from mouth to stomach Stomach: point where a lot of digestion starts to occur; especially proteins o Lower Small intestine: convoluted surface area= villa & microvilla Main site of nutrient absorption Large intestine: end place where water, electrolytes, and certain vitamins & minerals are absorbed • Accessory Organs o Liver: produces bile that is stored in the gallbladder; largest organ in the body o Pancreas: produces enzymes to digest macronutrients in the small intestine • Anabolism o Building things up • Catabolism o Breaking things down • Regulatory Hormones o Insulin: produced by the β-cells of the pancreas Released after eating CHO, protein, fat Storage hormone-pulls nutrients out of the bloodstream & puts it in cells Anabolic hormone-building hormone o Glucagon: produced by α-cells of the pancreas Catabolic hormone If low blood sugar level, glucagon breaks down the glycogen in the liver into glucose • Key Pathways o All proteins, carbs, & fat will go through the TCA cycle; location=mitochondria o CHO metabolism: Gylcolysis Location=cytoplasm Either produces energy or stored as glycogen o Glycogenesis: making glycogen Location: liver, skeletal muscle & adipose Hormone: insulin Glucoseto glycogen o Glycogenolysis: breaking down glycogen Location: liver, skeletal muscle & adipose Hormone: glucagon & epinephrine o Gluconeogenesis: protective method-body doesn’t really want to use Making new glucose from non-CHO source (lactate, pyruvate, glycerol, certain amino acids) Use when blood sugar is low & glycogen is used up o Lipogenesis: process that converts excess glucose into fat for storage o Lipolysis: process of fat being broken down o Proteogenesis: building protein o Proteolysis: protein being broken down o Deamination: removal of the amine group of an aminoacid o Transamination: transfer of an amine group from an amino acid to a keto acid to form a new nonessential amino acid o Urea: nitrogen containing waste product o Released in the blood o Filtered by kidneys o Excreted in urine
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