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What is oligosaccharide?

What is oligosaccharide?


School: Clemson University
Department: Nutrition and Food Sciences
Course: Introduction to Principles of Human Nutrition
Professor: Deborah hutcheon
Term: Fall 2015
Tags: Nutrition 2030 and nutrition
Cost: 50
Name: Nutrition 2030 Module 2 Exam Study Guide
Description: I tried to include all the information she expects us to know based off the study guide she posted. Hope this helps!
Uploaded: 02/03/2016
10 Pages 26 Views 7 Unlocks

Rowland Powlowski (Rating: )

Almost no time left on the clock and my grade on the line. Where else would I go? Kaitlin has the best notes period!

Module 2 Exam Study Guide

What is oligosaccharides?


• Carbohydrates: 45-65%

• Fat: 20-35%

• Protein: 10-35%


• Carbohydrates (CHO): 4 kcal/gram

• Protein: 4 kcal/gram

• Fat: 9 kcal/gram

• Alcohol: 7 kcal/gram

• Water, Vitamins, & Minerals: 0 kcal/gram

CHO: Building blocks of CHO is sugar (plant-based substance; comes from sugar cane or sugar bean)

• Hydrate of carbon

• Primarily found in plant based compounds

• Main source of energy

• Food:

o Grains: ex. wheat, barley, rice, corn

What are the effects of too much protein ?

o Legumes (starchy beans): ex. Black beans, kidney beans, soy beans

o Starchy Vegetables (made of long chains of glucose): corn, potatoes, green peas,  pumpkin, butternut squash

o Milk & Yogurt

o Fruit: any fruit based food (fruit juice, canned fruit, frozen fruit, dried fruit, etc) • Two Types of CHO:

o Simple CHO: monosaccharides & disaccharides; want to minimize intake

o Complex CHO: oligosaccharides & polysaccharides; 3 or more sugar molecules; take a  while for the body to absorb

• Monosaccharides-simplest sugar

o Glucose

o Fructose: primary sugar found in fruit and honey

What is the classification of amino acids?

If you want to learn more check out Statutory law, means what?

o Galactose: predominant sugar in milk

• Disaccharides

o Maltose: 2 glucose molecules; found in grains, some beers, and malt flavor o Sucrose: glucose & fructose molecules; table sugar, brown sugar, powdered sugar o Lactose: glucose & galactose molecules; milk sugar

• Oligosaccharides

o Bonds aren’t well digested

o Found in dried peas & beans; legumes

o Made of 3-10 monosaccharide molecules

o Raffinose & Stachyose (2 common oligosaccharides)

• Polysaccharides

o >10 sugar molecules (mostly glucose)

o 3 Types of Polysaccharides:

▪ Starch: long chains of glucose found in plant products Don't forget about the age old question of Who is alfred binet?
If you want to learn more check out Why is our imagination incapable of grasping these qualities of the wax?

• Good sources: legumes, unripe fruit (also ripe fruit, but unripe has  

more), grains, starchy vegetables

▪ Fiber: can get from exoskeleton of some sea creatures (ex. Lobster, crab shell,  etc.); predominantly comes from plant products

• AI: 14 g/1000 kcal/day; Should intake at least 25 g of fiber  

(insoluble/soluble) each day

o Men: 38 g (19-50 years old); 31 g (>50)

o Women: 25 g (19-50 years old); 21 g (>50)

▪ Gylcogen: long chains of glucose found in animal/human tissue

• Found in muscle & liver tissue: body stores enough glucose here for 24  


• Glucose, stored as glycogen in the liver, helps regulate blood sugar level • Muscle: glycogen breaks down into glucose to give energy to muscle  If you want to learn more check out Why is it so hot in summer?


• Fiber Classification

1. Soluble Fiber

o Absorbs liquid & forms a jelly-like substance

o Found in internal flesh of fruit (ex. Berries, apple); also found in the internal parts of  legumes & grains

o Slows down digestion-prevents peaks in blood sugar levels (delays gastric emptying) o Increases transit time; satiety-fullness; keeps you full for longer

o Health benefits: can help with weight management, lower blood cholesterol levels,  detoxing (GI tract), reduce risk of heart disease & diabetes

o Liver: produces bile (made of cholesterol); stored in the gallbladder If you want to learn more check out What is a successful advertisement?

▪ When we eat fat, bile enters the small intestine-helps us digest fat

▪ Soluble fiber can absorb some of the cholesterol from the bile; causes it to  be secreted by the body

2. Insoluble Fiber

o Brissle-like; found in the skin/outer part of fruit, grains, legumes

o Slows transit time; increases fecal bulk

o Cleans out the GI (gastrointestinal) tract-detoxifies

o Health benefits: help with weight management, reduce risk of cancer

• Whole Grains (Complex Grains)

o Whole means it contains 3 parts:

▪ Endosperm: starchy inner portion of a cereal grain; contains starch-glucose ▪ Germ: vitamin rich embryo or seed of the grain; contains B vitamins help body  take macronutrients & change them into energy; vitamin E (cell structure),  

healthy fat; nutrient rich

▪ Bran: insoluble outer shell of the grain kernel, contains fiber-especially insoluble  fiber, some vitamin B

o Examples: brown rice, buckwheat, bulgar (cracked wheat), oatmeal, quinoaIf you want to learn more check out What are the 7 steps of the scientific method?

• Enriched Grains

o Nutrients added to enriched grains: folic acid, riboflavin, iron, thiamin, & niacin o Only contains the endosperm

• Refined Grains

o Lacks germ & bran; only contains endosperm

o Refining also the CHO in the endosperm to be digested more easily; results in a faster  increase of blood glucose & an increased demand for insulin

• Nutritive Sweetener

• “Artificial” Nonnutritive Sweeteners

o Sugar: saccharide containing substance from nature, provides the body w/ calories o Sweetener DOES NOT EQUAL sugar

o Chemical structure isn’t naturally occurring-artificial

o Artificial sweeteners approved in the US:

▪ Saccharin: Sweet N Low

▪ Aspartame: Equal

▪ Acesulfane-K: find it in some processed food

▪ Sucralose: Splenda; derived from sugar (replaced –OH with Cl)

▪ Neotame: find in some commercial food

• “Natural” Nonnutritive  

o Stevia: South African plant; sold as Stevia in the Raw, PureVia, Truvia

o Monk Fruit Extract: found in a South Asian plant; sold as Monk Fruit in the Raw,  Nectresse

• Sugar Alcohols

o CHO with a chemical structure similar to sugar & alcohol but isn’t a sugar or alcohol o Not well digested-can lead to diarrhea

o Examples: Isomalt, sorbitol, xylitol, mannitol

• Gluten

o Protein found in wheat, barley, rye, & oats

o Glutenin + gliadin=gluten

o It’s what gives bread its structure

o Celiac disease: genetic autoimmune disorder-body rejects gluten; having gluten will  destroy the GI tract

▪ Prevents good nutrient digestion & absorption

o IBS/IBD (Irritable bowel syndrome/disorder): sometimes the body becomes sensitive  gluten

o Gluten-free doesn’t necessarily mean healthier

▪ Lower in total CHO, iron, fiber, & B vitamins

▪ Higher in total calories, sugar, & sodium

• Lactose Intolerance vs Milk Allergy

o 2 Proteins in milk: Whey & Casen

o Milk allergy: allergic response to anything with milk in it or milk proteins o Lactose Intolerance: produces low amount of lactase to break down lactose into a  molecule of galactose & a molecule of glucose

▪ Occurs in gastrointestinal system

▪ Advised to consume products with < 5 g of lactose

▪ Lactate milk: lactase enzyme added to so someone with lactose intolerance can  drink without side effects

• Naturally Occurring vs Added Sugar

o Intrinsic=naturally occurring

▪ Foods with naturally occurring sugar tend to be nutrient dense

▪ Ex. Fructose & lactose found in fruits & dairy products

o Extrinsic= added

▪ Found in candy bars, granola, sodas

▪ Common forms: granulated sugar, turbinado sugar, brown sugar, honey

▪ Provides high amounts of kilocalories-empty calories (provide little nutrition) ▪ Energy dense

• High Fructose Corn Syrup

o Created by adding an enzyme to release more fructose

o More liquid form-readily dissolved

o Chemical composition-wise (it’s made of glucose & fructose) it’s equivalent to table  sugar (sucrose)


• Main Functions in the Body

o Absorb, transport, & store fat soluble vitamins

o Concentrated source of energy (9 kcal/gram)

o Temperature regulation/insulation

o Cushioning for internal structures & organs

o Component of cellular structures

o Precursor for hormones

o Provides taste to food & helps you feel full

• Classes of Lipids

1. Fatty acids

o Building blocks for a fat molecule

o Hydrocarbon chain w/ carboxylic acid group

o Length:  

▪ Short chain: 4-6 carbons

▪ Medium chain: 8-10 carbons

▪ Long chain: 12-24 carbons

o Saturated (single bonds): solid at room temperature

o Unsaturated ( at least 1 double bond): liquid at room temperature;  

monounsaturated & polyunsaturated

2. Triacylglycerols (Triglyceride; i.e fat molecule)

o Glycerol with 3 fatty acids

3. Sterols & Steroids

o 4 ring core structure

o Functions:

▪ Component of cell membranes

▪ Precursor of other steroids: bile acids, sex hormones, adrenocortical  

hormones, vitamin D (cholecalciferol)

o Forms:

▪ Plant sterols: plant tissue

▪ Cholesterol: predominant sterol; only from animal products/tissue

❖ Used to produce steroids, hormones, bile

❖ Vital for all structure

❖ Produced from saturated fat

4. Phosolipids

o Glycerol with 2 fatty acids & a phosphate group

o Allows fat & water to coexist-emulsification; cell membrane structure

• Lipoproteins

o Cholesterol DOES NOT EQUAL high density lipoprotein (HDL) & low density lipoprotein  (LDL)

o Cholesterol is a lipid substance transported by HDL & LDL

o HDL: goes out to cells/arteries to take excess cholesterol, brings it back to the liver so it  can be excreted by the body through bile

▪ Referred to as “good cholesterol”

o LDL: takes cholesterol from our diet/liver & takes it to cells to help make bile ▪ Too much LDL-too much cholesterol-becomes unhealthy; “bad cholesterol” ▪ Unloads the extra LDL into blood stream-leads to clogged arteries & plaque  formation

• “Bad Facts”-promotes heart disease

o Saturated fat

o Trans fat

• “Good Fats”-protects from heart disease

o Monounsaturated fat

o Polyunsaturated fat

• Saturated Fatty Acids (SFA)

o Solid at room temperature

o Sources

▪ Primarily found in animal products: red meat, dairy, eggs, butter, lard

▪ Vegetables: cocoa butter, palm oil, coconut oil

o Positive association with heart disease

o Recommended Consumption

o American Heart Association: < 6% kcal

o Dietary Guideline: < 10% kcal

• Trans Fat: should limit & avoid consumption

o Partially hydrogenated* vegetable oils

▪ Hydrogenation: adding hydrogen to an unsaturated fatty acid-some of the  double bonds are converted to single bonds; makes the fatty acid more  

saturated & solid at room temperature

o Naturally & synthetically produced

o Lowers HDL cholesterol

o Raises total & LDL cholesterol

o Induces system inflammation & vascular dysfunction

• Monounsaturated Fatty Acids (MUFA)

o Ex. Canola oil, olive oil, peanut oil, nuts, olives, avocado

o Improves cholesterol (lowers total & LDL cholesterol; lowers triglycerides)-can lower the  risk of heart disease

o Anti-flammatory effects as part of the Mediterranean diet

• Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids (PUFA)

o Omega-3 Family: from alpha-linolenic acid

▪ Sources: vegetable oils (ex. Soybean, canola), fatty fish & oils*, nuts (walnuts),  sees (flaxseed, chia seed)

▪ *Methyl-Mercury contamination

o Omega-6 Family: from cis-linoleic acid

▪ Sources: vegetable oils (sunflower, corn, safflower)

• Essential Fatty Acids

o 2 polyunsaturated fats that the body can’t make; must be eaten in foods:

▪ Linoleic acid: omega-6 fatty acid

• 18 carbons with 2 double bonds-first located on the 6th carbon from the  

omega end

▪ Alpha-linolenic acid: omega-6 fatty acid

• 18 carbons with 3 double bonds-first located on the 3rd carbon form the  

omega end

• Omega-3 Family (n-3)

o 4 Major Dietary n-3 Fatty acids

▪ Alpha(α)-linolenic acid (ALA): body can’t produce; only found in plant foods • Sources: walnut, soy products, flaxseed, NOT FROM FISH OR ALGAE

▪ Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA): only found in fish & algae

• Sources: tuna, sardines, mackerel  

▪ Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) : only found in fish & algae

• Sources: tuna, sardines, mackerel

▪ Docosapenteonoic Acid

• Omegea-6 Family (n-6)

o Forms:

▪ Cis-Linoleic Acid (LA)

▪ Gamma-Linolenic Acid (GLA)

▪ Arachidonic Acid (AA)

▪ Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA)

• Glycerol: the 3-carbon backbone of triglyceride


• Structure

o 20 amino acids (building blocks of proteins)

o Consists of CHON (carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, & nitrogen)

• Function

o Building material: muscle, bone, skin, cartilage, blood-all body cells (structure) ▪ Enzymes & hormones

▪ Immunity (anitbodies)

o Regulates fluid & acid-base balance

o Help store & transport nutrients

o Improves satiety & appetite control

• Classification of Amino Acids

o Essential (indispensable): 9; body doesn’t produce it on its own, but needs it-get it from  food

o Nonessential (dispensable): 11, body can produce it from essential amino acids • Effects of Too Little Protein

o Protein Energy Malnutrition (PEM)

o Marasmus: “skin & bones”

▪ Signs: severe somatic muscle & fat wasting; preservation of visceral protein  (organs)

▪ Chronic PEM…severe deprivation or impaired use

o Kwashiorkor: “bloated”

▪ Signs: edema, visible nutrient intake deficiencies; preservation of somatic  protein but wasting of visceral protein

▪ Acute PEM…inadequate intake

o Sarcopenia: muscle loss with aging

▪ Aging promotes decrease LBM & increase in lipogenesis

• Effects of Too Much Protein

o Increased risk of heart disease & cancer; high protein foods are also high in kcals &  “bad” fat

o Increased risk of increased body weight…high protein foods are high in kcals o Increased risk of kidney disease-puts more stress on the kidney

• Food Sources of Protein

o Complete Protein (high quality protein): meat, poultry, fish, dairy, eggs, soybean(soy  products) & quinoa*

▪ *Soybean & quinoa are the exception to the rule that plant based foods are  incomplete proteins

o Incomplete Protein: grains, legumes, nuts, seeds, gelatin

▪ Doesn’t have all essential proteins or has all, but not enough

• Protein Supplement: Creatine

o Made in the kidney & liver from arginine & glycine

o Storage: muscle (95%) & kidney/brain (5%)

o Metabolic function: storehouse for high energy phosphate for ATP regeneration in  rapidly-contracting muscle

o Creatine kinase: enzyme, diagnose muscle damage

o Provides endurance, not bulk

o Buffers lactic acid production to reduce soreness

o Side effects: weight gain (water retention)

o May cause stroke when combine with caffeine & ephedra

• Mutual Supplementation (Protein Complementation)

o Grains, nuts, seeds=limited lysine (high in methionine)

o Legumes (peanuts)=limited in methionine (high in lysine)

o Ex. Grain & Legume combo: peanut butter sandwich, hummus & pita bread, black bean  burger, lentil soup & bread

o Ex. Nut/Seed & Legume combo: trail mix, pad thai

• Vegetarian diets

o Vegetarian: avoids animal products

o Vegan

▪ Eats: grains, vegetables, fruits, legumes, nuts, seeds

▪ Avoids: any animal product (poultry, meat, fish, eggs

o Lacto-vegetarian

▪ Eats: grains, vegetables, fruits, legumes, seeds, nuts, dairy foods

▪ Avoids: meat, fish, poultry, eggs

o Lacto-ovo-vegtarian

▪ Eats: grains, vegetables, fruits, legumes, seeds, nuts, dairy foods, eggs

▪ Avoids: meat, fish, poultry

o Pescetarian : plant-based diet

o Health risks:

▪ Under consuming certain nutrients, such as proteins, or certain vitamins &  minerals


• Ethyl Alcohol (ethanol)

o Production of fermentation: CHO + Yeast= Alcohol

o NOT a CHO or lipid

o 7 kcal/g (empty kcals)

o Classified as:

▪ Drug: modifies body function

▪ Narcotic: dulls senses & is addictive

▪ Carcinogen: substance known to cause cancer

o Toxic for cells=cell death

▪ Acute: systematic toxin

▪ Chronic: liver toxin

• Standard Drink

o 0.6 fl oz or 14 g alcohol

• Alcohol Dehydrogenase (ADH)

o Main alcohol metabolizing enzyme

o Secreted by gastric cells

o Men produce more than women

• Microsomal Ethanol Oxidizing System (MEOS)

o Produces acetaldehyde* (toxic to the brain)

▪ *one of the first compounds produced in the metabolism of ethanol; eventually  converted into water & carbon dioxide and excreted from the body

o Associated with the smooth ER(endoplasmic rectum)

o 2nd metabolic pathway for oxidizing ethanol; used at high intakes of alcohol o Also involved in drug metabolism

o The more alcohol you drink, the active MEOS becomes which can lead to alcohol  tolerance*

▪ *body adjusts to long-term alcohol use & becomes less sensitive to it so more  alcohol is required to get the same euphoric effect

• Blood Alcohol Concentration (BAC)

o Amount of alcohol in the blood

o Measured in grams of alcohol per deciliter, usually expressed as a percent o As BAC increases so does mental impairment & intoxification

• Proof

o Measure of the amount of ethanol in an alcoholic beverage

• Moderate Drinking

o Guidelines made by Dietary Guidelines for Americans

o Up to 1 drink per day for women

o Up to 2 drinks per day for men

Digestion & Metabolism

• Digestion

o End products:  

▪ Proteins: amino acids

▪ CHO: monosaccharides

▪ Lipids: fatty acids & glycerol

• GI Tract

o Upper

▪ Digestion begins in the mouth

❖ Amalase (CHO)

❖ Lipase (fats

▪ Esophagus: transports food from mouth to stomach

▪ Stomach: point where a lot of digestion starts to occur; especially proteins o Lower

▪ Small intestine: convoluted surface area= villa & microvilla

❖ Main site of nutrient absorption

▪ Large intestine: end place where water, electrolytes, and certain vitamins &  minerals are absorbed

• Accessory Organs

o Liver: produces bile that is stored in the gallbladder; largest organ in the body o Pancreas: produces enzymes to digest macronutrients in the small intestine • Anabolism

o Building things up

• Catabolism  

o Breaking things down

• Regulatory Hormones

o Insulin: produced by the β-cells of the pancreas

▪ Released after eating CHO, protein, fat

▪ Storage hormone-pulls nutrients out of the bloodstream & puts it in cells ▪ Anabolic hormone-building hormone

o Glucagon: produced by α-cells of the pancreas

▪ Catabolic hormone

▪ If low blood sugar level, glucagon breaks down the glycogen in the liver into  glucose

• Key Pathways

o All proteins, carbs, & fat will go through the TCA cycle; location=mitochondria o CHO metabolism: Gylcolysis

▪ Location=cytoplasm

▪ Either produces energy or stored as glycogen

o Glycogenesis: making glycogen

▪ Location: liver, skeletal muscle & adipose

▪ Hormone: insulin

▪ Glucose to glycogen

o Glycogenolysis: breaking down glycogen

▪ Location: liver, skeletal muscle & adipose

▪ Hormone: glucagon & epinephrine

o Gluconeogenesis: protective method-body doesn’t really want to use

▪ Making new glucose from non-CHO source (lactate, pyruvate, glycerol, certain  amino acids)

▪ Use when blood sugar is low & glycogen is used up

o Lipogenesis: process that converts excess glucose into fat for storage

o Lipolysis: process of fat being broken down

o Proteogenesis: building protein

o Proteolysis: protein being broken down

o Deamination: removal of the amine group of an amino acid

o Transamination: transfer of an amine group from an amino acid to a keto acid to form a  new nonessential amino acid

o Urea: nitrogen containing waste product  

o Released in the blood

o Filtered by kidneys

o Excreted in urine

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