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MSU / Biological Sciences / BIO 1134 / What is formed by two monosaccharides?

What is formed by two monosaccharides?

What is formed by two monosaccharides?

Description

School: Mississippi State University
Department: Biological Sciences
Course: Biology I
Professor: Evan kaplan
Term: Spring 2016
Tags: Bio, biology one, Biology, notes, and one week of notes
Cost: 25
Name: BIO 1134: Fourth Week of Notes
Description: These are the notes to chapter three and chapter four. They are the last set of notes for the first exam. Chapter three is about organic molecules going into detail of such things as proteins, lipids and nucleic acid. Chapter Four begins to delve into the cell and what makes up a cell.
Uploaded: 02/03/2016
8 Pages 315 Views 1 Unlocks
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0}ul.lst-kix_w4z24fzdzhq-4{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_w4z24fzdzhq-5{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_w4z24fzdzhq-6{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_7m2jzwqynwr8-0{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_7m2jzwqynwr8-2{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_7m2jzwqynwr8-1{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_7m2jzwqynwr8-4{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_7m2jzwqynwr8-3{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_7m2jzwqynwr8-6{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_a3xeo3derrsu-8 > li:before{content:"- "}ul.lst-kix_7m2jzwqynwr8-5{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_7m2jzwqynwr8-8{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_a3xeo3derrsu-7 > li:before{content:"- "}ul.lst-kix_7m2jzwqynwr8-7{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_s79pm6dj6qkr-4 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_a3xeo3derrsu-6 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_s79pm6dj6qkr-5 > li:before{content:"- "}ul.lst-kix_39cqtmhlikgu-8{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_pis14058urij-0.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_pis14058urij-0 0}.lst-kix_8jypzb3rnx1u-8 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_88ezlhmevnco-6 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_8jypzb3rnx1u-6 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_t56jxy4s42vj-0 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_v8id6xof3qg5-6 > li:before{content:"- "}ul.lst-kix_39cqtmhlikgu-0{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_1clv9zzcy4pi-7 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_1clv9zzcy4pi-7}ul.lst-kix_39cqtmhlikgu-1{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_39cqtmhlikgu-2{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_88ezlhmevnco-2 > li:before{content:"- "}ul.lst-kix_39cqtmhlikgu-3{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_v8id6xof3qg5-8 > li:before{content:"- "}ul.lst-kix_39cqtmhlikgu-4{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_39cqtmhlikgu-5{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_88ezlhmevnco-8 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_7m2jzwqynwr8-0 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_yztwwomh2keb-4 > li:before{content:"- "}ul.lst-kix_39cqtmhlikgu-6{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_39cqtmhlikgu-7{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_1clv9zzcy4pi-8 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_1clv9zzcy4pi-8}.lst-kix_88ezlhmevnco-0 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_8jypzb3rnx1u-2 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_pis14058urij-1 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_pis14058urij-1,lower-latin) ". "}.lst-kix_yztwwomh2keb-6 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_v8id6xof3qg5-2 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_8jypzb3rnx1u-4 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_pis14058urij-3 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_pis14058urij-3,decimal) ". "}.lst-kix_yztwwomh2keb-8 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_v8id6xof3qg5-4 > li:before{content:"- "}ol.lst-kix_1clv9zzcy4pi-1{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_t56jxy4s42vj-7{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_1clv9zzcy4pi-2{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_t56jxy4s42vj-6{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_1clv9zzcy4pi-3{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_1clv9zzcy4pi-4{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_1clv9zzcy4pi-5 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_1clv9zzcy4pi-5,lower-roman) ". "}.lst-kix_1clv9zzcy4pi-7 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_1clv9zzcy4pi-7,lower-latin) ". "}ul.lst-kix_t56jxy4s42vj-8{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_t56jxy4s42vj-3{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_t56jxy4s42vj-2{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_39cqtmhlikgu-2 > li:before{content:"- "}ul.lst-kix_t56jxy4s42vj-5{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_1clv9zzcy4pi-0{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_t56jxy4s42vj-4{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_t56jxy4s42vj-8 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_sp2qxvk0anqu-0 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_39cqtmhlikgu-4 > li:before{content:"- "}ul.lst-kix_t56jxy4s42vj-1{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_1clv9zzcy4pi-1 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_1clv9zzcy4pi-1,lower-latin) ". "}.lst-kix_1clv9zzcy4pi-3 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_1clv9zzcy4pi-3,decimal) ". "}ul.lst-kix_t56jxy4s42vj-0{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_1clv9zzcy4pi-5{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_t56jxy4s42vj-6 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_sp2qxvk0anqu-2 > li:before{content:"- "}ol.lst-kix_1clv9zzcy4pi-6{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_1clv9zzcy4pi-7{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_1clv9zzcy4pi-8{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_v8id6xof3qg5-0 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_t56jxy4s42vj-4 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_sp2qxvk0anqu-4 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_8jypzb3rnx1u-0 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_yztwwomh2keb-2 > li:before{content:"- "}ol.lst-kix_pis14058urij-5.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_pis14058urij-5 0}.lst-kix_88ezlhmevnco-4 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_t56jxy4s42vj-2 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_sp2qxvk0anqu-6 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_39cqtmhlikgu-0 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_yztwwomh2keb-0 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_pis14058urij-6 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_pis14058urij-6}ol.lst-kix_pis14058urij-2.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_pis14058urij-2 0}ul.lst-kix_v8id6xof3qg5-5{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_v8id6xof3qg5-6{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_v8id6xof3qg5-3{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_v8id6xof3qg5-4{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_w4z24fzdzhq-2 > li:before{content:"- "}ul.lst-kix_v8id6xof3qg5-1{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_v8id6xof3qg5-2{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_v8id6xof3qg5-0{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_w4z24fzdzhq-0 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_pis14058urij-0 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_pis14058urij-0}ul.lst-kix_v8id6xof3qg5-7{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_v8id6xof3qg5-8{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_yztwwomh2keb-5{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_loasd2tlvn1t-2 > li:before{content:"- "}ul.lst-kix_yztwwomh2keb-4{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_yztwwomh2keb-7{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_yztwwomh2keb-6{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_loasd2tlvn1t-0 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_loasd2tlvn1t-4 > li:before{content:"- "}ul.lst-kix_yztwwomh2keb-8{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_7m2jzwqynwr8-8 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_w4z24fzdzhq-4 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_w4z24fzdzhq-6 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_loasd2tlvn1t-8 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_7m2jzwqynwr8-2 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_7m2jzwqynwr8-6 > li:before{content:"- "}ol.lst-kix_pis14058urij-3.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_pis14058urij-3 0}.lst-kix_w4z24fzdzhq-8 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_loasd2tlvn1t-6 > li:before{content:"- "}ul.lst-kix_yztwwomh2keb-1{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_yztwwomh2keb-0{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_7m2jzwqynwr8-4 > li:before{content:"- "}ul.lst-kix_yztwwomh2keb-3{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_yztwwomh2keb-2{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_am4vn0on7rza-0 > li:before{content:"- "}

Disaccharides (complex sugar)

  • Formed by two monosaccharides
  • Joined by a dehydration reaction to form a glycosidic bond
  • Sucrose, lactose, maltose

Polysaccharides (complex sugar)

  • Formed by many monosaccharides
  • Examples:
  • Energy storage: glycogen (animals), starch(plants)
  • Structural: culture, chitin, glycosaminoglycans

Lipids

  • Fats, phospholipids, steroids, waxes
  • Composed predominantly of hydrogen and carbon atoms
  • Nonpolar molecules therefore don’t dissolve well in water

Fats

  • Also known as triglycerides
  • Formed by bonding glycerol to 3 fatty acids
  • Joined by a dehydration reaction
  • Each fatty acid is joined to glycerol by an ester bond

Fatty acids can be saturated or unsaturated

  • Saturated: all carbons linked by single bonds
  • Tend to be solid at room temperature
  • High temperatures convert solid to liquid
  • Unsaturated: contain one or more double bonds
  • Tend to be liquids at room temperature (known as oils)
  • Low melting points
  • Cis type formed naturally, trans types are formed artificially
  • Trans fats are linked to heart disease
  • CIS

Fatty Acids

  • It is generally recommended to have a diet low in saturated fat
  • Liked to coronary heart disease
  • It is generally recommended to most dietary fat to come from unsaturated fats

Trans Fatty Acids

  • Consumption of trans fats is linked to increased cholesterol contributing to coronary heart disease

Functions of fats

  • Energy
  • 1g of fat stores more energy than 1g of glycogen or starch
  • Structural by providing cushioning and insulation
  • Aids in vitamin absorption

Phospholipids

  • Formed by bonding glycerol to 2 fatty acids and a phosphate group
  • Are amphipathic molecules
  • Phosphate head: polar / hydrophilic
  • Fatty acid tail: nonpolar / hydrophobic

Steroids

  • Four interconnected rings of carbon atoms
  • Usually insoluble in water
  • Examples:
  • Cholesterol
  • Hormones: estrogen and testosterone

Waxes

  • Secreted onto the surface of plants and animals
  • Nonpolar so provide a barrier to water less
  • Also used as structural elements (beeswax)

Proteins

  • Building blocks (monomers) of proteins are amino acids
  • 20 different amino acids
  • All have amino, hydrogen, r - group, carboxyl
  • R - Group is variant

Polypeptide Formation

  • Amino acids joined by a dehydration reaction
  • Joined by a peptide bond to form polypeptides
  • Proteins are formed from one or more polypeptides
  • Polypeptide: a linear chain of amino acids

4 Levels of Protein Structure

  1. Primary Structure
  1. Sequence of amino acids
  2. Encoded by DNA
  1. Secondary Structure
  1. Folding within local segments of the polypeptide chain
  2. 2 common secondary structure
  1. A helices and B pleated sheets
  1. Tertiary Structure
  1. Overall 3D structure of a polypeptide
  2. Final level of structure for a single polypeptide chain
  1. Avaternary Structure
  1. Two or more polypeptides associated together to form a protein
  1. Individual polypeptide chains are protein subunits
  • Protein folding and stability is determined by the chemical bonds

Functions of Proteins

  • Structural proteins
  • Keratin (hair, nails)
  • Collagen (skin)
  • Cytoskeletal proteins from the framework of cells
  • Enzymes (speedup chemical reactions in cells)
  • Antibodies of the immune system
  • Transport proteins and receptors used for altering cell behavior

Nucleic Acids

  • Responsible for storage, expression, and transmission of Genetic information
  • Two classes
  1. DNA
  1. Stores genetic information
  2. Information is encoded in the sequence of nucleotide monomers
  1. RNA
  1. Several different classes
  2. mRNA copied from DNA

Nucleotides

  • Building blocks (monomers) of nucleic acids are nucleotides
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