Study Guide for Midterm
Study Guide for Midterm ISP 205L
Popular in Visions of the Universe Laboratory
Popular in Physics 2
This 3 page Study Guide was uploaded by AlissaRabat on Wednesday February 3, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to ISP 205L at Michigan State University taught by in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 339 views. For similar materials see Visions of the Universe Laboratory in Physics 2 at Michigan State University.
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Date Created: 02/03/16
Lab Mid-Term Lab 1: Earth’s Size Eratosthenes à compared the altitude of the Sun on the Summer Solstice b/w 2 cities then takes the difference b/w the angles and multiply the distance b/w the cities by 360º/difference in angle Know when is noon b/c Sun hits the Meridian line and no shadow or a very small shadow is cast. Altitude of the Sun depends on the Latitude of the location, the farther north you get the smaller the angle so it moves away from the Zenith, while the lower you go the bigger the angle or closer to 90º. Lab 2: Moon Phases Moon goes through all phases in about 30 days. Waxing = lit on the West part of the moon, 1 Quarter, all waxing phases rise after the Sun Waning = lit on the East part of the moon, 3 Quarter, all waning phases rise before the Sun. Angles = Sun on both Quarter moons are a 90º angle; Full Moon and New Moon are at 0º or 180º. rd Days b/w Quarter Moon and Full Moon = 6 days, 3 Quarter to New Moon = 9 days Chart to know when each moon phase reaches its highest, First Quarter Moon is at 12, 3 is New Moon, 6 is Third Quarter Moon, 9 is Full Moon. Between Third Quarter and New = Waning Crescent, b/w New and First Quarter = WAXING Crescent, b/w First and Full = Waxing Gibbous, B/W Full and Third = waning gibbous. There is not an eclipse at every full or new moon b/c for there to be an eclipse the moon must be passing through the point in the orbit of Earth where both the Moon and the Earth’s orbit align which only happens twice in one cycle and it must be at a full/new moon and aligned with the Sun. Lab 3: Earth’s Motion Parallax à apparent position of the stars moves Retrograde motion à backwards motion of the planets across the sky Ancient Astronomers who said Earth did not move: no parallax means the Earth does not rotate; retrograde motion are the epicycles of the planets as they move around the Sun. Ancient Astronomers who said Earth did rotate: parallax too small for eyes to see; retrograde motion is the different speeds of the planets as they rotate around the Sun. Angle in Degrees = (360º/2pi)*(distance b/w points)/(distance from eye to points) 1 degree = 60 arcminutes = 3600 arcseconds The closer the object the more apparent its parallax Lab 4: Star Distances Parallax angle = 360º/2pi * Earth-Sun Distance/distance to star Distance to star = 360ª/total shift * 2.55 light-years (Orion distance) Plate scale = 10º/length of line at bottom of page or key to distance in mm Plate scale is a unit of degrees per millimeters used to transform the distance measured of the star shift unit to degrees so they can be used in the distance star formula. First identify plate scale, then identify total shift b/w the stars, then multiply number by plate scale to get Total shift in degrees, then plug into the distance to star formula. Parallax technique limited to nearby stars because stars that are farther away will have a smaller shift, which leads to a bigger uncertainty percent making the answer invaluable because the margin of error is too large. Lab 5: Stellar Spectra Light spectrum contains information that allows us to know what the stars composition is, this is because each light spectrum of each element is unique in the absorption lines. The absorption lines are formed because atoms have photons at a unique energy levels and how they rise or fall when reacting to light. Wavelength à blue has the lowest and red has the highest. Blue à lowest wavelength, has the most energy, highest frequency Redà highest wavelength, has the least energy, lowest frequency For us to be able to see the absorption lines there must be some kind of diffraction, the diffraction then causes each color of the light to bend at different angles. Red bends the most while Blue bends the least. When observing light through a COLD gas we see absorption lines only because the gas absorbs some of the photons impeding them from appearing in the light spectrum, so the overall look would be of the colorful spectrum with black lines at certain regions. Index LAB 1: EARTH’S SIZE 1 LAB 2: MOON PHASES 1 LAB 3: EARTH’S MOTION 2 LAB 4: STAR DISTANCES 2 LAB 5: STELLAR SPECTRA 3
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