Psych Midterm 1
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This 10 page Study Guide was uploaded by Chloe Nightingale on Wednesday February 3, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to PSY 202 at University of Oregon taught by Pennefather J in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 48 views. For similar materials see Mind and Society in Psychlogy at University of Oregon.
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Date Created: 02/03/16
Midterm Study Guide Chapter 1 Introduction List and explain the seven themes of psychological science Psychology is an empirical science Nature and nurture and entwined The brain and mind are inseparable Biological revolution inspiring research The mind is adaptive Crosses levels of analysis We are often aware of the in unces NP P PP N Distinguish between mind brain and behavior Mind Mental activity thoughts beliefs experiences Brain The biological aspects of cognition Behavior Observable action Identify the differences between nature and nurture Nature Biologically innate Nurture Acquired Identify the three main developments in the biological revolution Growth in the understanding of the biological basis of mental activities lnterest in biology Explain evolutionary theory Determining whether human mechanisms are adaptive or not Challenges of out ancestors affect out modern behavior How do the concepts of modern minds and culture relate to adaptations Describe how people are intuitive psychologists Describe the three main features of the APA code of ethics Respect to all people Dignity for all people Protecting people from potential harm Key Terms characteristics skills survival things likely to or abilities that be passed to future increase the chances of generations reproduction or Adaptations In evolutionary theory the physical Behaviorism A psychological approach that emphasizes the role of environmental forces in producing observable behavior Cognitive Neuroscience The study of neural mechanisms underlying thought learning perception language and memory Culture The beliefs values rules and customs that exist within a group of people who share a common language and environment lntrospection A systematic examination of subjective mental expenencesthat requires people to inspect and report and report on the context of their thoughts Natural Selection In evolutionary theory the idea that those who inherit characteristics that help them adapt to their particular Chapter 2 Research Methodology What is scienti c inquiry What are the four main goals of the scienti c method Describe predict control explain environments have a selective advantage over those who do not Social Psychology The study of how people in uence other people39s thoughts feelings and actions Unconscious The place where mental processes operate below the level of conscious awareness Explain the differences and interaction among theories hypotheses and research Theory Explanation that integrates principles and organizes and predicts behavior or events Hypothesis Testable prediction prompted by a theory Enables us to accept reject or revise the theory Research A way to test the hypothesis and therefore the theory What are the types of studies in psychological research Descriptive method Note taking to provide an analysis Naturaistic observation Observing behavior in its natural and group setting Case Study An indepth study of one individual in a group Advantages Hypothesis generation no bias of selfreport Disadvantages Low generalizability observer bias Correational method 2 or more variables systematically measured and the relationship between them is assessed Expressed with a mathematical expression called a correlation coef cient Positive correlation One goes up other up too Negative correlation One goes up another down Scatterplots surveys random sampling Advantages Ask the questions you want pick the people you want Disadvantages Bias of selfreport wording effects of questions Experimentation Isolates causes and their effects Manipulate the factor that interests you and control the other factors unlike in correlation Distinguish between naturalistic and participant observation Distinguish between longitudinal and crosssectional studies Longitudina Data gathered from the same subjects over a period of time Cross sectional Observations gathered from a population Discuss correlational design Why does some research need to be correlational Explain why correlation does not equal causation Discuss experimental design Distinguish between independent and dependent variables Discuss the need for random assignment and distinguish between control and experimental conditions Distinguish between random and convenience sampling Convenience sample Taken from a subgroup in the population Why is sample size important How are data analyzed and evaluated Externa validity To what extents the results generalize to other persons and situations in different populations and different settings To what extent it can be replicated Construct validity The extent to which variables measure what they are supposed t 0 measure lnterna validity the degree to which the effects observed in an experiment are due to the independent variable and not to confound 5 What are the three indicators of data quality Reliability The extent to which a measure is stable and consistent Vaidity The experimenter can make con dent statements about cause and effect Accuracy Is the data measured correctlyfree of effort Describe measures of central tendency and variability Centra tendency The typical response the middle Variabiity How widely dispersed the values are from each other and the mean What does it mean when something is quotstatistically significantquot When the results obtained from a study would be very unlikely to occur if there reall y were no differences between the groups of subjects Key Terms Experiment Population Accuracy Experimental Group Random Assignment Case Study Hypothesis Reliability Central Tendency Independent Variable Replication Confound lnferential Statistics Research Control Group Longitudinal Studies Sample Correlational Study Mean Scienti c Method Crosssectional Study Median Selection Bias Data Mode Standard Deviation Dependent Variable Naturalistic Theory Observation Descriptive Statistics Validity Descriptive Studies Observer B39as Variability Directionality Problem Part39c39pant Observat39on Variable Chapter 9 Human Development What does developmental psychology involve The study of changes over the life span in psychology cognition emotion and social behavior Describe the physical development in the womb 2 weeks Zygote implanted in wall development begins 2 weeks to 2 months Embryo stage internal organ development After 2 months Grows larger Identify the re exes that babies possess Rooting Turning and sucking nding the object to such Grasping Re ex that39s a survival mechanism Sucking Sucking the object they nd What is a sensitive learning period Contrast with a critical period Sensitive Time periods when speci c skills develop most easily What is the role of attachment in social development Distinguish between the three main attachment styles Identify Piaget39s stages of cognitive development Stage Characterization Sensorimotor 0 Differentiates self from objects birth 2 years 0 Recognizes self as agent of action and begins to act intentionally for example pulls a string to set a mobile in motion or shakes a rattle to make a noise 0 Achieves object permanence realizes that things continue to exist even when no longer present to the senses a Preoperational 0 Learns to use language and to represent 2 7 years objects by images and words 0 Thinking is still egocentric has difficulty taking the viewpoint of others 0 Classifies objects by a single feature for example groups together all the red blocks regardless of shape or all the square blocks regardless of color 7 7 if 8 Concrete 0 Can think logically about objects and operational events 7 12 years 0 Achieves conservation of number age 7 mass age 7 and weight age 9 0 Classifies objects by several features and can order them in a series along a single dimension such as size a Formal 0 Can think logically about abstract operational propositions and test hypotheses 12 years and up systematically 0 Becomes concerned with the hypothetical the future and ideological problems Explain object permanence Explain conservation Explain theory of mind Identify Kohlberg s stages of moral development Preconventional To avoid punishmentgain reward Conventional Social ruleslaws upheld for their own sake Postconventional Follows personal ethical principles Development of empathy and selfdiscipline What does social development involve How can parental style affect children39s wellbeing Describe temperament Identify and describe the stages of adult development in Erkison39s theory Steady decline in muscle mass bone density eyesight hearing quotUse it or lose itquot Menopause Generativity vs stagnation What are the stages of grief Key Terms Critical Periods Object Permanence Accommodation Developmental Postconventional AnxiousAmbivalent PsyChOIOgy Preconventional Attachment Disorganized Preoperational Stage Attachment Assimilation Attachment Secure Attachment Formal Operational Stage Sensitive Periods Av0dant Attachment Gender Identity Sensorimotor Stage Concrete Operational Gender Roles Social Development Stage I Gender Schemas Theory Of Mmd Conven onal Chapter 10 Motivation and Emotion De ne motivation Motivation Factors that energize or stimulate behavior Identify and differentiate the four essential qualities of motivational states Motivational states are energizing Directive they guide behaviors Persist continue until goals are met Differ in strength Distinguish needs from drives Needs States of de ciency Drive Psychological state that motivates a person to ful ll a need Explain Maslow39s need hierarchy Physioogica Safety Beonging and love Esteem Selfactualization Explain how homeostasis relates to motivation Explain the optimal level of arousal see YerkesDodson law Optimal level is mild anxiety Performance increases with arousal until it becomes impaired by arousal Distinguish between extrinsic and intrinsic motivation Extrinsic External goals activity is directed toward lntrinsic Refers to the value or pleasure associated with an activity but has no obvious biological goal What is delayed grati cation Postponing immediate grati cation to pursue a longterm goal What is meant by a need to belong What is the role of anxiety in af liation Explain what is meant by a double standard in sexual interactions What is the sexual strategies theory A theory that maintains that women and men have evolved distinct mating strategies because they faced different adaptive problems over the course of huma n history The strategies used by each sex maximize the probability of passing along their genes t 0 future generations Understand the similarities and differences between men and women in mating Differentiate emotions from moods Emotions Feelings that involve subjective evaluation psychological processes and cognitive beliefs Moods Long lasting emotional states that don39t have an identi able trigger Describe evidence for facial expressions communicating emotion Which emotions seem to be universal Why are these emotions adaptive Universa emotions Anger happiness surprise disgust fear sadness and contempt Identify the three components of emotion Physioogica process Behaviora response Feeing based upon cognitive appraisal of situation Describe the twofactor theory of emotions Vaence How positive or negative they are Arousal Physiological activation How does misattribution of arousal take place Describe strategies people use to regulate their moods Avoid certain situations Focus on the positive Thought suppression Rumination Thinking about or concentrating on undesired feelings Key Terms Homeostasis Primary Emotions Arousal Incentives Secondary Emotions Display Rules Intrinsic Motivation Sexual Response Cycle Drive Motivations YerkesDodson Law Emotion Need Extrinsic Motivation Need Hierarchy Chapter 11 Health and WellBeing What does health psychology involve A eld that integrates research on health and on psychology it involves theapplicati on of psychological principles to promote health and wellbeing How does wellbeing differ from health Well being is a positive state for one which strives and has goals and health is biological Identify and describe the main components of the biopsychosocial model How do our own behaviors relate to our chances of death Explain the placebo effect Understand what leads to stress Distinguish between eustress and distress Describe how the environment can in uence stress What is the fightor ight response What is the tendandbefriend response Identify the three stages of the general adaptation syndrome Aarm Resistance Body at max ef ciency Exhauonn Explain how stress in uences the immune system Goes down during the exhaustion stage but good stress increases antibody function Distinguish between primary and secondary appraisals Distinguish between emotionfocused and problemfocused coping How do positive emotions in uence health Explain the buffering hypothesis The idea that other people can provide direct emotional support in helping individuals cope with stressful events General Adaptation Secondary Appraisals Syndrome Key Terms Stress Health Psychology Biopsychosocial Model Stressor Buffering Hypothesis Immune SYStem TendandBefriend Coping Response Oxytocin Response EmotionFocused Placebo Effect Type A Behavior Pattern Coping Primary Appraisals Type B Behavior Pattern Fightor Flight ProblemFocused WellBeing Response Coping
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