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ANT 2410, week 2 and 3 notes

by: Victoria Notetaker

ANT 2410, week 2 and 3 notes Ant 2410

Victoria Notetaker
GPA 3.9
Cultural Anthropology
Valentina Martinez

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About this Document

These notes cover all the material going to the first exam (chapter 2 & 3)
Cultural Anthropology
Valentina Martinez
Study Guide
Anthropology, ANT2410, notes, study, guide, easy, fast, material, Culture, methods, Techniques
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This 0 page Study Guide was uploaded by Victoria Notetaker on Wednesday February 3, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Ant 2410 at Florida Atlantic University taught by Valentina Martinez in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 57 views. For similar materials see Cultural Anthropology in anthropology, evolution, sphr at Florida Atlantic University.

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Date Created: 02/03/16
1 2 0 Chapter 2 CULTURE Individualism is a distinct shared value Avoiding ethnocentrism error of viewing ones own culture as superior and applying ones own cultural values in judging people from other cultures It s a system of human behavior and thought obey natural laws and therefore can be studied scientifically Is this complex whole which includes knowledge belief arts morals laws customs and habits acquired by man as a number of a society Clifford Geertz Culture are ideas based on cultural learning and symbols Leslie White Culture originated when our ancestors acquired the ability to use symbols Symbols are usually linguistic Culture is shared individuals are members of groups and or societies Shared values beliefs memories and expectations link people who grow up in the same culture Enculturation unifies people by providing us with common experiences Cultures are integratedpatterned systems If one part changes everything changes Culture is instrumental adaptive and maladaptive Culture is the main reason for human s adaptability and success Also used to fulfill psychological and emotional needs Evolutionary Basis It extends back at least 26 million years to early toolmakers Hominid any fossil or living human chimp and gorilla Hominines hominids excluding the African apes Many human traits re ect that our primate ancestors lived in trees a Grasping ability and manual dexterity opposable thumbs b Depth and color vision c Learning ability based on a large brain d Substantial parental investment in a limited number of offspring e Tendencies toward society sociality and cooperation What we share with other primates a Ability to learn and change behavior b Tool making c Aim and throw objects d Habitual hunters 3 How we differ from other primates a Cooperation and sharing are much more developed in humans b Mating behavior Human females lack a visible estrus cycle and ovulation is concealed thus mating throughout the year maximizing reproductive success c Human pair bonds for mating are more exclusive and durable than those of chimps d Humans have developed a marriage system Sexual rights to one another e Humans have exogamy Exist in every culture Exists in some but not all societies Distinctive or unique culture trait patterned or integrated Human Rights rights based on justice and morality beyond and superior to particular countries cultures and religions Cultural Rights rights vested in religious and ethic minorities and indigenous societies 0 Anthropologists today try to continue to be objective accurate and sensitive Globalization series of processes that work to make modern nations and people increasingly interlinked and mutually dependent Chapter 3 Methods and Theory Ethnographyl tries to understand the Whole culture It emerged as a research strategy in societies With greater cultural uniformity and less social differentiation than modern industrial nations Traditionally the process of becoming a cultural anthropologist required field experience in another society 1 Direct first hand observation participant observation wean tempos 3 Pays attention and records details of daily life they keep a personal dairyseparated from more personal notes Strive to establish report Ethnographer cannot be totally impartial and detached They have to take part of the community life in order to study it Culture shock a profound feeling of alienation B Malinowski the imponderabilia of native life and of typical behavior trivial basic patterns of behavior Conversation and interviews Participating in local life means constantly asking questions and talking to people Naming phase acquire and basic information Ethnography survey census and basic information Select your sample sampling techniques Establish your interview schedules formal bur personal questions Make a questionnaire used by sociologists to obtain comparable information from respondents Genealogical Method Using diagrams and symbols to record kin connections Trying to reconstruct family types Helps us understand current social relationships and reconstruct history Rules of behavior are associated with particular kin relations Life histor1es reveals how people rece1ve perce1ve react Key Cons Ita nt to and contribute to changes that affect their lives Expert on a particular aspect of local life They are basic to everyday life 4 Problem oriented ethnography Specific problem to investigate Researcher gather information on social diversity knowledge Local people may lack knowledge about many factors that affect their lives Team research used on Longitudinal research Longterm study of a community region society culture usually based on repeated visits Elizabeth Colson is an anthropologist well known for her work in this area research in Zambia since 1956 studies 4 villages Gwembe people studied for over 50 years C0de ofEthics 0 Primary obligation is to do no harm to the people Emic approach investigates being studied how natives think categorize 0 Informed consent agreement to take part in a research After having been informed about its 0n0th95mCV l Izat nature procedures and possible impacts 1 categories interpretations and features that the anthropologist considers important Theory in Anthropolom2 over time Evolutionary perspectives Morgan amp Tvlor Tylor defined culture and proposed it could be studied scientifically Proposed an evolutionary approach to the anthropology of religion Morgan suggested that human society has evolved through savagery barbarism and civilization subdivided in lower middle and upper This evolution is called Unilinear evolutionism Historical particularism Boas He was the founder of the fourfield anthropology contributed to cultural biological and linguistic anthropology showed that human biology is plastic rejected comparisons and generalizations in favor of particular histories and recommended to take into consideration the historical context of societies Functionalism and structural functionalism Malinowski RadcliffeBrown Evans Pritchard Challenged the Unilinear evolution Malinowski father of anthropology lcustoms and institutions in society in integrated and interrelated Radcli eBrown I advocated that social anthropology should be synchronic rather than diachronic Configurationalism R Benedict amp Margaret Mead Culture is seen as patterned and integrated Neoevolutionism Leslie White amp J Steward both interested in causes of cultural changel White looked at energy harnessed and Steward looked at technology and the environment Steward was a pioneer in cultural ecology known as ecological anthropology


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