APR 231 TEST 1 STUDY GUIDE
APR 231 TEST 1 STUDY GUIDE APR 231
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This page Study Guide was uploaded by Courtney Small on Wednesday February 3, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to APR 231 at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by William J. Gozenbach in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 196 views. For similar materials see Intro public relations in Advertising at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa.
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Date Created: 02/03/16
Test 1 Study Guide APR 231 CHAPTER 1 lt has to spell on first test Key Elements in Definition Organization and Publics Deliberate Intentional Planned Organized systematic Performance policies and performance Public Interest mutually beneficial 2Way communication expository listen communicate Management Function Strategic and integral SSSSSSSSSSSSSSS PR Names Umbrella term Public Relations Corporate Communications most popular Fortune 500 Combo Communications and Public Policy Public Information and Public Affairs Nonprofits Universities and Government Marketing Communication Increasingly use now in nonprofits Publicists Press Agent Entertainment Negative Spinframing flack PR stunt Public Relations as Process RACE Program Assessment and adjustment gt Research and analysis gt Policy formationgt Programminggt Communicationgt FeedbackgtProgram Assessment and adjustment Research Action Program planning Communication execution Evaluation Public Relations as Process ROPE Research Objectives Programming Strategy Tactics Evaluation PR vs Journalism Broader scope Information providers also advocates More Audiences Channels beyond mass media Better pay dress better Advertising vs PR Paid vs free less costly Ex WSJ fullpage color 220000 Super Bowl 2013 38 million for 30 seconds Mass Media vs range of channels owned or controlled media Selling vs economic social political External consumer audience vs external amp internal Mutually supportive Cost and Credibility issues Marketing vs PR 4Ps Product Place Price Promotion Marketing Communications or Marketing PR MPR or MC Element of marketing39s promotion function Kotler 5th P Corporate PR CPR outside of marketing Build markets vs build relationships External audience vs external amp Internal Customerbased vs broad based CHAPTER 2 Enlightenment Free Flow of Ideas Monarchy Power from top to bottom Enlightenment philosophy 17005 Locke Hume Rousseau Jefferson Hamilton Madison Reasonable beings informed choice Free Flow of information Enlightenment Free Flow of Ideas cont Power from bottom to top Info in a society journalist Representation of interests Pluralism Factions that battle for objectives Free Marketplace Majority Wins US is experiment Colonial America Virginia Land Co Promote land in Europe Revolution Sam Adams Father of Press Agentry Boston Tea Party quotBoston Massacrequot o more of a media stunt Sons of liberty 0 People who spread the word exchanged ideas Correspondence network Editorials 0 Used editorial campaigns to get the word out about the revolution Tom Paine Collateral Materials Common Sense Federalist Papers Hamilton Madison Jay 180039s Golden Age of Press Agentry Federalists Hamilton vs AntiFederalists Jefferson 0 Americas second revolution 0 Very similar to republicans vs democrats Andrew Jackson Amos Kendall kitchen cabinet 0 First one to put up presidential press agentry Publicity Buffalo Bill Davy Crockett Daniel Boone Annie Oakley PT Barnum Press agent Tody Hamilton Press Agent Levi Lyman Front Man 180039s Golden Age of Press Agentry cont Westward Expansion Railroad Land Companies Early Corporate Ex Wannamaker Dept Store Magazine lecture bureau Movements o Abolition da Wells 0 Woman39s Suffrage 1848 Seneca Falls Convention 0 Prohibition WCTU 0 Civil Rights da Wells 0 National Parks John Muir Ivy Ledbetter Lee First PR counsel Parker and Lee in 1905 Princeton Enlightenment philosophy Information truthful accurate management level Enlighten selfinterest Ex Pennsylvania Railroad Ex Rockefeller Ludlow Massacre Ivy Ledbetter Lee 4 Contributions Business align with public interest Active support of top management Open communication with media Bring PR to community level employees customers neighbors Edward Bernays Father of modern PR Advocacy scientific persuasion Nephew of Sigmund Freud Engineering of Consent Crystallizing Public Opinion Taught first PR Course quottorches of libertyquot Light39s Golden Jubilee Big Idea Hearty breakfast doctors sell bacon World Wars WWI George Creel Committee on public information American Red Cross Development World Wars WWII Elmer Davis Office of war information USIA Corporate GE GM ATampT ATampT 5 Arthur Page First VP Paul Garrett GM Four Models of PR James Grunig PHD Press Agentry Publicity Public Information 2way Asymmetric 2way Symmetric CHAPTER 3 Role of Professional Organizations PRSA NY 22000 110 US chapters 20 professional interest areas about 10 of PR professionals belong Professional development courses seminars webcasts Publications Tactics monthly The Strategist Quarterly Annual meetings awards Silver Bronze PRSSA 300 campuses 10000 members Education produce Forum and contests wwwprsaorg wwwprssaorg Other Organizations International Association of Business Communicators IABC San Francisco 14000 70 nations 90 in US International Public Relations Association IPRA London 1000 members in 80 countries Council for the Advancement and Support of Education CASE 3200 colleges and universities National Investors Relations Institute NIRI National Black PR Society Hispanic PR Society Codes for Specific Situations No legal authority Education Information Special areas 0 Financial Information 12point code NIRI o VNR codes for video news releases NABC 0 Internet Transparency Arthur Page Society 0 Corporate Practice Firm Companies set codes Make a profession Changing Practitioner Mindsets Standardized Curriculum Expanding Body of Knowledge Professional Accreditation and Continuing Education Standardized Curriculum Education CEPR UA accredited quotone of top programs in US Relatively new Commission on PR Education Curriculum PR 2540 credit hours principles case studies researchevaluation writingproduction planningmanagement campaigns supervised internships PRSSA Minimum of 5 courses for chapter Professional Accreditation and Continuing Education PRSA Model Voluntary certification program No licensing like AMA PRSA s APR Accredited in PR in 1965 revamped in 2003 Preview course readiness questionnaire portfolio 25hour exam 4 step 30 ethicslaw 15 modelstheory 15 business literacy 10 management 10 crisis 10 media relations 5 info tech 2 historycurrent issues 2 and advanced communication skills 1 20 of membership about 4000 Recognition of senior professionals Arthur Page Society ABC Model Writtenoral exam portfolio big part ABC Accredited Business Communicator What is ethics Ethics refers to the standards of conduct which indicates how one should behave based upon moral duties and virtues rising from principles of right or wrong Values central beliefs which determine how we will behave in certain situations Truth has small t Consider public interest employer s self interest PR profession and personal values Ethical Orientations Kant Absolutist Absolutist Ethics Position from which there is a clearcut right or wrong response for every ethical decision Prescriptive codes guidelines stipulate specific behaviors to follow Proscriptive codes guidelines stress what should not be done Ex Twosource rule Chewing tobacco in news story Aristotle Existential Relativistic Situational The Golden Mean midpoint between two extremes moderation Ex PSA all facts boring all sensational too extreme moderation John Stewart Mill 1863 Utilitarian Principle RelativisticSituational Actions are ethical only if they result in the greatest good for the most people Ex Dick Cheney Lie about Troops Role Differentiation Job is to be advocate CHAPTER 4 IABC Study and CEO Study 0 Relationship building 0 Counselor s role 0 Cost Saving amp Revenue Generation 0 184 ROI Corporate Structure Shapes PR Roles Type organization size perception capabilities affect roles Large complex PR in policymaking IBM Coke Called Mixed OrganicMechanical part of dominant coalition Get greater support money outside PR help don t report to marketing Small scale low complexity tactical function virtually no input to management Key Indicator Top PR person has seat at management table 64 77 of Fortune 500 report directly to CEO COO or chairman Levels of Influence Advisory Line management has no obligation to take recommendations or even request them 0 Ex Toyota CompulsoryAdvisory Line management must at least listen to public relations 0 Ex Johnson amp Johnson Tylenol Concurring Authority PR has a designed authority to review and approve all materials and communications with external audiences o for some PR must show to legal as an example 0 If differences must agree before doing it Cooperation with Other Functions Legal Human Resources Advertising Marketing PR along with advertising and marketing is part of the promotion side sales force Trend to Outsourcing Fortune 500 90 using some form of outside PR counsel 25 of budget to outside firms 0 Going out to PR firms to get the work done for them Companies of all sizes 40 of budget on outside firms High Tech 66 outside Nonprofits 38 Bring expertise and needed resources and supplement internal PR Firms Wide range of sizes Wide range of services 7000 in US Conglomerates part of holding co Structure of Firm Ketchum SF 1600 firms in O Dwyer s Directory of PR Firms most have less than 10 0 Main office is in NYC President In NY Exec VP SF Senior VP associate director of ops Several VPs Account supervision special proj Account Supervisor Run one major account or several smaller ones Account Exec direct contact day to day wclient Asst Account Exec You 618 months AE 23 Years AS Or account coordinator SecretarialClerical Staff Firm Advantages Objectivity Variety of SkillsExpertise Extensive resources Offices across country world Special problemsolving Credibility Disadvantages Superficial grasp of client s unique problems Lack of fulltime commitment Prolonged briefing period Resentment of internal company staff Need for strong direction by top management Need for full info and confidence from client Costs Fees and Charges RFP Request for Proposal n PR about 70 of budget is salaries Hourly and Outofpocket Retainer Fixed project fee Charge for successful placements not widely used Estimates Numerous variables salaries building supplies etc 1520 profit before taxes Billing at 3 times hourly salary 60K Actually 60K15K 1600 billable hours 47x3141 SVP 287 CEO 500 Annual billing pressure Selling time 70 of budget is people s salaries Markups 1520 of cost CHAPTER 5 Using Research Achieve credibility Define publics Formulate strategy Test messages through brochures Help management keep in touch Prevent crises Monitor competition through surveys Sway public opinion Generate publicity Measure success Types of Research FormalInformal SecondaryPrimary 0 Secondary research that already exists QualitativeQuantitative o Qualitative you get words 0 Quantitative ask and you rate something numbers Keys Search Tactics and Listening Secondary Existing Materials Archival Organizational materials warranty product registration Library and Online Databases 0 ProQuest LexisNexis Dow Jones Factiva News Retrieval Simmons Media and Markets Gallup Poll 0 Burrelle s Broadcast Database Internet and WWW 0 Google Trends US Census National Opinion Research Center Pew Research Center Roper Center for Public Opinion Research Survey Research Center Bureau of Labor Statistics Vanderbilt Television News Archive Statistical Abstracts of the US 0000 00000000 Primary What we create ourselves Content Analysis Systematic and objective categorization of information 0 Includes all the information Interviews Focus groups Surveys Copy testing Test copy before printingairing Ethnographic Techniques Anthropology viewing Ex Bulletin boards Night club Interviews Personal Interviews Purposive Indepth vs intercept convenience Key Informants Advisory Committees Boards Key Customer Problem Groups Detailed Questionnaire Recording Notes Video Audio Do secondary first then primary interview Focus Group Group homogeneous by some variable ex housewives male drivers age 2445 0 Idea is to engage in interaction Discussion agendaquestions Reaction to questionnaires design Copy test Numbers 812 Recruiting Site selection online Moderator s guide No right or wrong answer open up Nondirective Nonverbal Gamerole playing Surveys Objective Generalize information from a sample to a population Sample a subgroup or subset of a population Population a group or class of objects subjects or units Power Sample size Larger the sample smaller the margin of error Simple Random Sampling Each element in the population has an equal or known chance of being selected Random Digit Dialing RDD Use prefix in zone Randomly generate last numbers Start with list and add some fixed number Why Unlisted When you pull random phone numbers to do random surveys Systematic Sampling Every nth object selected Good when you have list of sampling units ex University list of students population 20000 want sample of 1000 Select every 1 in 20 Random start Make sure there is no systematic bias in sample Kish with large alphabetical list approaches random selection NonProbability Sampling Volunteer Snowball Convenience Types of Surveys Personal Mail Telephone Internetemail Fast economical control of sample probability issues Omnibuspiggyback Comparison of Methods Personal Mail Phone Speed medium slow fast Cost high low lowmed Max Length long medium short Anonymity low high moderate Influence high low medium What Should Be ReportedKnown About a Survey 1 Who sponsored the survey 2 Who was interviewed 3 Sampling Method 4 How many interviewed 5 When the interviews were conducted 6How the interviews were conducted 7 Sampling Error and Confidence Interval 8 Actual Question Wording Response Choices 9 Response Rate 10How the data were analyzed CHAPTER 6 Elements of a Program Plan 8 Steps Situation or Situation Analysis Objectives Audiences Strategies Tactics CalendarTimetable Budget Evaluation Objectives Quantify Informational Awareness Information Ex Mack Trucks Increase awareness of Mack engine technology from 25 of tractor purchasers to 60 in 1 year Ex Increase awareness of UA s Executive MBA program from 20 of Alabama s 2440 yearold males with college degree to 70 Motivational Attitudes Behavior Increase market share of Mack tractor trucks among tractor purchasers from 8 to 16 in 2 years Increase Web page views by 50 Strategy How in concept an objective is to be achieved providing guidelines and themes for the overall program UPS and FleishmanHillard decided the strategy would be to identify quotproof points regarding UPS s efforts to minimize its environmental impact and to develop stories around these points that were remarkable enough to trump other corporate green stories Tactics Specific activities that put the strategies into operation and help achieve objectives UPS Pitch hightech routing system no left turns Reduce emissions by 32000 metric tons of C02 5200 cars annually Hybrids world s largest order New paperless invoice system Budget Staff time Outofpocket expenses OOP Common for 70 for staff administrative Allow 10 of budget for unexpected expenses Chapter 4
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