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psych 114

psych 114

Description

School: Suffolk University
Department: Psychology
Course: Introduction to Psychology
Professor: Professor jarvi
Term: Fall 2016
Tags:
Cost: 25
Name: WEEKS 1,2,3 CLASS NOTES
Description: These notes cover everything learned in class in weeks 1-3.
Uploaded: 02/04/2016
8 Pages 150 Views 1 Unlocks
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Thinking Critically

  • Avoid overgeneralization
  • Group results vs. individual needs
  • Look for answers across studies

PsychologyWe also discuss several other topics like How do you perform the Lucas test?

Defining psychology: the scientific study of behavior and mental processes

  • Behavior - directly observable actions
  • Mental processes - thoughts, feelings, and motivations; private experiences that cannot be directly observed

Thinking like a psychologist

  • Remaining skeptical about assumptions, theories, fcts, and evidence that “proves” something about human behavior
  • Thinking objectively - acknowledging the world is not always what we would like it to be
  • Being curious about why things are the way they are
  • Looking at the data before making assumptions and drawing conclusions
  • Accepting debate, controversy, and an ever - changing field

Psychologists vs. psychiatrists

  • Psychologists - PhD - not able to provide meds
  • Trained in grad school with does on research in a specific area in psychotherapy or teaching careers
  • Psychiatrists - MD - provide meds treat mentally unstable

Scientific method

  • Observation
  • We observed variables (changing) that allow us to consider developing theories (broad idea that attempts to explain conservations)
  • Hypothesis and predictions
  • Educated guess that come from a theory, that can be tested
  • Testing through empirical research
  • Collecting and analyzing data to test predictions
  • Evaluating theory
  • After data collection, it is analyzed through various statistical programs (SPSS) to draw conclusions

How variables will be measured = operational definitionDon't forget about the age old question of Describe the caste system in India.

Types of Psychological Research

  • Descriptive Research
  • Determines basic dimensions of a phenomenon, defining what it is and how often it happens. Does not allow us to say why / how things are the way they are statistically
  • Types:
  • Observation (taking count of how often studies take note)
  • Surveys and interviews
  • Case studies (smaller group / 1 person)

Almost always included in the research describing the experiment

  • Observation: observing the object in interest in a systematic way (typically in person)
  • Who / what are you observing
  • When / where will you observe
  • How will you make your observations?
  • How will you document? (audio, writing, video)

Eg. observing conflict resolution among kids in playgroundIf you want to learn more check out What is the importance of environmental sustainability?

Operational definition: how you measure what you’re researching

  • Surveys and interviews: (most common) self - report measures, checklist, what people think about themselves. Can be open - ended or structured
  • Structured: “how many times have you talked about a personal problem with your partner” 0, 1, 2, 3,....
  • Open - ended: “how fulfilling would you say your relationship is”
  • Case studies: typically in - depth look at an individual, may also involve Families or Groups
  • Focus is very specific and therefore not likely Generalizable to the general population
  • Eg. personal experience
  • Correlational research: tells us about the relationship between two(2) variables
  • Do 2 variables change together? If so, how? If one variable increases, what happens to the other?
  • Allow us to predict one from the other
  • Values Fall Between +1.00 and -1.00
  • The number tells us about the strength
  • The sign tells us about the direction

  • Correlation does not mean causation: when two variables, this just means that they change together. We cannot say something carries something else

Third variable problem (a confounding variable)If you want to learn more check out What reason do we have to believe that God’s is not?

This study was done in hotter weather and crime goes up in warmer months. This is a third variable problem, the weather

If you want to learn more check out What is a hyperbolic pereloid?
We also discuss several other topics like What is the average of the averages?

But there is no causation. This doesn’t mean that ice cream sales cause crime

  • Longitudinal Research: obtaining measures of the variables you are interested in, in multiple ways over time. Allowing us to demonstrate causal relationships between variables, although we still cannot state casualty with 100% validity
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