PSYC 160, Exam 1 Study Guide
PSYC 160, Exam 1 Study Guide PSYC 160
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This 6 page Study Guide was uploaded by Brianna Dowell on Wednesday February 3, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to PSYC 160 at James Madison University taught by Kristen Davidson in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 63 views. For similar materials see Life Span Human Development in Psychlogy at James Madison University.
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Date Created: 02/03/16
PSYC 160 Exam 1 Study Guide CHAPTER ONE An Orientation to Lifespan Development Lifespan Development Changes that occur from birth to old age; insight into ourselves and others 4 types of development Biological, cognitive, psychosocial, Bio- psychosocial (what we’re studying) Biological/physical Brain development, hormones, muscles Psychological/cognitive Intelligence, memory, judgement Psychosocial Influence of family, culture, society Stages of Bio-psychosocial Prenatal; infancy to toddlerhood; development preschool; middle childhood; adolescence; young adulthood; middle adulthood; late adulthood Continuous vs. Discontinuous Gradual change or stages of change? Nature vs. Nurture Genetics or environment? Influences on development Cohort; history-graded; age-graded; sociocultural Cohort Group of people born around the same time and place History-graded influences Group of people born around same historical event (ex. 9/11, Great Depression) Age-graded influences Environmental and biological (ex. puberty, menopause) Sociocultural influences Growing up in different economic classes Common ways to collect data Surveys, case studies, observation, standardized testing Research Designs Experiments; Correlation; Descriptive, Cross-sectional, Longitudinal; Sequential It is important that all experiments are ethical and biased free! Experimental research Influence behavior by manipulation (i.e. cause and effect); independent and dependent variable Correlational research Identifies how two things relate (ex. height and weight or test scores and television) Descriptive research Observing and recording behavior Cross-sectional research Studying people of different ages at the same point in time Longitudinal research Following same participant(s) for a prolonged time (a minimum of one year) Sequential research Studying different age groups over PSYC 160 several points in time Theories of development Psychoanalytic; Behavior/Learning (social cognitive); Cognitive Sigmund Freud (1856-1939) Austrian neurologist and father of psychoanalytic theory; long term addiction to cocaine Freud’s Psychoanalytic theory Proposed by Sigmund Freud who believed the unconscious mind influences our behavior; combines biology and psychology 3 aspects of personality Id, ego superego Id An unconscious impulse to meet needs and is present at birth; pleasure principle Ego Part that is rational and reasonable; reality principle Superego A person’s conscience that differentiates between right and wrong; develops around 5 or 6 Freud’s stages of psychosexual Oral (birth to 12-18 months); anal (12- development (5) 18 months to 3 years); phallic (3 to 5-6 years); latency (5-6 years to adolescence); genital (adolescence to adulthood) True/False? Latency is the only stage True not focused on a body part. True/False? Fixation occurs if we get False. Fixation occurs if we get too complete satisfaction. much or too little satisfaction Erik Erikson (1902-1994) German-born American and Freud’s student who developed his own theory on psychosocial development Erikson’s psychoanalytic theory Differed from Freud’s theory in 2 ways: he believed development lasted the entire lifespan and does not involve sex Erikson’s stages of psychosocial Trust vs mistrust (birth to 12-18 development (8) months); Autonomy vs. shame and doubt (3 to 5-6 years); Initiative vs. guilt (3 to 5-6 years); Industry vs. inferiority (5-6 years to adolescence); Identity vs. role diffusion (adolescence); Intimacy vs. isolation (early adulthood); Generativity vs. stagnation (middle adulthood); Ego-integrity vs. despair (late adulthood) True/False? We cannot move on to the False. We can move on, but it may pose next stage unless we have addressed problems in the later future. and overcome a challenge in the PSYC 160 current stage. True/False? Freud and Erikson’s True research was conducted primarily on upper class males. Behavioral and Learning theory Development can be understood through observable behavior and environment stimuli John B. Watson (1878-1958) and Ivan Known for classical conditioning Pavlov (1849-1936) Classical conditioning When an organism learns to respond in a certain way to a stimulus True/False? There are no stages to True Pavlov/Watson’s theory. B.F. Skinner (1904-1990) Known for operant conditioning Operant conditioning A form of learning using rewards and punishment; kids believe negative attention is better than no attention Albert Bandura (1925 -) Social cognitive (or learning) theory; believed both biology and environment play a role in development Social cognitive/learning theory Learning by observing another person or a role model Psychodynamic theory Sigmund Freud, Erik Erikson Behavioral theory John B. Watson/Ivan Pavlov, B.F. Skinner Social Cognitive theory Albert Bandura C HAPTER FIVE Cognitive Growth: Piaget and Vygotsky Jean Piaget (1896-1980) Swiss psychologist known for his theory of cognitive development (genetic epistemology) Genetic epistemology Study of the origins of knowledge Constructivism How we make meaning based on our experiences 2 principles of genetic epistemology Assimilation; accommodation Assimilation Adding new information and experiences to what we already know Accommodation Changes in existing way of thinking Stages of genetic epistemology Sensorimotor; Preoperational 1. Sensorimotor Stage Birth to 2 years; motor and sensory skills develop; 6 sub stages, but we rd only need to know the 3 = Secondary circular reaction, which deals with object permanence Object permanence Child understands an object still exists even if it’s out of sight and mind AB Error When a child has not reached object PSYC 160 permanence 2. Preoperational Stage 2 to 7 years; Kids are beginning to think logically about most things, but they are also very ego-centric and don’t understand others perspectives Symbolic thinking Mental symbol that represents an object, person, or word Centration Concentrating on a particular stimuli; presents limitation Conservation Quantity and arrangement are not related 3. Concrete Operational Stage 7 to 12 years; Children start to understand and apply logic, but need to have a concrete example (ex. family relationship) Formal Operational Stage 12 to 15 years; Adolescents can now think abstractly about thigs like morals, ethics, politics; development ends here Piaget suggested… Children learn best teaching themselves, so let the child determine their own pace True/False? Piaget believed children False. Vygotsky believed children were were little apprentices. little apprentices. Piaget believed children were little scientists. David Elkind (1931- ) Jewish-American child psychologist who contributed to the cognitive development theory Adolescent egocentrism Belief found in teens, that others are highly attentive to their behavior and appearance Imaginary audience Idea that everyone (audience) is watching you (main star), so you engage in attention getting behavior Personal fable Making up stories that you are unique and invincible; thinking that bad things happen to other people Elkind suggested… Adolescents can’t think as logically as Piaget thought and are very egocentric Lev Vygotsky (1986-1934) Russian psychologist that developed a sociocultural approach to cognitive development Vygotsky’s sociocultural theory Culture is responsible for how we develop; Our development is inseparable from our social and cultural activities; development is a reciprocal transaction between people in child's environment and the child PSYC 160 Social constructivist We make meaning from social interactions and our culture Zone of Proximal Development (ZPD) Tasks too difficult to master alone; cognitive distance between performing and completing a task; all of us are surrounded by this zone; lifelong Private speech Talking to yourself; It’s a good thing! Gets thoughts in order to problem solve Vygotsky suggested… Peers are the best teachers and kids should always be encouraged Cognitive theory Piaget and Vygotsky CHAPTER SIX Cognitive Growth: Information Processing Approaches Information Processing Approach (IPA) Cognitive approach to understanding how the mind transforms sensory info; focuses on memory and attention Memory steps (computer analogy) 1.Encode (keyboard) 2. Storage (hard drive) 3. Retrieval (computer screen) Types of memory Short term or working memory; long term memory Short term memory Capacity to hold a small amount of info in the mind; approximately 15 to 25 seconds (ex. phone numbers) Long term memory Info is stored for a long period of time; unlimited; 2 kinds of long term memory: implicit and explicit Implicit Using memory without thinking about it (ex. knowing not to touch a hot stove) Explicit Conscious memory of facts and experiences (ex. names); 2 kinds of explicit memory: episodic and semantic Episodic Retaining information on when and where something happened (ex. 9/11) Semantic Knowledge we have about the world aka general everyday knowledge Problem solving skills The ability to work through problems to reach a solution Infantile amnesia Inability to recall memories Autobiographical memory Memory of particular events from one’s life Children’s Eyewitness Testimony Stephen Ceci claims children are susceptible to adult suggestion and, therefore, we should not trust their memory of an event. IPA teaching methods Whole-language approach; code-based PSYC 160 approach Whole-language approach Learning through exposure to whole written material Code-based approach Learning through being taught basic skills, such as translating sounds into words; most effective method Critical thinking skills Thinking that involves using cognitive skills and strategies to solve problems True/False? The Information Processing False. Some people believe this theory approach was met with no criticism. is too sterile, because it suggests no emotion or insight.
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