Exam 1 Study Guide
Exam 1 Study Guide COMM 1500-005
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This 9 page Study Guide was uploaded by Anna Shaw on Wednesday February 3, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to COMM 1500-005 at Clemson University taught by Marianne H. Glaser in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 107 views.
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Date Created: 02/03/16
Communications Study Guide Bold words= important terms Chapter 1: Connecting Processes and Principles communication: transactions that allow people to reflect and build personal knowledge of one another and create shared meaning o simultaneous sharing and creation of meaning Greece origin of communication Communication is key at the right place and right time Communication Competence having the right skills, understanding, and making the right connections to be an effective speaker o But what makes an effective speaker? Good body lang., straight forward, ability to read audience and adjust, confidence, volume Why study communication? o Career development employers want you to be able to properly communicate yours skills the world is diverse make sure you can communicate to all the fields First you’ve got to get the job then you need to keep the job o Ethical behavior o Cultural Diversity Principles of communication o STAR QUESTION/CONCEPT: communication is both intentional or unintentional Types of communication o Intrapersonal: process of understanding info about yourself o Interpersonal: informal exchange between 2 or more people o Public communication: large number of people involved in communication Differences: more formal vocab., planned, no interruptions from audience, more vocal variety Similarities: responding to an audience, nonverbal communication., still organized o Mass communication: large # of ppl via variety media disciplines Professional communicator source of info o Communication via social media STAR QUESTION/CONCEPT: three reasons why people communicate: 1. To inform 2. To persuade 3. To entertain STAR QUESTION/CONCEPT: 7 distinguishing factors from social media to facetoface communication o Interactivity: ability of communication tool to facilitate social interaction o Temporal structure: a device’s temporal structure time it takes for device to send and receive Synchronous: instant Asynchronous: stopsend stopreceive Allows time ideas can be thought out o Social cues: lack of social cues in social media (emojis are the solution) o Replicabiliteasy to replicate (hard w/ facetoface) o Storage: facetoface happens it’s over Social media can stay for a long time o Reach: the idea of “going viral” o Mobility: both very similar Misconceptions o Communication is a cureall o Quantity does not equal quality o Meaning is in the words used More meaning in how it is delivered o We have a natural ability to communicate o Communication is reversible No take backs Chapter 10: Managing Anxiety and Delivering your speech speech anxiety: combo of biochemical changes in body in a communication situation o fear of speaking in front of audience communication comprehension: most severe form an anxiety syndrome associated with real or anticipated communication w/ another person or persons there is not a solution or a cureall only a way to learn to manage o key to managing is the desire to do so Symptons: o Voice quivering, too soft o Facial expressions o Body movement Anxiety is normal Can become a positive thing o Extra energy, you make prepare earlier Treating/managing speech anxiety o STAR QUESTION/CONCEPT: visualization o Systematic desensitizat a systematic technique designed to reduce the tenseness associated w/ anxiety Control your nerves: o You are not alone o Know the audience and surroundings o Practice o Think positively o Don’t give up o Choose topics you are passionate about o Be prepared Mrs. Glasers’ Tips: o Walk confidently don’t talk o Seriously, zip it o Finish strong Initial and ending credibility STAR QUESTION/CONCEPT: methods of delivery o Impromptu delivery: off the top of your head Advantages: energy, sounds conversational, better eye contact flexible Disadvantages: no practice (could sound unprofessional) o Manuscript delivery: reading it like a book Adv.: don’t forget anything less nervous, more structure Dis.: no eye contact (or head bobbing), robotic/monotone o Memorized delivery: memorize speech Most time to prepare, not flexible, disjointed, talking at audience o STAR QUESTION/CONCEPT: extemporaneous delivery One we will use in lab Flexible and you can read the audience Not memorized use an outline and key words to help you move along Can create more anxiety Conversational Conversational Tone o Present so that it sounds spontaneous, no matter how many times it is rehearsed o Be animated o Talk with audience vs. at audience o Choose words your listener will understand Vocal quality: overall impression Intelligibility: emphasis, articulation STAR QUESTION/CONCEPT vocal variety: variations in rate, force (volume/loudness), and pitch You need to practice gives credibility If there is any confusion b/t verbal delivery and physical delivery audience will often (most likely) follow nonverbal cues Be purposeful with your gestures Keep your attention to audience (don’t turn sideways to powerpoint) Engage audience STAR QUESTION/CONCEPT Benefits of presentational aids o Speech easy to understand/memorable o Creates audience attention and interest o Helps with delivery o Provides support enhances speaker credibility (IF DONE WELL) Aids o Aids should serve a need o Should be planned and adapted to audience o Should not dominate o Should look professional o Do not talk to aid Types of aids o Presentation software No more than 5 bullets, 5 words across o Videos/digitized video clips No more than 30 seconds (short and sweet) o Real objects Smaller than a piece of paper o Models o Photos, graphs, diagrams STAR QUESTION/CONCEPT: graphs best way to represent data graphically o If it doesn’t look good on your computer it’s not going to look good on the presentation Practice your delivery Chapter 7: Selecting a Topic and Connecting to the Audience Getting ideas: o It’s important that it is important to you because if you’re passionate about it your audience will be pick up on that o Important: don’t eliminate an idea b/c you think audience wont be interested 5 techniques to choose topic: o Selfinventory What places, people, events, and ideas do you find interesting? o Brainstorm My interests – audience interests – possible topics o Review Current media o Engage listeners w/ social media o Surf the web Don’t force a topic if youre not interested the audience can tell they become uninterested and you can lose credibility Does topic merit the audience? Does topic meet objective? STAR QUESTION/CONCEPT: are you sufficiently motivated? Do you remember the 3 general purposes of communic (Refer to chapter 1 study guide) Specific Purpose Statement: a single phrase that precisely defines what you intend to accomplish in your speech o STAR QUESTION/CONCEPT: What makes a certain statement a specific purpose statement? The audience o Specific purpose to inform my audience of/about … Thesis: a sentence that states specifically what is going to be delivered in speech o ONE SENTENCE STAR QUESTION/CONCEPT: Guidelines to determine a good SP o Concise, not in question form Audience analysis: collection of data and interpretation about characteristics. Attributes, values, and beliefs of an audience Captive vs. voluntary audience o Voluntary: they choose to be there o Captive: “have” to be there means you have to work hard to convince them/hold their attention Demographic analysis: age, gender, cultural background, education Psychological analysattitudes (negative, against, neutral) o Neutral is hardest b/c you have to convince them they are interested and that you’re topic is worth their time Ways to learn about an audience: o Observation: worst case scenario o Questionnaires: not practical o Survey/interview the person who asks you to do a speech bombard this person with questions about audience Chapter 8: Research Start early Think about your topic Preliminary works cited Understand requirements o Keep complete info on the sources Understand that enough is enough STAR QUESTION/CONCEPT: Gathering info o The internet as an information service Is there an author? (credible) Understand that there will always be bias Is it current o Wikipedia is a starting point CREDIBLE SOURCES Interview: record it Expert testimony lots of knowledge, experience, has a degree Lay testimony “normal” person, average Joe Using Research to support ideas: o Testimony Expert vs. lay testimonies The doctor is the expert even if you experienced it all, you still aren’t an expert o Examples: simple, representative incident or model that clarifies a point Imagine if… o Definitions: denotation, clarification o Statistics: numerical data Plagiarism: the unethical act of representing info as your own o When in doubt CITE Chapter 9: Organizing and Outlining your Speech Main points: the principle subdivisions of a speech o Broad, overarching statements STAR QUESTION/CONCEPT: PRESENTING YOUR MAIN POINTS An effective spech o Be specific o Use vivid lang. o Create parallel structure STAR QUESTION/CONCEPT FOR ALL EXAMS: speech organizational patterns o Timesequence pattern: before, present, after o Spatial pattern: physical space/distance o Topical pattern: the subtopics are related to the main topic (the subtopics are the babies of the main topic) Introduction o Gain attention o Thesis o Establish credibility o Relate to audience o Preview Its okay to be repetitive b/c audience can’t “reread” Use same words Key ways to get audience attention: o Startle them o Rhetorical question o Visual aid o Make sure your AG actually ties in with your topic o DELIVERY IS KEY Credibility: the audiences perception of whether a speaker is qualified o You do not own your credibility Goodwill: the audience’s perception of whether the speaker has the best interests of the audience in mind Focus statement: a statement in the intro that identifies the main points to be discussed Organizing conclusion o show that you are finishing o make thesis clear o review main point o end with a BANG STAR QUESTION/CONCEPT o Outlining: arranging materials in a logical sequence Blueprint/skeleton o Principle: Subordination: clearly identifies the hierarchy of ideas Most important ideas are the main points next are the subpoints Coordination: suggests that ideas with the same level of importance use the same kind of numbers and letters to visually indicate the relationships b/t ideas Parallelism: using similar grammatical forms and language patterns for all main ideas, subpoints, etc. Preliminary outline: a list of all the points that may be used in a speech Full sentence: expands the ideas you have decided to include in speech o Identifies main points and sub points o Written in full sentences Presentational outline: concise, condensed with notations o Notecards o Full sentences and key phrases
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