Philosophy Unit 1 Test Study Guide
Philosophy Unit 1 Test Study Guide PHIL 1305.287
Popular in Philosophy and Critical Thinking
verified elite notetaker
Popular in PHIL-Philosophy
verified elite notetaker
This 4 page Study Guide was uploaded by Samantha Notetaker on Wednesday February 3, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to PHIL 1305.287 at Texas State University taught by Ellen Bridge Stansell in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 36 views. For similar materials see Philosophy and Critical Thinking in PHIL-Philosophy at Texas State University.
Reviews for Philosophy Unit 1 Test Study Guide
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!
Date Created: 02/03/16
Philosophy Test 1: Berkeley & Russell Basic Vocab: 1. Concept cannot be disproved or proved by factual evidence 2. View belief, opinion, conclusion, position, claim 3. Argumenttext that supports or justifies a view 4. Premisethe statement pieces of your argument. (impersonal so as not to offend, not based on emotion, avoid controversy) 5. Strategywhen key vocab from Premises appears in the conclusion Russell’s Reading: Appearance vs. Reality Vocab in the text: 1. Certainbeyond reasonable doubt 2. Doubtnot to judge negatively or prejudge as false. 3. Immediate Experiences raw sense experience, the instant sensory experience, which can be different from the object itself 4. Use of Reason either we sense then know what something is or we sense it and use our minds to perceive it as an object 5. Subjectiveof or related to subject, personal experience you are having 6. Objectiveall qualities or characteristics of an object. No bias. Questions being asked: “Is there any knowledge in the world which is so certain that no reasonable man could doubt it?” Views: o We have sense perceptions first, and then we discern that it is desk. Appearance (sense perceptions) immediate experiences, how things seem, subjective, private Reality (the cause of sense perceptions) mediated, how things actually are, how/what they actually are, objective Examples: 1. Relationships could appear to be loving (sense perceptions), but he is actually cheating on you (reality). Arguments: o People assume the goal is real objects, so he goes onto look for how to prove that, and the only way we can is by saying that sense data cannot provide real evidence for real objects. o It is reasonable to think that the world is real around us because we are able to explain our sensory data that we have perceived. o We can’t be sure that there is a real world, but it is reasonable to think so. o The Principle of Simplicity states that it is far simpler to rely on our instincts than to try to explain the contrary. Example of Russell Reconstruction by Teacher: P1. We believe there are real objects that match up to our perceived sense data. P2. This is an instinctive belief. P3. Instinctive beliefs that cannot be logically contradicted should be accepted. P4. Believing in real objects doesn’t contradict our sense data or any instinctive beliefs. P5. Since objects do correspond to sense data it simplifies our belief in the reality of these objects even when we are unaware of their timelines. (think cat getting hungrier regardless of if you are there or not.) P6. The Principle of Simplicity would say that because these perceptions match up to objects it is easier to believe in their existence. C. We should believe that real objects match up with our sense data. Important Views from the reading: We should care about the questions because if objects don’t exist then other people might not exist We shouldn’t doubt our senses Sense data is certain. Even if a table is completely covered by a tablecloth, sense makes us believe it still exists If we believe that objects are nothing more than sense data then we won’t be able to explain shared experiences We should believe in real, physical objects for the sake of simplicity and it is instinctive Even if we can’t prove our belief, it is rational to believe it when it explains our experiences and we have to evidence to the contrary All knowledge is based on human instinct Philosophy cannot prove that our knowledge is true but it plays an important role Berkeley’s Reading: Vocab: o Realthe state or quality of being mindindependent o Use of Reasoneither we sense things and we know it, or we sense things and use our minds to perceive them as an object. Views: o There is a problem with appearance vs. reality o There is no real world o No physical objects. o Human minds & God exist o No physical reality exists outside of the mind. God feeds us sense perceptions. o Senses cannot prove the reality of external objects o Dreams (we can have ideas without bodies to resemble them) o We have to prove things through sense or reason and since both are fallible that doesn’t work. Questions he asks: o Can we be sure what we see is what we get? o Can we be sure the world is real based on our perceptions? Arguments: o Ideas include our sense perceptions of objects o There are minds that have ideas (perceive, imagine) o The mind is a container where ideas exist o Since ideas only exist in the mind and objects are our perceptions of them we can’t argue they exist outside of the mind. o If something isn’t perceived by our mind, it doesn’t exist o Sense perceptions of objects may not actually resemble the objects. Ideas and mental and ideas only exist in my mind o Believes in secondary qualities, like what qualifies the object and perceptible qualities that change depending on the observer o Primary qualities are mindindependent (only perceived by us) o If objects do exist, we can’t prove it o So they must not exist Test Tips from class: The test will consist of 4 questions that you will answer in paragraph form. She’ll bring blue books, just bring a pencil! Use the premises and conclusions of an argument to learn the main topics and information of a reading quicker and easier. If your premises are mostly hitting on the main points and your conclusion is correct you will get a 100, but if the conclusion off then it is up to the discretion of the teacher. For the first test, she will most likely provide important vocab that is needed in premises. One idea per premise is ideal, but if you cover all the ideas and structure of the reading in less that is acceptable. Flesh out your arguments. Write more than 1 sentence. You will get more credit for the more information that you give. She wants to see that you understand the information. Look at teacher’s reconstructions of arguments. BUT DO NOT MEMORIZE THEM OR TRY TO SPIT THEM BACK IN YOUR OWN WORDS. She wants to read your own thoughts. Test sample questions from class: Describe Berkeley’s view on the world and how it is real. Then provide 1 of his arguments to support this view. (You will be graded on your ability to explain in your own words and it doesn’t have to be in premises form.) You will have to be able to reconstruct an argument from Berkeley’s reading that we haven’t done in class yet. (reread each paragraph to get the main ideas)
Are you sure you want to buy this material for
You're already Subscribed!
Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'