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UCONN / Chemistry / CHEM 2241 / How do you name compounds with functional groups?

How do you name compounds with functional groups?

How do you name compounds with functional groups?

Description

School: University of Connecticut
Department: Chemistry
Course: Organic Chemistry
Professor: Anwar beshir
Term: Fall 2015
Tags: Organic Chemistry
Cost: Free
Name: CHEM 2241 Functional Groups and Naming Alkanes Notes
Description: These notes cover what we learned about functional groups as well as naming molecules, particularly alkanes
Uploaded: 02/04/2016
7 Pages 139 Views 16 Unlocks
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1/29/16


How do you name compounds with functional groups?



Functional Groups and Nomenclature

alkane -Ç-©- or 1-Ç-H bosbe

only C+H and only single bonds and not to plantes

Hon cionof newing ot base alkene c = 6 (Ho) Carbonyl - c

alkyne -C=C


What is the formula of alkenes?



baldehyde -c- C-H

c =Ć.

Ly Ketone

-c- c-colas

A arene ti-C

u carboxylic acid

-¢-C-0-H) -

v

bester 3-6-6-0-¢-

Thalide -c-X


How are hydrocarbons used in everyday life?



Don't forget about the age old question of What is distance formula and what are its examples?

X = F, Cl, Br, I

bamide

-c-C-N-rol

bacid chloride

-c-ci-cir

alcohol ether

-¢-O-H -c-o-c

sacid anhydride -¢-C-0-8-¢

amine -C-N-H I noor met zo zout bo imine -c-c-6-othandelt Hann ei-Ç-Ņ-

Hamad artib bomo

t

epoxide

-¢- Çarsani kot

de le Don't forget about the age old question of Why are discouraged workers not included in the unemployment rate?

phenol

-

Co-

H

annoo

-C-

N nitrile -C-CEN

nitro Sulfide -¢-s-c thiol -c-s-H

-C-s-

c

aniline

+ Hydrocarbons - Compounds containing only Carbon and Hydrogen

• Alkanes - Hydrocarbons made using only single bondsco Straight chain n-alkanes are homologs of the series H-(CH2)n-H, We also discuss several other topics like What are the two ways to exploit mass media?

and their molecular formula is CnH2n+2 ore

ext-8-8 - E-H is H-CCH2);-H -> C3H2.342 -> GHz

-CH3

The Normal Alkanes -C=1. Methane CH4 -C=2 Ethane C2H6 -=3 Propane & C3 Hs. -C=4 Butane Culho - C= 5 Pentane Cs Hotebog - C= 6 Hexane Chiu a + C = 7 Heptane & G His -C 8 Octane CGH18 -C=9 Nonane Cq H2o hi -C= 10 Decane Crotzz -C = 11 Undecane GHzy bow -C=12 Dodecane Ciz Hz We also discuss several other topics like White republicans southerners are called?

+ Isomers - Have the same number and types of atoms, but are

arranged differently. This cives isomers different physical and loc

Chemical properties from eachother Constitutional Isomers- Isomers that are different because of the

ways they are connected Also, constitutional Isomers of Pentane pentune" sn-pentane isopentane neopentane

Stud SOU

CH3CH2CH2CH2 CH3

CH CH CH2 CH3

CH3 Ihre CH3 C CH3 Don't forget about the age old question of What is the difference between society and culture?

will

"iso" Structural unit ibi "neo Structurat unit We also discuss several other topics like What did aristotle believe about the heart?

- CH2 D-

CHE

X CH3 CH3

CH3 CH3

.

CH3

-Alkyl - Formed when one Hydrogen is removed from an alkane

CH3

CHECHz

CH methyl

ethyl

isopropylen

CH3

Classifying sps Carbon atom type by C-C connectivity in - How many other Carbons is it connected to sendbor -Primary Carbon (10) - Bonded to I other Carbon l o cale -Secondary Carbon (20) - Bonded to 2 other Carbons estamox -Tertiary Carbon (3) - Bonded to 3 other Carbons en -Quaternary Carbon (4) Bonded to 4 other Carbons

Heņembantu R adio Roa ceneric H-C-H .R-ċ-H R-C-

R R -C-R saint alkyl group

I

an 2 -

3

de 4

a monta

Classifying Halides (-5, -C1, -Br, -I) and alcohols (-OH) by CC Connectivity

in

HW HURA 2 a 2

R-C-x R-C-X R-Ć-> -

Hlina Ropa y Ři Halide (X=-F, -Cl, Br, -I) a lo halide 2 halide 3 halide Alcohol (X=-OH)

l' alcohol 2° alcohol i 3 alcohol

Naming Butyl Compounds de ma bho shootout n-butyl alcohol isobutyl alcohol sec-butyl chloride tert-butyl bromide

(i-butyl alcohol) (s- butyl chloride) (t-butyl bromide)

HO-CH2CH2CH2Clty

HO-CH2

CA3

B

r

CH2

Naming the Hydrogen atom by it's CC connectivity

- RO H-6-H CH -C-

H A 3° hydrocen is allached to a

R osca 30 carbon, etc. Phydrogen 2 hydrogen

Determininke sp3 Carbon atom-type based on C-H connectivity

X and R are H-C-

H H -Ċ-H. H.-C-

X H -C-x interchangeable

methane

methyl

methylene

methine

of with

Examples:

H? R-C-

x

bos nine

mmatico

? H-CFH

Lo Carbon (ble IR group) Methyl (blc 3 hydrogens)

aka#ofC's .

it's connected

L

2° Carbon (based on#Rgroups)

ethine (based on #hydrogens)

De

m

Determining sps nitrogen atom type by C-N connectivity - 1 , 2 , 3 + 4 notation refers to the number of N-C bonds: for amines & amides

Amide: H-N-C-R

Are

R-N-C-B.

R-N-C-R

Amine

H-N-R

R-N-R

R-N-R

R-N-R

20 Polyester

,

3o

e 4o

"t" Charge: add "ium" suffix ' " charge add ide" suffix

RS Ex: R-N-R = quaternary ammonium

ion

Naminc Alkanes

C

9 Prefix + Parent The position what is the of the substituen's longest C-c

chain?

&

2/ 116 tourado ab Is Suffix odorato as teil hot 4 The functional i tate

group family

SEO

1. Find the longest Carbon Chain - The Parent -Name according to the number of carbons in the chain

GHz banat

oa ICH CH2 - CH - CH CH CH2 6 carbons = hept - heptane

G CH3

and also

- If there are two chains of equael length, choose the one with

more branches.

CH3-CH-CH2-CH3 ^ butane with 1 substituent

CH3 -CH=CH-CH2 butane with 2 substituents

-

- Stact numbering the carbons, Starting at the end closest to

the first branch point. antiboo bro CH3 m2 t anna hoond CH2 whitede sota

'C.H2 CH2 CH-CH-CH2 < - CH2 - CH CH CH 2 O

HH CH3 H4 H CH3 H7 1st branch on C# 3 X at 1st branch on C#2 V

- If the 1st branch point is the same number of carbons from

each end, begin numberinc from the end closer to the 2nd branch.

CH2

CH3 -CH="CH2 -CH=CH-CH3 CH2=CH-CH 2 -CH=CH-CHS.

CH3 m borboador to CH2 hon Gt3 cod 'CH3

CH3 1st branch @3

1st branch @3 A A 2nd breanen@s x

and branch @ 40

Std S

3. Identifier Substituents - Prefix - And list in alphabetical order for

2-methyl-> CH3 en CH3 <-5-methyl

CH3 CH3CH2CH2 CH-CH3

CH2 2-3-ethyl

CH2 - CH3 T

3-ethyl

2-methyl

5-methyl h e contban

4. Write out the name as one word.

· The Substituents are pot alphabetically in the prefix - "di", Fri",

"Sec" etc are not used to alphabetize butyl methyl etc are.

One exception : "iso"

• Hyphens separate prefixes about the youth and short T

Commas separate numbers

- If there is more than one of one kind of substituent, use di-tri-, etc 3-propyl CH2 - CH2 - CH3 i CH3 CH2 - CH2 -CH-CH2 - CH - CH2 - CH3

- 4-methyl CH3 CH2 4-3-methyl 3,4-dimethyl-5-propyloctane con att barnen toista

CH3

- 2-methyl

3-ethyl

5. If the Substituent is branched, name it seprately and add it in L CH3 CH2 CH3 CH2

I CH2 - CH2 - CH2 - CH3 -CH-CH-CH2-CH3 33-CH2 CH2 CH3 5-(1-methylpropyl) ♡ # CH-CH2 CH2 - CH2 1-methyl propyl (not - ane)

3-ethyl-2-methyl-5-11-methylpropyl) nonane

•Or, if you recoxnize the Structure (this is sec-butyl you can just d use that as the name : 5-sec-butyl - 3-ethyl-2-methyl nonane

• Aleways becin numberincs at the point of attachment of the branching 1 molecule.

Drop - one and add-yl for branched molecule.

3- Carbon Alkyl Group:

}}-Chus

s CH3 brod s

isopropyl

1 H les than alkane, but taken

from middle C

onde (H2 CH3 & CH CH3

14-Carbon Alkyl Groups:

Color CH2 codes

- -C- CH3

CH3 sec-butyl (sec-Bu) isobutyl (i-Bu) tert-butyl (t-Bu). H taken from 2nd C

It taken from tertiary C

3-CH2-CH CH3

&-CH2 CHC

CH.

CH3

5-Carbon Alkyl Groups:

на снимка на сн {}-CH2-CH2 - CH

& CH2-C-CH3 }} - ( - CH2 - CH3

CH3 ..CH3 isopentyl or isoamy! - neopentyl tert-pentyl or text-amyl

CH3

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