Psych 254 Chapters 1&2 Study Guide
Psych 254 Chapters 1&2 Study Guide PSY 254
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This 0 page Study Guide was uploaded by Alyssa Nissen on Wednesday February 3, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to PSY 254 at University of Rhode Island taught by Dr. Shannette Harris in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 98 views. For similar materials see Abnormal Psychology in Psychlogy at University of Rhode Island.
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Date Created: 02/03/16
Abnormal Psychology Ch1amp2 Quiz Study Guide Quiz date Tuesday Feb 9 2016 Online Abnormal psychology The scientific study of abnormal behavior in an effort to describe predict explain and change abnormal patterns of functioning The Four D s Certain features of abnormal behavior which also have limitations 1 Dangerous Posing risk of harm to self or others Behavior is consistently careless hostile or confused 0 Example Alberto who has been hearing voices in his head that tell him that his food has been poisoned and that the apocalypse is near is putting himself and others in danger by severely altering his diet and also loading up on guns and ammunition Limitation Some psychological disorders do not pose a threat to the individual or others some dangerous behavior may be present for a reason aside from mental illness 0 Example 0CD delusions antisocial behavior not dangerous Ghandi s hunger strike dangerous for other reason than illness 2 Deviant Different extreme unusual perhaps even bizarre 0 Example One hundred years ago it would be abnormal and even delusional for a woman to seek power authority Today it would be normal and admirable Shows that norms cando change Limitation Situation may cause deviant behavior to be normal or acceptable 0 Example A man is painted blue and sitting in a tree This is deviant behavior until you understand that he s rooting on his favorite team and is in the tree to get a better look 3 Distressing Unpleasant and upsetting to the person 0 Example People with depression or anxiety may always feel uncomfortable out of control and tense Limitation Some disorders abnormal behaviors are not distressing 0 Example delusions antisocial behavior 4 Dysfunctional Interfering with the person s ability to conduct daily activities in a constructive way 0 Example Rob feels unsafe at the office after the 911 attacks and is so afraid and anxious that he has been unable to leave his apartment for 2 years He lost his girlfriend and hasn t been able to go hang out with his buddies since Limitation Not all dysfunctional behavior is caused by a mental illness 0 Example You may be terrified of planes and unable to get yourself to get on one but may still have a very normal life 0 Thomas Szasz 19202012 0 Said that mental illness is a myth created by society so that they could have a reason to control and stop abnormal behaviors that are upsetting or threaten the social order 0 Abnormal behaviors are actually just problems in living 0 Treatment therapy a procedure designed to change abnormal behavior into more normal behavior Have 3 essential features su erer seeks relief healer expertise is accepted series of contacts multiple sessions in which healer tries to change seeker s behaviors 0 Treatment is surrounded by con ict by the lack of agreement about the therapists goalsaims what is a successfulunsuccessful case and as to whether the healer is looking to cure or to teach the client Trephination a stone trephine is used to open the skull and release the evil spirits which were thought to be the cause of mental illnesses and abnormal behavior back in the Stone Age Exorcism Usually performed by a priest an exorcism is performed on people who are thought to have the devil inside them mental illnesses were thought to be the devil before further research was done The priest would yell at and insult the demonspiritdevil that supposedly lived in the patient to coax them to leave the body Hippocrates 460377 B C Father of Modern Medicine thought mental illnesses had natural causes 0 Suggested idea of humors 4 main bodily chemicals that were thought to in uence mental and physical functioning i Black bile excess melancholia ii Yellow bile excess mania iii Blood iv Phlegm Johann Weyer 15151588 German physician who was the first to specialize in mental illness Considered the founder of the modern study of psychopathy The mind is as susceptible to sickness as the body Religious shrines made for humane and loving treatment of people with mental disorders Most popular shrine was Gheel in Belgium Proved that love and care would actually improve the behavior and mental stability of the patients Asylums institutions whose primary purpose was care of the mentally ill Initially had good intentions however due to overcrowding and lack of staff and money were turned into prisons and patients were beaten and shackled Returned back to humane care around 1800s but went back to prisonlike state by the end of the nineteenth century Phillipe Pinel 17451826 Reversed the inhumane treatment in an allmale institution in Paris called LA Bicetre in 1793 by unshackling the patients and changed dark dungeons into sunny rooms while teaching staff that kindness and love are crucial since they are sick and need to get better Moved on to La Salpetriere an institution in Paris for women Moral Treatment a nineteenth century approach to treating people with mental dysfunction that emphasized moral guidance an humane and respectful treatment Dorothea Dix 18021887 made humane care a nationwide concern when she went to the state legislature and Congress and showed images and examples of the awful treatment and overcrowding in institutions nationwide in uencing laws to be passed stating that each state was responsible for maintaining humane and moral treatment within their institutions Somatogenic Perspective Abnormal functioning has physical causes body Emil Kraeplin 18561926 A supporter of the Somatogenic Perspective Emil stated that fatigue results in mental dysfunction Wrote a book listing symptoms and physical causes of factors such as fatigue and predicted their outcome As a result of his work new biological discoveries were made such as the link between untreated syphilis and general paresis Psychogenic Perspective Abnormal functioning has psychological causes mind Friedrich Anton Mesmer 17341815 treated his patients who had hysterical disorders with hypnotism and called it mesmerism Eventually banished due to the controversy of his treatment which was challenged by Benjamin Franklin Sigmund Freud 18561939 developed the theory of psychotherapy and believed that the unconscious psychological processes are the root of Mesmer being able to treat his patients He treated patients w mental disorders that were not extreme enough to be in hospitals such as anxiety or depression in therapy sessions a practice now known as outpatient therapy Psychotropic medications 1950s drugs that primarily affect the brain and reduce many symptoms of mental dysfunctioning Include antipsychotic drugs correct extremely confused and distorted thinking antidepressant drugs lift the mood of depressed people and antianxiety drugs reduce tension and worry Discovery of these drugs allowed deinstitutionalization from asylumshospitals Private psychotherapy Before 1950 s an arrangement in which a patient directly pays a therapist for counseling services This was really only available for the wealthy since it was pretty expensive but after the 1950s health insurance companies began to cover it so that it was available for more people Prevention Interventions aimed at deterring mental disorders before they can develop Positive Psychology the study and enhancement of positive feelings traits and abilities Multicultural Psychology the field that examines the impact of culture race ethnicity gender on behaviors and thoughts and focuses on how such factors may in uence the origin nature and treatment of abnormal behavior People of different cultures races and genders may differ psychologically Managed care program Health care coverage in which the insurance company largely controls the nature scope and cost of medical or psychological services One of the most important developments in the field of abnormal psychology has been the growth of theoretical perspectives including i Behavioral perspective ii Cognitive perspective iii Humanisticexistential perspective iv Sociocultural perspective v Somatogenic perspective vi Psychoanalytical perspective Research the systematic search for facts through the use of careful observations and investigations Important to the field of abnormal psychology Clinical Researchers measure unconscious motives assess private thoughts monitor mood changes and calculate human potential They consider different cultural backgrounds races and genders of the people they study They must always ensure that the rights of their research participants both human and animal are not violated They try to discover universal laws or principles of abnormal psychological functioning Case study Can provide a detailed interpretative description of a person39s life and psychological problems can be a source of new ideas about behavior May offer tentative support for a theory May challenge a theory39s assumptions May inspire new therapeutic techniques May offer opportunities to study unusual problems Limitations Reported by biased observers and relies on subjective evidence has low internal validity Provides little basis for generalization has low external validity Correlational method a research procedure used to determine the corelationship between variables The people chosen for a study are its subjects or participants collectively called a sample sample must be representative of the larger population Incidence number of new cases that emerge in a given period rate Prevalence total number of cases in a given period total Experiment a research procedure in which a variable is manipulated and the manipulation39s effect on another variable is observed 0 Independent variable variable which is manipulated 0 Dependent variable variable being observed Confounds variables other than the independent variable that may also be affecting the dependent variable Control group group of research participants who are not exposed to the independent variable but whose experience is similar to that of the experimental group By comparing the two groups researchers can better determine the effect of the independent variable Random assignment any selection procedure that ensures that every participant in the experiment is as likely to be placed in one group as another Example coin ip picking names out of hat Blind design to avoid bias by the participant participants are kept from knowing which assigned group experimental or control they are in Uses a placebo something that simulates real therapy but has none of its key ingredients doubleblind design neither participant nor experimenter know which group is getting placebo or treatment Quasiexperimental designs investigators do not randomly assign participants to groups but make use of groups that already exist Also called mixed design Example children w history of child abuse Natural experiment nature manipulates the independent variable and the experimenter observes the effects Example psychological impact of ooding Analogue experiment allows investigators to freely manipulate independent variables while avoiding ethical and practical limitations They induce laboratory subjects to behave in ways that seem to resemble real life Limitation experimenters can never be certain that the phenomena observed in the lab are the same as the psychological disorders being investigated Example animal subjects Institutional Review Board IRB An ethics committee in a research facility that is empowered to protect the rights and safety of human research participants
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