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UMD / Psychology / PSYC 354 / What is a definition of culture?

What is a definition of culture?

What is a definition of culture?


3 Feb

What is a definition of culture?

Resources - influence culture


Natural Resources

Everyone needs access to water and land. A void of any resources can motivate peoree to work with others, which can increuve team work and community service. Money

Not a natural resource, created by human (uiture

What makes humans different from other animals?

• Affiuence - amount of money available to a person

- impacts culture

• Having a lot of money buffers narsney crimates Don't forget about the age old question of Who was the first neuroscientist?
If you want to learn more check out What are the two common family units?

- Rilin people don't have to suffer from Weather

extremities as much

What is the difference between society and culture?

• Having a lot of money also means people don't have to

couperate with others a mucn in order to Mrvive.

· The presence of resources essential for individuais well being jargely che termine types, scope, and direction of human activities We also discuss several other topics like What does the constitution say is the supreme law of land?

- Amount of money affects the al cisions that people

make about themseivel, others, and the environment. - Ox: me food you inouse to put the cay you are

a library would be more likely to be placed ing pouy neron por nood,

because they need the free resources. Group Living - shares many features of laiture o Humans and animuis) have an ways lived and traveled.

in groups Don't forget about the age old question of What impacts/determines elasticity?

• More efficient - you can divide the labor. Dividing labor

is function and adaptive for all members of the group

• The ability to accompiin more tasks causes survival If you want to learn more check out Why protein is important?
Don't forget about the age old question of What type of evolution happens when there is a sudden rapid change then no change for a long time?

rates to increase Humans want companionship with others.

-) Study Sou

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Psychological Toolkits

Human colitures (0-evolve with cognitive capacities. culture Nameqjure for cognitive abilities and artitudes * language in both spoken and written word can

symbolize physical and muturnysal world

- When you have language you can imagine a story

that you read ina book, or picture yoursit on a bouch if some one describes it to you me reason why we don't have concrete memories until we are old enougn to unduritund our language

- cognitive abilities allow comrux tougnt and memories - communication shares intention (ex playing sports)

· Humans have a univers au fuam mi ability to read facial expressions → essentiu for survival


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Function of culture : provides the gudeines ) roadmaps

on what to do, how to think, and what to feel un

- Provides a way of living to meet basic human needs Definition of culture a unique in for mution system, snaved. by a grour, and transmitted di YOSJ generations

- allows group to meet their basic needs - yauren was then dron purjue wellbeing

derive meaning from life cultures all have values that they promote EX: East And really punes education, because they were

identified with How if they were scholarly, and because of confusionism that promoted the wiede

be conversion of the amabet comrutely changed

SOUcu reform by making it literacy more common.


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culture is not uniquely human

• Animais are joua; muy have social networks and hierarchies.

• They also invent and vise tools and communicate

with each omer,

• what makes humans different from other animais:

- compiexity - language is uniquely human - we can say things

different wuys. - differentiation - institutionalization

) Studyscure

"Society Culture" - society a system of interrelationships among peorie.

luiture - meanings and information that are associated

with soal networks - Culture is broader. - cultures give family its own meaning different

cultures assign different meaning to family - the meaning is always changing (gay marriage,

single parents, adoption, etc.) - immediate vs. extended relatives -friends that we consider family and

() Study Soup

culture, Rave, personality, and POP tuliture

paie - more of a social construct than a biological essential.

- they have little scientific and practical use. personality a unique constellation of traits, attributes, qualities, and characteristics. (wture can be sta bieover many individuals, but personaity

varies by the individual por (uiture does not share a wide range of psy unological attributes - it's diways changing, nover stable.

5 Feb I Friday

Types of cross-cultural Researen Method validation studies

• validity mainly askes - HOW anurutely does your Toul meqare what it is supposed to measure

- internal validity what you measure within the study

- externa vanidity - the sample that you pull from

• Reliability - now consistent the measurement is

example: if your waren is cuways 3 nunutes slow, it's still reliable because it is consistent, even if the

number is not valid.

• You cannot take a scale or measure developed in one )

culture and use it in another way

example: using a questionnaire do you ever fees boules in America, then transating it in spanion and diving people in Mexico if they feel blue, they might take

it uiteracy Validation studies:

- test equivalence of psychological measures - It's important to conduct these cross-cuirural

validation studies before starting cross-cultural

comparisons Indigenous cultural studies

• Rich descriptions of complex theoretical models of culture

- Accepted behavior depends largely on context

• predict and explain cultural differences

psychological processes and benavior can be understood within cultural muieu.

• Hus roots in anthropology

cross-cultural comparisons

• The goal is to compare psychological variables of interest

between cultures

• comparisons are the bulk bones Of Cross-cultural psych.

- 1Q in the US - Arians have the highest, then caucasians,

then African Americans and carinos 'It is the most prevalent tyre of X (ultura PS4C. studies.

• A culture's own set of methologicau issues will impact the study Exploratory vs. Hy pomeris Testing * Exploratory studies : examine the existence of cross-cultural

similarities and differences.

· Hypothesis testing: examine wny cultural differences may exist -Strength of exploratory - it's a broad score for identifying

similarities I ditts

· Weatness - cant assess the cause for uiscovered differences.

strength of nyrothesis it can lead to more substantial contributions to theory develor ment. contextual factors

characteristic of participants or their cultures

- What does being "black" mean?

some times African American, sometimes African, different cultures

• invoives any variable that can explain observed cross

cultura differences

• Enhanced validity and helps rule out influence of biases

and inequivalence Hyromesis testing generally need to include contextuau

factors Evdiuating the contextucu factor can help to confirm or disconfirm their contribution to cultural differences Observed


structure vs. Lovel oriented studies in ostructure : comparisons of constructs, structures, Oran

relationships with other constructs

- Relationships amony variables, and try to find

similarities and differences

-1, l. age, race, gender in

• oriented focus on relationships among variables. at

|-e. depression, mood



Monday Quantitative research: measurement of certain aspects

of human activity

· The variables chosen are studied empiricauly, primarily througn observation

- example: when we look for spouses, the variables we

tax p into grount are appearance, SES, personality Most common data is measures of central tendency

qe mean, median, indicates the location of a score

distribution on asialle of a variable Measures of central tendeny: Mode: most frequently Occuring score i problem - outliers can cause inanuracy) Median: the most middle number, with 50% of scores greater and 50% TEJA mean the mute matical central point of the clistribution 4 types of quantitdtive measurement seases. - nominal: eucn score does not indicate an amount rex: measure of your social skills cannot truly be zero, but L Weignt can - ordindluscores designated in rank order. exirant favorite foods - interval: scores indicate some amount with an equal

unit of measurement separating eain score. - ratio: reflects the true amount of the present variable

and the zero truly means zero amount correlation: relationship between 2 variables

· correction coefficient: megsure of correlation - 2 parts:

1. can have a positive or negative relationship. 2. Value: the larger the absolute vange the stronger

the reaction snip. choosing the correct measurement scale is crucial for overall julless of researin positive correlation: X and Y both increase or born decrease negative correlation: x decreases and y increases, or y decreases and x increases

ocorrelation examples

- a positive correlation was found between mantal

status and subjective wellbeing - negative correlation between physicau nenith STUTUS

and child birth - intelligence scores of twins are stronger whether

they are raised to geter or not (-99) than non relatives ( -20)

Quantitative perearon

• psycno biographical researuni in depth analysis of particular individuais.

- usually study of outstanding persons, celebrities that

rerresent different countries or cultures.

- ciaries, speeches, iltters, and memoirs are examined Sample selection

availability Iconvenience sampling researuner chooses cu culture by chance because of researchers' professional personal contacts - systematic samning:

p regnant ethnic sumries are connected accorcling to a theory or theoretical assumitions example - moms develop short term memory loss after giving birth, but discovered that they get better at muititating which is evolutionarily more useful - Random sample: large sample of countries or groups are

randomly chosen

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