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by: Ang Judd

GEO_1110_Study_Guide_Minerals-Igneous_Rocks_2 GEO 1110

Marketplace > Southern Utah University > Geology > GEO 1110 > GEO_1110_Study_Guide_Minerals Igneous_Rocks_2
Ang Judd

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About this Document

Physical Geology
Dr. John Mac Lean
Study Guide
Geology, Physical, Science
50 ?




Popular in Physical Geology

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This 3 page Study Guide was uploaded by Ang Judd on Wednesday February 3, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to GEO 1110 at Southern Utah University taught by Dr. John Mac Lean in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 29 views. For similar materials see Physical Geology in Geology at Southern Utah University.


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Date Created: 02/03/16
Minerals Must be: Naturally occurring Inorganic (not carbon based) Solid Have a specific chemical formula Have a specific internal structure Physical Properties of Minerals Hardness: resistance to scratching Mohs Hardness Scale 10 Diamonds 9 Corundum 8 Topaz 7 Quartz Glass 6 K-Feldspar 5 Apatite Steel Nail 4 Flourite 3 Calcite Penny 2 Gypsum 1 Talc Fingernail Breakage Patterns Cleavage: break along planes of weakness Fracture: broken randomly Habit or Crystal Form How the crystals grow when they have enough space Density and Specific Gravity The "heftyness" of a speciman- how heavy it is Magnetism If it's magnetic Miscellaneous Properties Smell- sulfar Taste- salty Texture- wet/soapy feel Optical Properties of Minerals Color Streak: the color of the powder produced when a speciman is rubbed on a piece of white Luster: metallic, earthy, pearly Chemical Properties of Minerals Reaction with Acid: some minerals react to weak acids Variability: Hardness and color vary from sample to sample Igneous Rocks Olivine completely crystalizes, then Pyroxene crystalizes and so on. As temperatures decrease there is less and less Ca Plagioclase in the rock Coarse Crystals: Big; Phaneritic; Intrusive Rock, made from magma cooling slowly Fine Crystals: Little; Aphanite; Extrusive Rock, made from lava cooling quickly Magma: inside of the earth Lava: outside of the earth Texture Chemistry Coarse Crystal Fine Crystal Ultramafic ≤40% silica Peridotite Kamatite Green/Black Mafic ≈50% silica Gabbro Basalt Intermediate ≈60% silica Diorite Andesite Felsic ≈70% silica Granite Rhyolite Pink/White Textures Examples Glassy Obsidian Fragmented Tuff Coarse Crystal Granite Fine Crystal Basalt Porphyritic Porphyry Igneous Environments Mid-Ocean Ridge- Iceland: most of the world's igneous rocks are formed here; mafic rock; Basalt (up) Gabbro (down); oceanic crust! From the mantle[mid ocean ridge] Batholith-Mt. Whitney, California: Lots of exposed; Felic; more than 100 sq acres; Granite; from crust; exposed roots of ancient volcanoes [oceanic-continental plate boundry] Laccolith- Pine Vally, St. George: comes up through sedimentary layers; gets "stuck" and goes inbetween layers then bulges up; magma crystallizes; not coarse but not fine crystals either; Lava Flows-Veyo: Basaltic; Crustal uplift(expansion) basin and range province; faults serve as conduits/weak points for mantle magma to come through[slab rollback] Hot Spots-Hawaii, Yellowstone: Basaltic over oceanic crust Felsic over continental crust[hot spots]


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