CH 1020 Exam 1 study guide
CH 1020 Exam 1 study guide CH 1020
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This 2 page Study Guide was uploaded by Michelle Notetaker on Thursday February 4, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to CH 1020 at Clemson University taught by Hickman, Thomas D in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 64 views. For similar materials see General Chemistry in Chemistry at Clemson University.
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Date Created: 02/04/16
CH Exam 1 Study Guide All of these terms can be found and explained more in depth in my notes that have been posted weeks’ prior. (You should also brush up on concepts from last semester such as Periodic Trends, solubility in nonpolar and polar substances, IMF’s, etc.) Define Spontaneity Spontaneous Non-spontaneous What two factors affect spontaneity Entropy (change in S) Enthalpy (change in H) Define Entropy S increases as Volume increases Temp increases Pressure decreases Molar mass increases # of atoms in a molecule increases Laws of Thermo 1 law, 2 nd law, 3 law Gibbs Free energy ∆G=∆H-T ∆S ∆H (+): Endothermic (Break Bonds) ∆H (-): Exothermic (forming bonds) ∆S (+): More disorder Increase volume Decrease pressure Increase temperature More complex twisty molecules If ∆G(-), the change is spontaneous If ∆G (+), the change is nonspontaneous If ∆G=0, the change is at equilibrium If ∆H and ∆S are opposite signs, ∆G will always have the same sign as ∆H If ∆H and ∆S are same signs, ∆G will be temperature dependent At equilibrium, ∆G=0=∆H-T∆S ∆G can also be found using the ∆G(rxn)= (sum of the products) – (sum of the reactants) Elements in standard state have a ∆G(f)=0 If ∆G(f) is (+), it is thermodynamically unstable and has the tendency to decompose into its elements or standard state. If ∆G(f) is (-), the element or compound is thermodynamically stable Solutions Like dissolves like If ∆H-T∆S is (-) then a homogeneous solution forms Know the factors that affect solubility Colligative Properties Lowering Vapor Pressure VP(solution)=X*VP(solvent) X(solvent)=moles solvent/ (moles solvent+(i) (moles solute) Phase Diagrams Freezing Point and Boiling Point Osmosis UNITS OF CONCENTRATION Molarity Molality Mass Percent Mole Fraction Relative Rates of reaction aA+bB->cC+dD know the rate of reaction formula reactants is (-) products is (+) Rate Law Rate=K([A]^m)*([B]^n)*([C]^z) Reaction Order Overall Order Determine the rate law by the method of Initial Rates Integrated rate laws Graphing data to determine order Half- Life (the time required to reduce the concentration of a reactant to one half its original concentration)
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