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GEOL 101 Study Guide Test 1

by: Natalee Stanton

GEOL 101 Study Guide Test 1 101-017

Marketplace > University of South Carolina > Geology > 101-017 > GEOL 101 Study Guide Test 1
Natalee Stanton

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These notes are going to cover what going to be on our exam plus, all of the sample question answers
Geology 101-017
Study Guide
Geology 101
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This 9 page Study Guide was uploaded by Natalee Stanton on Thursday February 4, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to 101-017 at University of South Carolina taught by in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 75 views. For similar materials see Geology 101-017 in Geology at University of South Carolina.


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Date Created: 02/04/16
GEOL 101 Exam Review About the Exam  Lecture nine (metaphoric rocks and processes) is not part of the exam  50 questions o True/false and multiple choice   50 minutes to take the exam  o On a scantron – bring a pencil  Isotopes ­ Atoms of the same element with different number of neutrons in the nucleus - Ex. Carbon atom typically has 6 neutrons and 6 protons but there are also small  amounts of  Ions – atoms that end up having a slight positive or negative charge - Positively charged ion (loss of electron) – cations - Negatively charged ions (gain of electron) – anions  Scientific method –  ­ Simply put: o Ask yourself, “Does my hypothesis fit all of the observations?” o Don’t be afraid of being wrong o Always challenge your thinking  Three types of Plate Boundaries ­ Divergent – plates move apart  o Create new lithosphere   New oceanic crust ­ Convergent – plates collide and one is pulled into the mantle and recycled o Earthquakes, magmatism, mountains o Old oceanic crust and continent crust meat ­ Transform – plates slide horizontally past each other o Earthquakes, faults  The seafloor – a magnetic tape recorder ­ magnetic reversal  Terminology   Elements – form of matter that cannot be broken down into simpler forms; made of  atoms  Compounds – combinations of atoms of one or more elements in specific  proportions  Minerals – naturally occurring solids with specific chemical compositions and  internal structures  Rocks – naturally occurring aggregate …  Chemical bounds – the atoms of elements that make up compounds are held  together by electrical forces of attraction between electrons and protons o at the atomic level these connections are of the following types  ionic bonding – attraction of ions of opposite charges  covalent bonding – sharing of electrons in outer shells  Metallic bonding – sharing of electron shell around the nuclei Variables of State ­ all matter exists as wither  o solid  o liquid o gas Three types of rocks  1. Igneous – melting of rocks in hot, deep crust and upper mantle a. Forming process: crystallization (solidification of magma or lava) b. Extrusive (Lava that cooled quickly on the surface) and intrusive (magma in  the ground that cooled slowly) i. Ex Granit  2. Sedimentary– formed only on the earths surfaces a. Weathering and erosion of rocks exposed at the surface  b. Ex­ sandstone 3. Metamorphic  rocks changing from one set of minerals to another while still a solid  a. Gneiss  Plate Tectonics  Climate system – energized by solar radiation  ­ Atmosphere – gaseous envelope around Earth extending to about 100km o Protects us from the sun  ­ Hydrosphere – oceans, lakes, rivers, and groundwater  o Hydrosphere and the atmosphere are related  ­ Cryosphere ­ polar ice caps, glaciers, surface ice and snow ­ Biosphere­ all organic matter related to life near Earth’s surface  Plate Tectonic system  ­ Lithosphere – rocky outer shell of the solid Earth (~100 km depth) o Plates that move on the Earth o Makes plate tectonic    o Also part of the climate system  ­ Asthenosphere – weak layer of mantle which accommodates plate movements  ­ Deep mantle – interior of Earth between core and asthenosphere that move  Geodynamo system ­ Outer core – liquid shell of molten iron; source of Earth’s magnetic field   ­ Inner core – primarily solid iron  o Magnetic field lines – they run north and south  o Changes in human time  Sedimentation  Weathering – breaking down rock or break it down to its elements and then it washes away Erosion – transporting those rocks somewhere else  ­ Sediments are produced on the earth’s surface as a result of weathering ­ Sediments are transported through the process of erosion, and becomes  sedimentary rocks after they come to rest  Types of Sediment ­ Clastic – accumulations of physically transported rock fragments resulting from  weathering of pre­existing rock ­ Chemical accumulation  of substances precipitated form ionic species in water ­ Biochemical – some as chemical, but with the involvement of biologic organisms  What do we think drives plate tectonics? a. magnetic reversals b. mantle convection c. solar energy d. volcanism  The presence of water will ___ the melting temperature of a rock. a. Increase b. Raise c. Decrease d. Have no effect on  How old is the Earth?  a) 4.5 thousand  b) 4.5 billion c) 4.5 million d) 4.5 trillion  Which of the following makes up the bulk of the Earth? a. Crust  b. Inner core c. Mantle d. Outer core  According to the principle of uniformitarianism, ________. a. Geologic processes we observe today have operated in the past b. Animals evolved at a uniform rate c. All of the planets formed form a uniform solar nebula  d. Early Earth was covered by a uniform magma ocean  Which of the following statements about the scientific method is FALSE? a. A scientific theory is never considered finally proved b. Data used to generate a hypothesis may come from observations,  experiments, and chance findings. c. A theory that has accumulated  substantial body of experimental support is  called a hypothesis d. A scientific model represents some aspect of nature based on a set of  hypotheses and theories  The three main types of sediment are _____. a. Bioplastic, chemical, granitic b. Clastic, biochemical, chemical  The Earth’s core is made up primarily of _____. a. Iron  b. Lead  c. Oxygen  d. Silicon  In which of the following subsystems is the Earth’s magnetic field generated? a. Climate system  b. Hydrologic system c. Geodynamo system  d. Plate tectonic system  What powers the Earth’s external heat engine? a. Gravitational energy b. Radioactive decay c. Solar energy  d. Tidal forces  Which of the following concepts was developed earliest? a. Continental drift b. Plate tectonics c. Seafloor spreading  d. All three concepts were developed at about the same time  Minerals form as a result of: a. Crystallization form a magma b. Recrystallization in the solid state c. Precipitation from solution d. All of the above  The two characteristics used to describe a rock are: a. Texture and hardness b. Color and taste c. Hardness and mineralogy d. Mineralogy and texture Where would you expect to find the largest crystals in a lava flow? a. Near the top surface of the flow b. In the center of the flow c. Near the bottom surface of the flow d. The crystals would be the same size throughout  Large igneous bodies that form at depth in the Earth’s crust are called ______.  a. Dikes  b. Plutons c. Sills d. veins Andesite is an example of a(n) ______ igneous rock. a. Felsic  b. Intermediate c. Mafic d. Ultramafic  Oceanic crust that records negative magnetic anomalies formed when he Earth’s magnetic  field was ___.  a. The same as it is today b. The same as today except weaker c. Reversed from what it is today d. The same as today except stronger Which of the following substances is not considered a mineral  a. Coal  b. Diamond c. Gypsum d. Rock salt Most of the chemical bonds in common minerals are _____.  a. Covalent b. Metallic c. Ionic d. None of the above  The Earth’s Lithospheric plates consist of  a. Continental crust b. Oceanic crust c. Continental and oceanic crust d. Continental and oceanic crust and uppermost mantle  New lithosphere is created ____ .  a. In deep sea trenches b. In subdution zones c. At mid ocean ridges d. Along transform faults What type of plate boundary is shown in the diagram?  *This question will be on the Exam* a. a continental collision b. a subduction zone  c. a spreading center d. a transform fault  On a map of the oceanic crust, the boundaries between normally and reversely magnetized  oceanic crusts are called _____.  a. Dipoles b. Isochrones c. Isograds d. Sutures  What drives plate tectonics? a. Magnetic reversals b. Mantle convection c. Solar energy  d. Volcanism  What is the dominant type of bounding in minerals? a. Covalent bonding b. Ionic bonding c. Metallic bonding d. Nuclear bonding Isotopes of an element have different numbers of ______.  a. Electrons b. Protons c. Neutrons  d. Electrons, neutrons, and protons  Sodium has an atomic number of 11. How many electrons will the sodium cation Na+  have? a. 1 b. 10 c. 11 d. 12 Cleavage in a mineral is controlled by the ______.  a. Ionic arrangement of atoms within the material b. Covalent Bonding of molecules c. Shape of the crystal faces d. Hardness of the substance  Any rock type (igneous, sedimentary or metamorphic) can be turned into any other rock  type via the processes of the rock cycle. a. True b. False  Which of the following igneous rocks crystallize at the earths surfaces? a. Basalt b. Gabbro c. Granit d. Peridotite  Which of the following igneous rocks has the lowest silica content? a. Ultramafic b. Magic c. Intermediate d. Felsic  What type of rock makes up most of the Hawaiian Islands? a. Peridotite  b. Granite c. Andesite d. Basalt  What type of sediments are accumulations of solid fragments produced by weathering?  a. Biochemical sediments b. Clastic sediments c. Chemical sediments d. All of the above Sedimentary basins are formed by a process called_______.  a. Subsidence b. Diagenesis c. Lithification d. Subduction  Which of the following tectonic settings will be coolest at 30 km depth? a. Regions of continental extension b. Stable continental lithosphere c. Volcanic arcs d. Temperature in all three tectonic settings above will be the same at 30kn depth Metamorphic rocks result from the recrystallization of existing rocks while they are still in  a solid state. a. True  b. False Which of the following rocks represents the highest metamorphic grade? a. Gneiss b. Phyllite c. Schist d. Slate  A rock exhibiting high grade metamorphism has experienced high temperatures and/ or  pressures.  a. True b. False  The parent rock of a quartzite is ______. a. Sandstone  b. Shale c. Granite d. Limestone 


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