About the Exam
Lecture nine (metaphoric rocks and processes) is not part of the exam 50 questions
o True/false and multiple choice
50 minutes to take the exam
o On a scantron – bring a pencil
Isotopes Atoms of the same element with different number of neutrons in the nucleus
- Ex. Carbon atom typically has 6 neutrons and 6 protons but there are also small amounts of
Ions – atoms that end up having a slight positive or negative charge
- Positively charged ion (loss of electron) – cations
- Negatively charged ions (gain of electron) – anions
Scientific method –
o Ask yourself, “Does my hypothesis fit all of the observations?”
o Don’t be afraid of being wrong
o Always challenge your thinking
Three types of Plate Boundaries
Divergent – plates move apart
o Create new lithosphere
New oceanic crust
Convergent – plates collide and one is pulled into the mantle and recycled o Earthquakes, magmatism, mountains
o Old oceanic crust and continent crust meat
Transform – plates slide horizontally past each other
o Earthquakes, faults
The seafloor – a magnetic tape recorder
Elements – form of matter that cannot be broken down into simpler forms; made of atoms
Compounds – combinations of atoms of one or more elements in specific proportions
Minerals – naturally occurring solids with specific chemical compositions and internal structures If you want to learn more check out When was franz boas born?
Rocks – naturally occurring aggregate …
Chemical bounds – the atoms of elements that make up compounds are held together by electrical forces of attraction between electrons and protons o at the atomic level these connections are of the following types
ionic bonding – attraction of ions of opposite charges
covalent bonding – sharing of electrons in outer shells
Metallic bonding – sharing of electron shell around the nuclei
Variables of State Don't forget about the age old question of Why are polynomials always continuous?
all matter exists as wither
Three types of rocks
1. Igneous – melting of rocks in hot, deep crust and upper mantle
a. Forming process: crystallization (solidification of magma or lava) b. Extrusive (Lava that cooled quickly on the surface) and intrusive (magma in the ground that cooled slowly)
i. Ex Granit
2. Sedimentary– formed only on the earths surfaces
a. Weathering and erosion of rocks exposed at the surface
b. Ex sandstone
3. Metamorphic rocks changing from one set of minerals to another while still a solid a. Gneiss
Climate system – energized by solar radiation
Atmosphere – gaseous envelope around Earth extending to about 100km
o Protects us from the sun
Hydrosphere – oceans, lakes, rivers, and groundwater
o Hydrosphere and the atmosphere are related
Cryosphere polar ice caps, glaciers, surface ice and snow If you want to learn more check out How is stalin related to anglo-american intitiatives?
Biosphere all organic matter related to life near Earth’s surface
Plate Tectonic system
Lithosphere – rocky outer shell of the solid Earth (~100 km depth) o Plates that move on the Earth
o Makes plate tectonic
o Also part of the climate system
Asthenosphere – weak layer of mantle which accommodates plate movements Deep mantle – interior of Earth between core and asthenosphere that move
Outer core – liquid shell of molten iron; source of Earth’s magnetic field Inner core – primarily solid iron
o Magnetic field lines – they run north and south If you want to learn more check out What disk was invented by the minoan civilization?
o Changes in human time
Weathering – breaking down rock or break it down to its elements and then it washes away Erosion – transporting those rocks somewhere else
Sediments are produced on the earth’s surface as a result of weathering Sediments are transported through the process of erosion, and becomes sedimentary rocks after they come to rest
Types of Sediment
Clastic – accumulations of physically transported rock fragments resulting from weathering of preexisting rock
Chemical accumulation of substances precipitated form ionic species in water Biochemical – some as chemical, but with the involvement of biologic organisms
What do we think drives plate tectonics?
a. magnetic reversals
b. mantle convection
c. solar energy
The presence of water will ___ the melting temperature of a rock.
d. Have no effect on
How old is the Earth?
a) 4.5 thousand We also discuss several other topics like What makes durkheim a cultural idealist?
b) 4.5 billion
c) 4.5 million
d) 4.5 trillion
Which of the following makes up the bulk of the Earth?
b. Inner core
d. Outer core
According to the principle of uniformitarianism, ________.
a. Geologic processes we observe today have operated in the past
b. Animals evolved at a uniform rate
c. All of the planets formed form a uniform solar nebula
d. Early Earth was covered by a uniform magma ocean
Which of the following statements about the scientific method is FALSE?
a. A scientific theory is never considered finally proved
b. Data used to generate a hypothesis may come from observations, experiments, and chance findings.
c. A theory that has accumulated substantial body of experimental support is called a hypothesis We also discuss several other topics like What is the difference between true and romatic realism?
d. A scientific model represents some aspect of nature based on a set of hypotheses and theories
The three main types of sediment are _____.
a. Bioplastic, chemical, granitic
b. Clastic, biochemical, chemical
The Earth’s core is made up primarily of _____.
In which of the following subsystems is the Earth’s magnetic field generated?
a. Climate system
b. Hydrologic system
c. Geodynamo system
d. Plate tectonic system
What powers the Earth’s external heat engine?
a. Gravitational energy
b. Radioactive decay
c. Solar energy
d. Tidal forces
Which of the following concepts was developed earliest?
a. Continental drift
b. Plate tectonics
c. Seafloor spreading
d. All three concepts were developed at about the same time Minerals form as a result of:
a. Crystallization form a magma
b. Recrystallization in the solid state
c. Precipitation from solution
d. All of the above
The two characteristics used to describe a rock are:
a. Texture and hardness
b. Color and taste
c. Hardness and mineralogy
d. Mineralogy and texture
Where would you expect to find the largest crystals in a lava flow?
a. Near the top surface of the flow
b. In the center of the flow
c. Near the bottom surface of the flow
d. The crystals would be the same size throughout
Large igneous bodies that form at depth in the Earth’s crust are called ______.
Andesite is an example of a(n) ______ igneous rock.
Oceanic crust that records negative magnetic anomalies formed when he Earth’s magnetic field was ___.
a. The same as it is today
b. The same as today except weaker
c. Reversed from what it is today
d. The same as today except stronger
Which of the following substances is not considered a mineral
d. Rock salt
Most of the chemical bonds in common minerals are _____.
d. None of the above
The Earth’s Lithospheric plates consist of
a. Continental crust
b. Oceanic crust
c. Continental and oceanic crust
d. Continental and oceanic crust and uppermost mantle
New lithosphere is created ____ .
a. In deep sea trenches
b. In subdution zones
c. At mid ocean ridges
d. Along transform faults
What type of plate boundary is shown in the diagram?
*This question will be on the Exam*
a. a continental collision
b. a subduction zone
c. a spreading center
d. a transform fault
On a map of the oceanic crust, the boundaries between normally and reversely magnetized oceanic crusts are called _____.
What drives plate tectonics?
a. Magnetic reversals
b. Mantle convection
c. Solar energy
What is the dominant type of bounding in minerals?
a. Covalent bonding
b. Ionic bonding
c. Metallic bonding
d. Nuclear bonding
Isotopes of an element have different numbers of ______.
d. Electrons, neutrons, and protons
Sodium has an atomic number of 11. How many electrons will the sodium cation Na+ have?
Cleavage in a mineral is controlled by the ______.
a. Ionic arrangement of atoms within the material
b. Covalent Bonding of molecules
c. Shape of the crystal faces
d. Hardness of the substance
Any rock type (igneous, sedimentary or metamorphic) can be turned into any other rock type via the processes of the rock cycle.
Which of the following igneous rocks crystallize at the earths surfaces?
Which of the following igneous rocks has the lowest silica content?
What type of rock makes up most of the Hawaiian Islands?
What type of sediments are accumulations of solid fragments produced by weathering?
a. Biochemical sediments
b. Clastic sediments
c. Chemical sediments
d. All of the above
Sedimentary basins are formed by a process called_______.
Which of the following tectonic settings will be coolest at 30 km depth?
a. Regions of continental extension
b. Stable continental lithosphere
c. Volcanic arcs
d. Temperature in all three tectonic settings above will be the same at 30kn depth
Metamorphic rocks result from the recrystallization of existing rocks while they are still in a solid state.
Which of the following rocks represents the highest metamorphic grade?
A rock exhibiting high grade metamorphism has experienced high temperatures and/ or pressures.
The parent rock of a quartzite is ______.