Cultural Anthropology Exam 1 Study Guide
Cultural Anthropology Exam 1 Study Guide 2597
Kutztown University of Pennsylvania
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This 5 page Study Guide was uploaded by Melissa Metzgar on Thursday February 4, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to 2597 at Kutztown University of Pennsylvania taught by Professor Ehrensal in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 30 views. For similar materials see Intro to Cultural Anthropology in anthropology, evolution, sphr at Kutztown University of Pennsylvania.
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Date Created: 02/04/16
Cultural Anthropology Study Guide-Exam 1 Thursday, February 11th, 2016 Anthropology: -anthropos→ greek for human -ology→ any science or branch of knowledge **The science/study of humans What is Anthropology? -study of humans as human populations, biological entities, and cultural beings The Scope of Anthropology ● anthropology is holistic→ culture and biology, the past and the present Modern Humans ● Homo sapien sapiens emerge about 180,000 years ago ● Begin to spread around the world about 90,000 years ago ● Live solely by hunting and gathering until 10,000-12,000 years ago ● cultivation and later animal domestication occur ● Industrial Revolution begins about 1750 (250+ years ago) The Subdisciplines of Anthropology ● Biological/Physical Anthropology: primate and human evolution ● Archeology ● Linguistic Anthropology ● Cultural Anthropology History of Anthropology ● After 1450 is Europe’s encounter with “the other” ● Reports from explorers, conquerors and missionaries that people’s lifestyles and technology were radically different from the circum-mediterranean ● Evolutionism ● The idea of evolution of social and technological stages of society pre-date the idea of evolutionism in natural history (Darwin) Cultural Anthropology Study Guide-Exam 1 Thursday, February 11th, 2016 ● Origins in European Social Thought: ● Europe’s expansion into the world after 1450 ● Archeological exploration of Europe in the 18th and early 19th centuries ● Lewis Henry Morgan and Ancient Society (1877) Lewis Henry Morgan and The Ancient Society (1877) -Believed in unilinear evolutionism -All humans lived in savagery: -Used stone tools -Hunters and gatherers, semi-nomadic -Some move from savagery to barbarism -Beginning of metallurgy -Crops, domesticated animals -Villages, some hierarchy -Some achieve civilization -Iron tools -Advent of cities -Invention of writing -Rise of kingdoms Later Evolutionism -After the publication of The Origin of the Species (Darwin 1859) and The Descent of Man (Darwin 1871) cultural and technological differences between groups were taken to infer biological (racial) differences between groups. -Evolutionism becomes racist and used to justify colonialism and imperialism Responses to Evolutionism in the 20th Century Franz Boas and The Development of American Anthropology -Born in Germany -Trained in Geography at a German University -Does fieldwork in Alaska and has contact with Inuits -Tries to get a job as an Ethnographer once returning to Germany Cultural Anthropology Study Guide-Exam 1 Thursday, February 11th, 2016 -period of rising anti-semitism -comes to the US to find a job in New York -Winds up at the Museum of Natural History as the curator as well as a job at columbia -Develops a Department of Anthropology at Columbia University and “reinvents anthropology” Boasian Anthropology -Focus on anti-racism *culture is learned, it’s not biological -Holism and the four-field approach -Historical Particularism/Rejection of Evolution → studying specific peoples Cultural Relativism: We need to describe a culture in its own terms in order to properly understand it. “Race” -Used to use it in the way that we use the term ethnicity today -Shifts to being a biological category Racial Classification: The attempt to assign humans to discrete categories purportedly based upon common ancestry. (Focus has been on phenotypes of groups) What’s Wrong with Race? -There is more genetic variation within ‘racial groups’ than between the different groups -Physical traits that occur with ‘race’ occur gradually over space (clines) *you can’t put the world into discrete categories -Humans are a single species Cultural Anthropology Study Guide-Exam 1 Thursday, February 11th, 2016 The Social Construction of Race -Race is a social category Hypodescent: The social practice of taking an offspring of a mixed background and assigning it to the lower social status of the two backgrounds. ex) Halle Berry, Barack Obama, Jessica Alba, Mariah Carey *Race is a social category, not a biological category* Example: Japan-”intrinsic racism” -You’re either pure Japanese or “other” -Aboriginal Ainu (original inhabiting peoples) -Okinawans -Outcast Burakumin -equivalent to untouchables -biologically the same as pure Japanese -Children of mixed marriages -Immigrants (especially Koreans) Fluidity of Categories -Brazil→ 40+ categories -phenotype -lifestyle (urban/rural) -Latin America (more broad) -Indio (Indian) -Mestizo (Mixed) -Blanco (White) *economic based to some degree Ethnography -Focuses on an intensive study of “the here and the now” -Attempts to understand the world from the Natives views -Extended period of living with the Natives -Study an identifiable place -Observation and participant observation Cultural Anthropology Study Guide-Exam 1 Thursday, February 11th, 2016 Etic and Emic Etic: anthropologists ‘objective’ categories and explanations Emic: culturally relevant (local) explanation, understanding, or meaning Culture Definition: that complex whole when includes knowledge, belief, arts, morals, law customs, and any other capabilities and habits acquired by homo sapien sapiens as a member of society. (Edward Taylor 1871) -all encompassing -shared→ not an individual trait -integrated→ pieces fit together -adaptive and maladaptive *culture is learned, it’s not biological *culture is symbolic, acceptances are all different Symbols A symbol is a particular kind of sign (something that stands for something else) where the sign is an arbitrary relationship to that which it refers to indexes - labels only exist because we established them to be what they are (verbally) Universal, General, and Particular Universal: traits that are found among all human groups General: regularities that occur in different times and places but not in all cultures Particular: traits that have very limited distribution *All human behavior is mediated through culture*
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