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When did homo sapiens emerge?

When did homo sapiens emerge?

Description

School: Kutztown University of Pennsylvania
Department: Evolutionary Anthropology
Course: Intro to Cultural Anthropology
Professor: Professor ehrensal
Term: Winter 2016
Tags: Cultural Anthropology
Cost: 50
Name: Cultural Anthropology Exam 1 Study Guide
Description: These notes cover everything that will be on the first exam.
Uploaded: 02/04/2016
5 Pages 46 Views 1 Unlocks
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Cultural Anthropology


When did homo sapiens emerge?



Study Guide-Exam 1

Thursday, February 11th, 2016

Anthropology: 

-anthropos→ greek for human

-ology→ any science or branch of knowledge

**The science/study of humans

What is Anthropology? 

-study of humans as human populations, biological entities, and cultural beings

The Scope of Anthropology 

● anthropology is holistic→ culture and biology, the past and the present

Modern Humans 

● Homo sapien sapiens emerge about 180,000 years ago

● Begin to spread around the world about 90,000 years ago


What does unilinear evolutionism promote?



● Live solely by hunting and gathering until 10,000-12,000 years ago ● cultivation and later animal domestication occur

● Industrial Revolution begins about 1750 (250+ years ago)

The Subdisciplines of Anthropology 

● Biological/Physical Anthropology: primate and human evolution ● Archeology

● Linguistic Anthropology

● Cultural Anthropology

History of Anthropology 

● After 1450 is Europe’s encounter with “the other”

● Reports from explorers, conquerors and missionaries that people’s lifestyles and technology were radically different from the


When was franz boas born?



We also discuss several other topics like What is the purpose of measuring marginals?

circum-mediterranean

● Evolutionism

● The idea of evolution of social and technological stages of society pre-date the idea of evolutionism in natural history (Darwin)

Cultural Anthropology

Study Guide-Exam 1

Thursday, February 11th, 2016

● Origins in European Social Thought:

● Europe’s expansion into the world after 1450

● Archeological exploration of Europe in the 18th and early 19th centuries ● Lewis Henry Morgan and Ancient Society (1877)

Lewis Henry Morgan and The Ancient Society (1877) 

-Believed in unilinear evolutionism

-All humans lived in savagery: If you want to learn more check out What is the reputation of stalin and his henchmen?

-Used stone tools

-Hunters and gatherers, semi-nomadic

-Some move from savagery to barbarism

-Beginning of metallurgy

-Crops, domesticated animals

-Villages, some hierarchy

-Some achieve civilization

-Iron tools

-Advent of cities

-Invention of writing

-Rise of kingdoms

Later Evolutionism 

-After the publication of The Origin of the Species (Darwin 1859) and The Descent of Man (Darwin 1871) cultural and technological differences between groups were taken to infer biological (racial) differences between groups. We also discuss several other topics like What disk was invented by the minoan civilization?

-Evolutionism becomes racist and used to justify colonialism and imperialism

Responses to Evolutionism in the 20th Century 

Franz Boas and The Development of American Anthropology

-Born in Germany

-Trained in Geography at a German University

-Does fieldwork in Alaska and has contact with Inuits

-Tries to get a job as an Ethnographer once returning to Germany

Cultural Anthropology

Study Guide-Exam 1

Thursday, February 11th, 2016

-period of rising anti-semitism

-comes to the US to find a job in New York

-Winds up at the Museum of Natural History as the curator as well as a job at columbia If you want to learn more check out What makes weber a multidimensionalist?

-Develops a Department of Anthropology at Columbia University and “reinvents anthropology”

Boasian Anthropology 

-Focus on anti-racism

*culture is learned, it’s not biological

-Holism and the four-field approach

-Historical Particularism/Rejection of Evolution

→ studying specific peoples

Cultural Relativism:

We need to describe a culture in its own terms in order to properly understand it. Don't forget about the age old question of What led to the emergence of realism in western theater?

“Race” 

-Used to use it in the way that we use the term ethnicity today

-Shifts to being a biological category

Racial Classification:

The attempt to assign humans to discrete categories purportedly based upon common ancestry. (Focus has been on phenotypes of groups) If you want to learn more check out What are the various measures of location?

What’s Wrong with Race?

-There is more genetic variation within ‘racial groups’ than between the different groups

-Physical traits that occur with ‘race’ occur gradually over space (clines) *you can’t put the world into discrete categories

-Humans are a single species

Cultural Anthropology

Study Guide-Exam 1

Thursday, February 11th, 2016

The Social Construction of Race

-Race is a social category

Hypodescent:

The social practice of taking an offspring of a mixed background and assigning it to the lower social status of the two backgrounds. ex) Halle Berry, Barack Obama, Jessica Alba, Mariah Carey

*Race is a social category, not a biological category*

Example: Japan-”intrinsic racism”

-You’re either pure Japanese or “other”

-Aboriginal Ainu (original inhabiting peoples)

-Okinawans

-Outcast Burakumin

-equivalent to untouchables

-biologically the same as pure Japanese

-Children of mixed marriages

-Immigrants (especially Koreans)

Fluidity of Categories

-Brazil→ 40+ categories

-phenotype

-lifestyle (urban/rural)

-Latin America (more broad)

-Indio (Indian)

-Mestizo (Mixed)

-Blanco (White)

*economic based to some degree

Ethnography

-Focuses on an intensive study of “the here and the now”

-Attempts to understand the world from the Natives views

-Extended period of living with the Natives

-Study an identifiable place

-Observation and participant observation

Cultural Anthropology

Study Guide-Exam 1

Thursday, February 11th, 2016

Etic and Emic 

Etic: anthropologists ‘objective’ categories and explanations

Emic: culturally relevant (local) explanation, understanding, or meaning

Culture 

Definition: that complex whole when includes knowledge, belief, arts, morals, law customs, and any other capabilities and habits acquired by homo sapien sapiens as a member of society. (Edward Taylor 1871)

-all encompassing

-shared→ not an individual trait

-integrated→ pieces fit together

-adaptive and maladaptive

*culture is learned, it’s not biological

*culture is symbolic, acceptances are all different

Symbols 

A symbol is a particular kind of sign (something that stands for something else) where the sign is an arbitrary relationship to that which it refers to indexes - labels only exist because we established them to be what they are (verbally)

Universal, General, and Particular

Universal: traits that are found among all human groups

General: regularities that occur in different times and places but not in all cultures

Particular: traits that have very limited distribution

*All human behavior is mediated through culture*

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