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Geology 1500 Terri Woods; Exam 1 Study Guide

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by: Paige Covington

Geology 1500 Terri Woods; Exam 1 Study Guide GEOL 1500

Marketplace > East Carolina University > Geology > GEOL 1500 > Geology 1500 Terri Woods Exam 1 Study Guide
Paige Covington

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These notes cover everything that will be on the first exam!
Terri Woods
Study Guide
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This 17 page Study Guide was uploaded by Paige Covington on Thursday February 4, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to GEOL 1500 at East Carolina University taught by Terri Woods in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 65 views. For similar materials see in Geology at East Carolina University.


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Date Created: 02/04/16
Geology Study Guide Exam 1 Introduction-Igneous Rocks Unit 1 Module 1 Intro to Earth: • What Is Geology? - Geology is the study of the earth - Young science o 200 years’ old • The study of Geology gives us an understanding of natural processes so that we can: 1. Protect ourselves from disasters/consequences 2. Find the valuable fuels, minerals and building materials our society needs 3. Use our knowledge of the past to predict the future 4. Solve environmental problems • What is Physical Geology? - It includes sub disciplines of Geology but stresses the dynamic and structural aspects including o A study of landscape development o Earths interior o The nature of mountains o Composition of rocks and minerals • Earth in it Solar system setting is how old? - Earth is 4.6 billion years old [BYO] • What does the Nebular Hypothesis of Solar System formation propose? - That our Solar System was formed 5 billion years ago o When a huge rotating cloud of interstellar gas collapsed • How many stars do we have in our solar system? - One • What is our star called? What does it do? - The sun - It provides the gravitational force o Gravitational Force: holds the planets in their orbit and provides most of the light and heat energy to Earth • What is a planet? - A planet is a large, round, heavenly body that orbits a star and shines with light reflected from the star (sun) • How many planets do we have in our solar system? How do they orbit? - We have eight planets in our solar system - They orbit from in the direction that the sun is rotating (counterclockwise) o Around the sun o They are subdivided between two groups  Terrestrial or Inner planets and Outer or gaseous planets • What are characteristics of Terrestrial/Inner Planets? - Terrestrial/Inner Planets have rocky iron-rich interiors - Crust, Mantle and Core - Core has solid inner and liquid outer. - Denser and smaller than outer/gaseous planets - Atmospheres have more gases (excluding Mercury) - Atoms are packed in and weigh more in the inner planets than the outer planets • What kind of planet is Earth? What number? - Earth is the third of the Terrestrial or Inner planets • What are the rest of the Terrestrial/Inner Planets? - Mercury - Venus - Earth - Mars • What are the characteristics of the outer/gaseous planets? - Hydrogen, Helium and Methane gas - Their Mantle is made up of water, ammonia and methane ices - Their core is rock and ice. o Interiors are made up by hydrogen and helium with some other light elements - Significantly larger and less dense than terrestrial planets - More moons - Atmospheres Hydrogen and Helium • What are the outer/gaseous planets? - Jupiter - Saturn - Uranus - Neptune • Dwarf planet? - Pluto • The Blue Planet? - Earth is called the blue planet because of the abundant water on its surface o Earth’s oceans began to accumulate a few hundred million years after Earth first formed o It had finally cooled enough to permit H20 in its liquid form to exist on the surface Terrestrial Planets: • Mercury: o Density: 5.41 o Moons: 0 o Rings: 0 o Atmospheric Gases: He (98), H2 (2) o Interior Composition: Silicate Fe (Iron) Core • Venus: o Density: 5.25 o Moons: 0 o Rings: 0 o Atmospheric Gases: Co2(96), N2 (4) o Interior Composition: Silicates Fe (Iron) Core • Earth: o Density: 5.52 o Moons: 1 o Rings: 0 o Atmospheric Gases: N2 (77), O2 (21), H2O (1), Ar (1) o Interior Composition: Silicates Fe (Iron) Core • Mars: o Density: 3.9 o Moons: 2 o Rings: 0 o Atmospheric Gases: CO2 (95), N2 (3) o Interior Composition: Silicates Fe (Iron) Core Gaseous/Outer Planets: • Jupiter: o Density: 1.3 o Moons: 58 o Rings: 1 o Atmospheric Gases: He, He2 o Interior Composition: H2, He, Rocky/Icy Core • Saturn: o Density: 0.7 o Moons: 30 o Rings: 8 o Atmospheric Gases: He, H2 o Interior Composition: H2, He, Rocky/Icy Core • Uranus: o Density: 1.3 o Moons: 21 o Rings: 11 o Atmospheric Gases: He, H2 o Interior Composition: H2, He, CH4 Ammonia, Rocky/Icy Core • Neptune: o Density: 1.7 o Moons: 8 o Rings: 4 o Atmospheric Gases: He, H2 o Interior Composition: H2, He, CH4 Ammonia, Rocky/Icy Core Unit II Module 1 Structure of Matter: • States of matter - Solid, liquid and gas - Different than structure of matter • What did Dalton develop in the early 1800s? - Atomic Theory - There are 115 Elements, 88 occur naturally • What did his atomic theory explain? 1. An element is composed of extremely small particles called atoms o All atoms of a given element are chemically identical o O is made up of O atoms, all which behave chemically in the same way 2. Atoms of different elements have different properties o The chemical behavior of oxygen is different from that of hydrogen o When H and O combine to form water all the H atoms and the O atoms are present in the water o No new atoms of another element are formed during that process 3. Compound substances are formed when atoms of more than one element combine o In a given pure compound, the numbers of atoms of the elements present will be definite and constant o These relative numbers can be expressed by integers or simple fractions  In the compound, water and hydrogen and oxygen are combined with each other  For every oxygen atom present, there are two hydrogen atoms  Carbon dioxide= one carbon atom combined with two oxygen atoms Subatomic Particles: • What are atomic nucleus’? - atomic nuclei are atoms containing tiny, positive charges o Protons: mass nearly equal to the hydrogen atom and have a positive charge. o Neutrons: mass nearly equal to the proton and have no charge.  The volume occupied by the nucleus is about 1/10^15 the total volume of the atom o Electrons: Tiny particles carrying a unit negative charge  Weigh about 1/1837 the amount of a proton  Orbit around the nucleus in shells or energy-levels. • What is an Atomic number? - An atomic number is the number of protons contained in an atom o Equals number of electrons in a neutral atom • What is an isotope? - An Isotope is when various kinds of a given element are in an atom. - Because they contain different numbers of neutrons, isotopes have different masses. o A deuterium atom contains 1 proton and 1 neutron and is about twice as heavy as light hydrogen which contains 1 proton and no neutrons o As another example, two well known isotopes of uranium which are used to date minerals and rocks are 235U and 238U  Both contain the same number of protons 92, but different number of neutrons, 143 and 146. - A light isotope is U235 - A heavy isotope is U238 • What is a Mass Number? - # of protons + the # of neutrons - the number of protons and electrons in an atom are the same. - Chlorine has a mass number of 35 (top number/protons and neutrons) and 17 protons (and electrons) - You can find the number of neutrons by subtracting the mass number from the number of protons. (35-17=18 neutrons) Other types of particles: *Isolated atoms are rare in nature* • What is a molecule? - Collection of atoms (more than one atom!!!) held together by relatively strong forces called chemical bonds. - A molecule is the smallest particle that a compound can be broken down into that still retains the properties of that compound - Compared to the strength of chemical bonds within molecules, the bonds between molecules are weak. • What is an Ion? - Ions are formed when enough energy is available to remove electrons from the neutral atoms of an element or to add electrons to the neutral atom of an element o Cations: positively charged  Cations give their extra electrons away o Anions: negatively charged  Anions: will pick up electrons from the elements with one electron on their outer-most shell. *KNOW THE NAMES AND CHEMICAL SYMBOLS OF THESE IONS: Ion Symbol Cation/Anion Oxide O2 Anion Chloride Cl Anion Sulfide S & S2 Anion Silicon Si4+ Cation Aluminum Al3+ Cation Iron Fe3+ & Fe2+ Cation Magnesium Mg2+ Cation Sodium Na+ Cation Calcium Ca2+ Cation Potassium K+ Cation Complex Ion Symbol Cation/Anion Sulfate SO4+ Anion Carbonate CO3^2 Anion Hydroxyl OH Anion Bonding:  Characteristics of two bonds that act totally the same are close together on the periodic table • What is a Covalent Bond? - Close together elements - Involve sharing of the outer shell electrons between atoms - Close together=sharing=friends=pals - Covalent bonds are stronger that Ionic bonds • What is an Ionic Bond? - Involve the transfer of an outer shell electron from one element to another - Far away=giving away/transferring=not buds • What is a Metallic Bond? - Don’t involve shared or transferred electrons - Metallic bonds float around. - There are few metallic bonds - They are soft, and always moving around. • Van Der Waals and hydrogen bonds are much weaker than covalent or ionic bonds. - They are weak electrical attractions related to the asymmetry of certain atoms - These are important bonds in some of the sheet silicates(!!) Periodic Table: • How are Ionic Compounds held together? - They are held together by the ionic bonds which form by joining elements from the opposite ends • How are Covalent Compounds held together? - They are held together by the covalent bonds which form by joining elements from the same area of the periodic table - Electrons are shared between the neighboring nuclei **the farther left in the periodic table you move the more metallic the element*** The more metal an element the more likely to lose electrons while non- metals are more likely to gain electrons. - Therefore, more metals are usually cations and non-metals are anions. - Left side= Cations; Right side= Anions Unit II Module 2A: Basic Mineralogy • What are the five criteria that must be met for geologists to call a substance a mineral? - Solid - Naturally Occurring - Inorganic - Chemical Compound with a definite chemical composition - Possesses a specific, regular. Periodic architecture of the atoms that make it up o Minerals are homogenous and can not be mechanically separated into different substances o Minerals have basically the same qualities regardless of the kind of rock in which they occur • What determines the properties of minerals? A. Crystalline structure: - Crystalline structure is the internal orderly arrangement of atoms in a mineral. o Largely a function of the relative size of the adjacent atoms/ions and their charges B. Chemical Composition of the mineral C. Nature of the bonding between the atoms within the mineral - Polymorphs: minerals with the same chemical composition, but different crystal structures o A diamond and graphite are good examples Properties: • Crystal Habit or Form: geometrical form taken by a mineral. - Is the external expression of its internal crystalline structure. • Cleavage: tendency of a mineral to break in preferred directions along smooth, planar surfaces. - When cleavage is lacking (usually because of the arrangement of atoms identical in all directions) the mineral doe not cleave, it fractures. o Fracture: minerals that do not show cleavage have irregularly shaped, curving breakage surfaces. • Hardness: the scratch-ability of a mineral upon a glass surface - Moh’s relative hardness scale: o 1-10 o 10 being diamond, 1 being talc. o 5 being apatite, a bit harder than glass. • Luster: the appearance of a mineral in reflected light - earthy, glassy or metallic. • Color: not usually reliable when identifying minerals. - There are “hundreds” of white or colorless minerals. • Streak: Color mineral displays in powdered form - Can differ from the color of the hand specimen. *KNOW ELEMENT INVOLVED W/ MAJOR GROUP, ECOLOGICAL/ECON. FACTORS FOR EACH GROUP, KNOW MINERAL INVOLVED W/ EACH GROUP: Group Defining Anion Mineral Econ. Impact: Native Elem.(s) Au, Ag, Cu, S, Graphite, Sulfur, Jewelry, Abrasive C Diamond, Silver Chemicals, “lead” Sulfur Acid, Graphite Lubricant Halides Cl, F Halite, Fluorite Industrial chemical Flux in steel products Table salts Oxides O2 Magnetite, Bauxite, Fe and Al ores Hematite they’re Important Where we get iron and aluminum (strong, heavy = Fe) (strong, light = Al) Sulfides S2 & S- Galena, Sphalerite, Cu, Pb, Zn ores Chalcopyrite, Pyroxene Copper lead & Zinc Copper wire= electricity Sulfates SO4^2 Gypsum Dry Wall Sulfur and Oxygen Carbonates CO3^2 Calcite Construction, Fill, Important in construction Concrete (buildings, foundation, concrete etc.) non-silicate minerals are important to the way we live. Unit II Module 2B: Systematic Mineralogy: *KNOW THE COMMOM ELEMENTS IN THE WORLD: • SILICATES ARE THE MOST OVERWHELMING OF MINERALS IN THE WORLD NETWORK OF OXYGEN ATOMS (LOOK @ WEIGHT) ARE 94% OF EARTHS CRUST • most minerals are silicates - non silicates are less than 8% of minerals in the world. o Non silicate rock-forming minerals:  Calcite, dolomite, pyrite, hematite, magnetite, gypsum, fluorite - ½ are plagioclase feldspar or potassium feldspar basic building blocks of silicates = silicon oxygen tetrahedron (also known as silica) o four oxygen, one silicate in the middle. Isolated Structure: Olivine - Olivine - shared oxygen= 0 - ratio Si:O = 1:4 Paired structures: Epidote - Epidote - shared oxygen = 1 - ratio = 2:7 Ring structures: - Beryl Tourmaline - shared oxygen = 2 - ratio = 6:18 Single chain structures: Pyroxene - Augite - shared oxygen = 2 - ratio = 1:3 - strung out into extremely long structures Double Chain structures: Amphibole - Hornblende - shared oxygen = 2 or 3 (2.5) - ratio: 4:10 Sheet Structures: Micas - Biotite & Muscovite (Mica) - shared oxygen = 3 - ratio: 2:5 Sheet Structures: Clays - Kaolinite (clays) - shared oxygen = 3 - ratio: 2:5 Frame-work structures: Feldspar & Quartz - Potassium feldspar, plagioclase feldspar, albite, anorthite - Shared oxygen = 4 - Ratio: 1:2 • Silicate minerals that contain Fe and/or Mg are called Ferromagnesian. These are usually dark-colored silicates Unit II Module 3A: Intro to Igneous Rocks, Magmas and Lavas: • What is a rock? - Collection of mineral grains in varying proportions • What is the Rock Cycle? - Describes the movement of atoms as they are transported throughout the outer portions of the earth and incorporated in one type of rock after another. - Describes both the types of rocks (and other earth materials) in which these atoms reside - Describes the processes by which one rock type is converted into another o Igneous Rocks are one of the three major rock types  they form by solidification of molten rock (magma or lava) o Weathering is slow, ceaseless destruction of rocks when exposed to conditions at Earth’s surface  Converts solid rock into sediments o Sedimentary Rocks form by deposition of sediments o Metamorphic Rocks form when other rocks are exposed to high pressures and temperatures without melting - >95% of the outer 10 km of Earth is made up of Igneous rocks. Formation of Igneous Rocks: • How do they form? - *Igneous rocks form from the solidification of molten rock (magma or lava) * o Magma/Lava – Liquid solutions of randomly distributed elements at high temperatures (at least 600º C)  Lava = magma extruded at the surface of the Earth o Solidification of magma is called Crystallization Source of the heat to melt rocks: • Where does the heat come from? - Comes from the interior of the Earth, largely as a result of the decay of radioactive elements - Geothermal gradient: rate at which temperature of the earth increases with increasing depth. - Pressure competes with temperature: to keep rocks from melting at very shallow depths in the earth Most common igneous minerals: olivine, pyroxene, amphibole, biotite, muscovite, K-feldspar, quartz Bowen’s reaction series Effects of rates of crystallization: - Fractional crystallization the rate at which magma solidifies affects the nature of the resultant rock For all three types of rock, the classification of igneous rocks is based on texture and composition: - Texture: o The physical appearance of the rocks -> size, shape and arrangement of the interlocking mineral grains  Course grained – slow cooling, large crystals, intrusive  Fine Grained, fast cooling, small crystals, extrusive  Glass, very rapid cooling, no crystals  Porphyritic (diff. cooling rates, diff. size crystals)  Pegmatitic (abnormally large grains) - Chemical Differentiation: o Dark colored igneous rocks = mafic/basaltic o Intermediate igneous rocks = andesitic = andesite and diorite o Light colored igneous rocks = felsic/granitic = rhyolite and granite Unit II Module 3B: Igneous Processes • What is Plutonic? - Plutonic igneous rocks form deep in the Earth from magmas which cool slowly - intrusive • What is Volcanic? - Igneous rocks form at Earth’s surface from lavas which cool quickly - extrusive Masses of intrusive rocks (plutons) • crystallized from magmas that never reach the surface and form rocks such as gabbro, diorite and granite. • There are numerous types of plutons you can read about but you are only responsible for dike, sill and batholith - Discordant plutons = intruded across layers of preexisting rocks = dikes and batholiths - Concordant plutons = intruded parallel to layers = sills Extrusive igneous rocks and processes • Volcano = surface expression of subsurface igneous activity • Materials extruded during and eruption - Lava = Magma extruded onto the surface of the Earth - Gases such and H20, CO2, SO2, HCl, etc. o Gases propel the magma from the chamber and the lava from the volcano. - Pyroclastic = volcanic rock ejected from volcano. • Characteristics of magmas, lavas, eruptions and volcanoes - Function of composition, temperature and content of dissolved gas. o All these factors affect the viscosity of the magma  Viscosity: resistance to flow  Viscosity affects mobility - Increased silica content (I.E composition lower on Bowens reaction series) o Decreased temperature and decreased gas content make magmas and lava more viscous  Quiet, gentler eruptions generate shield volcanoes  Shield Volcanoes have steep slopes and include both pyroclastic debris and lava. Gentle slopes form and when magma is mafic they have low viscosity (eg. Hawaiian Islands)  Explosive eruptions: generate composite volcanoes  Composite Volcanoes have steep slopes and include both pyroclastic debris and lava. Associated lavas have felsic compositions and high viscosity (Mt. St. Helen’s)  Be aware of other features associated with volcanism: lava tubes, cinder cones, craters and calderas. • When is a crater called a caldera? - When its diameter is greater than 1 km • What type of lava is extruded during fissure eruptions? - Mafic/Balsatic • What propels magma out of a volcano? - gases such as H2O, CO2, SO2, etc. • Why is Crater Lake, Oregon misnamed? - Crater lake actually occupies a caldera, which is much larger than a crater • What is a composite cone? - A volcano composed of both lava and significant amounts of pyroclastic material • What criteria are used to determine an igneous rock? - Texture and mineral composition • What is the most important factor affecting the texture of an igneous rock? - Cooling rate • Discordant Igneous Intrusion: - Batholith and dike • Concordant igneous intrusion: - Sill • Texture in which there are no crystals: - Glassy • Texture with microscopic crystals: - Fine-grained • Texture with macroscopic crystals: - Coarse-grained; Pegmatitc and porphyritic are also correct because macroscopic can be seen by the naked eye. - Pegmatite: occurs during magma cooling when some minerals may grow so large that they become massive. - Porphyritic: most common in volcanic rocks where one of the minerals will begin to crystallize prior to eruption (therefore producing larger grains) o During cooling of a magma- change relatively quickly. o Earlier formed minerals will have formed slowly and remain large crystals whereas sudden cooling causes the rapid crystallization of the remained of the melt into a fine grained - Pyroclastic: textures occur when explosive eruptions blast the lava into the air resulting in fragmental, typically glassy material which fall as volcanic ash lapilli and volcanic bombs. - Aphanitic: rocks in contrast to phaneritic rocks, typically form from lava which crystallize rapidly on or near Earth’s surface. o Because extrusive rocks make contact with the atmosphere they cool quickly so the minerals do not have time to form large crystals. o Individual crystals in an anphanitic igneous rock are not distinguishable to the naked eye.  Basalt, Andesite and Rhyolite.


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