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GSU / Psychology / PSYC 4100 / How does the mcgurk effect work?

How does the mcgurk effect work?

How does the mcgurk effect work?

Description

2-2-16 Notes


How does the mcgurk effect work?



Weckt Cognitive Psych.

#1

video. All video in Latin... Secing words on screen mode uso hear what the

words were in english (top down into. So influential on bottum up stimuli)

McGurk Effect) ("Ba vs. Fa")


What is the cocktail party effect?



What we SEE overrides what we HEAR we use our top-down knowledge

to predict/ understand bottom up info. We also discuss several other topics like Who created the wedding cake model of justice?

Focusing on a stimuli while unconsciously blocking out info/ other stimuli. - Inattention Blindness | Not seeing obvious stimuli due to distractions

(texting/ changing the radio) while driving - Reggie Shaw killed 2 while texting and driving


What helps memory consolidation?



We also discuss several other topics like What are the structural differences between amorphous and crystalline solids?

Automatic: occurs when you are familiar with your surroundings and

does not require lots of cognitive functioning

- Controlled

occurs when you are unfamiliar with your su

Attention

Study Sour

cocktail Party Effect : Being able to focus one's auditory attention

on a particular stimulus while filtering out a variety of other Stimuli (ex: a party goer focusing on a singic conversation in

a noisy room)

study sou

• Fianker Combatibility Task : Investigates the impact of COGNITIVE LOA If you want to learn more check out How are buddha and bodhisattva related?
Don't forget about the age old question of How linear regression is used to predict performance?

on the subjects ability to SELECTIVELY ATTEND to different types of Stimuli

- Flankers are letters to be ignored, focusing in only on the target We also discuss several other topics like How do people respond to incentives?

letter that should be recognized

Target

Flanker

(B)

Ă Bk

Flanker

target

2-2-16 notes

cognitive Psychology

BAB

).

Flankers Identifying a central target in a trigrom is an easy task ( low load If you want to learn more check out Why must a government have checks and balances?

placing low / no demand on the subjects cognitive resources SOUD - Flankers are placed oniy to slow down Subjects

response to identify the taract - Flankers ONLY distract in the low load condition **

Study Soup

High Load tasks contain lots of distractors that share features

with the target (conjunctive scarch )

when Subjects are performing a HIGH tood task, it is casy to block out excess stimuli/distractors (flankers) because all

cognitive resources are being used

Study Soup

- High Load Conditions - Hard to get distracted - Low Load Conditions - Easily distracted

Mapping Task investigare factors that influence Subjects ability to

divide attention across tasks

1 - consistent mapping condition: Across all trials, targers are

#'s and distractors are letters Ceasy elimination )

- Accuracy increases over time ; automating their

ability to identify between targets and distractors

2- Varied mapping Condition. Across all trials, targets AND

distractors come from all the same category; a la target from one trial could be a distracter on another

- Automatic processing is never achieved

(cognitive load is too high).

Study So

-

The harder a task is

the harder it is to automate it

Chapter 1 Continued...

Memory Consolidation

The process by which we encode and store information for later use

o Sensory Memory > (attention) Short Term Memory (encoding and storing) Long

Term Memory > Retrieval from Long Term Memory (retrieval) o Sensory Memory = Incoming Information o Short Term Memory = Items that we are aware of

• Maintenance Rehearsal: Maintains information in short-term memory o Long Term Memory = Only items that WANT to be kept o Retrieval from Long Term Memory = Not retrieving all of the data that we put in

* We don't encode and store everything, but pick and choose from incoming information

CHAPTER 2

Cognitive Neuroscience – The study of the physiological basis of cognition

Localizotion of Function Different stimuli are processed by different regions of the brain

o Hemispheres

Left Hemisphere: LINEAR thinking (Logic, Language and Lists) Right Hemisphere: HOLISTIC thinking (Spatial awareness, emotion, imagination and creativity) Contralaterization: Left side of the brain controls the right side of the body

o

Lobes

Frontal

Planning, organizing, emotions, problem solving and coordination Primary Receiving Areas: Responds to all of the senses AND higher cognitive functioning***

Parietal

Integrates sensory information with other information, understanding numbers, determining spatial sense, navigation and mapping objects in space Primary Receiving Areas: Tactile (touch, temperature and pain)**

Occipital

Processes visual information and integrating the images with other parts of the brain Primary Receiving Areas: Visual**

Temporal

Processes auditory information, long-term memory, extracting meaning of audits, recognizing faces/objects and processing scenes to

determine approoriate benavior Primary Receiving Areas: Auditory**

Occipitol

Processes visual information and integrating the images with other parts of the brain Primary Receiving Areas: Visual**

Temporal

Processes auditory information, long-term memory, extracting meaning of audits, recognizing faces/objects and processing scenes to determine appropriate behavior Primary Receiving Areas: Auditory**

o

PPA (Parahippocampal Place Area) Processes scenes and determines appropriate behavior Extrastriate Body Areo (EBA) Responds specifically to pictures of bodies and their parts

o

Thalamus Routing station for information from senses Hypothalamus Links nervous system with Endocrine system (hormones) Amygdala Regulates emotions (fight or flight)

Chapter 2 Continued...

Brain damage

o Damage to back of head (Occipital Lobe) = Blindness o Damage to Occipitotemporal Region (lower left side of brain) = Prosopagnosia

• Inability to associate a specific face to a specific person; even an inability to

recognize oneself Broca's Area (frontal lobe)- Specialized area for speech and producing language

o Broca's Aphasia Loss of ability to produce language (patients are AWARE)

TITI

Wernicke's Area (temporal lobe) - Specialized area for comprehending longuoge

Wernicke's Aphasia Loss of ability to understand language, spoken or written (patients are UNAWARE)

Brain Imaging Measures changes in blood flow to observe changes in brain activity during different

cognitive tasks

Positron Emission Tomography (PET) Indicates the amount of radioactive levels in the brain to determine brain activity Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) Indicates levels of iron in hemoglobin to determine brain activity Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) Creates images of structures in the brain; reveals brain structures, but does not indicate neural activity

Neural Coding

Specific Coding

o A specific stimulus activates a specific neuron, responding only to that stimulus Distributive Coding

o A specific stimulus activates a network of neurons, working together to respond to that

stimulus o Pattern of activation across a set of neurons that is stored (ex: Recognizing a face or

smell from childhood)**

VERSUS

Distributive Processing Lots of small brain functions that come together to form larger cognitive functions; Distributive processing is involved in higher cognitive functions

o involves activation of multiple areas of the brain to perform o specific task** (ex:

speoking, language and understanding)

CHAPTER 3

Perception

Top Down Processing

Bottom Up Processing

Information that you bring with you to an experience (ex: memory)

Information taken up from the world (ex: seeing an object)

1. Processing objects 2. Hearing words in a sentence 3. Experiencing pain

SENSORY Increased attention to detail of an unknown object

Top Down Processing vories with experiences

Increasing FAMILIARITY (of an object) = Increasing TOP DOWN PROCESSING (able to fill in the blanks) Increasing UNFAMILIARITY/NOVELTY = Increasing BOTTOM UP PROCESSING (Increased attention to detail needed to understand an unknown object)

Optical Illusions Give us the perception that we are seeing something else

Interplay between top down and bottom up processing

Chapter 3 Continued...

Four Approaches to Object Perception

1. Gestalt Psychology

Proposes a number of laws of perceptual organization, based on how stimuli usually occur in the environment

Gestalt Psychology relies on bottom-up processing more than the other 3 approaches

Heuristics "Laws" for Interpretation

1. Principle of similarity Similar things appear to be grouped together (sizes, shapes or colors) 2. Law of Figure/Ground 3. Law of Proximity Objects close together are part of the same object 4. Law of Similarity Objects that look alike go together (ex: team colors) 5. Law of Good Continuation (Gives a sense of where things start and end by anticipation)

Law of Closure (mentally "closing" an object to make it complete)

Law of Simplicity (Interpreting things simply/realistically) 8. Law of Familiarity (After reality of a simple object sets in, familiarity turns an ordinary object into

something familiar - ex: seeing a face on a car)

** All laws work together simultaneously

2. Theory of Unconscious Inferences Hemholtz)

Likelihood Principle We perceive what is most likely to have caused the pattern of stimuli we are experiencing Unconscious Inference Perceptions are based on unconscious assumptions about what makes sense in our current environments

3. Bayesian Influence Estimating the probability of an outcome is determined by 2 factors:

Prior Probability Our initial belief about the probability of an outcome; how FREQUENTLY things occur due to belief Likelihood The extent to which the evidence is consistent with the outcome; The CHANCES of something occurring due to beliefs

4. Perceptual Regularities vs. Semantic Regularities

Physical Regularities

Oblique Effects It is easier to perceive vertical and horizontal effects Light from Above Assumption Assuming that light comes from above due to the light in our environment coming from above

Semantic Regularities

Characteristics are associated with different types of scenes (ex: a kitchen would include cooking and eating)

CHAPTER 4

Memory

Semantic Memory A memory that ANYONE has access to

Example: 9/11 event

Episodic Memory A memory or experience that is unique to YOU

Example: What you were doing when 9/11 happened

Brain Ablation occurs when areas of the brain are intentionally destroyed to recognize areas that

perceive.

WHAT an object is and 2. WHERE an object is

• An inability to FIND an object - Landmark Discrimination

An inability to IDENTIFY an object-Object Discrimination

Automatic Thinking Does not require lots of cognitive functioning; occurs when one is familiar with their environment or what they are doing

Controlled Thinking Requires lots of cognitive functioning: occurs when one is unfamiliar with their environment or what they are doing

Chapter 4 Continued...

Attention

Cocktail Party Effect Being able to focus one's auditory attention on a particular stimulus while filtering out a variety of other stimuli Flanker Compatibility Task Investigates the impact of COGNITIVE LOAD on the subjects ability to SELECTIVELY ATTEND to different types of stimuli

o Flankers are letters to be ignored, focusing only on target letter that is to be recognized o identifying a central target is an easy task (LOW LOAD) o identifying a central target with lots of distractors (HIGH LOAD)

Requires ALL cognitive resources to be used Mapping Task Investigates factors that influence a subjects ability to divide attention across tasks

Consistent Mapping Condition Across all trials, targets and distractors are all letters or

all numbers; Accuracy improves with practice o Varied Mapping Condition Across all trials, targets and distractors are mixed; accuracy

is never improved

Videos in Class

McGurk Effect - What we SEE overrides what we HEAR

We use our top-down knowledge to predict understand bottom up information

"Ba" vs. "Fa" 2. Inattention Blindness - Focusing on a stimuli while unconsciously blocking out information or

stimuli

Not seeing obvious stimuli due to distractions "Reggie Shaw killed 2 people while texting and driving"

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