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Study Guide BIO Ch. 1-4

by: Bailey Janae

Study Guide BIO Ch. 1-4 BIO102

Marketplace > Allen County Community College > Biology > BIO102 > Study Guide BIO Ch 1 4
Bailey Janae
Allen County Community College
GPA 4.0

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About this Document

Study guide/notes sheet for Test #1 in Biology.
Principles of Biology
Betty Herring
Study Guide
biology; cell; DNA; organelles; protein structure
50 ?




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This 1 page Study Guide was uploaded by Bailey Janae on Thursday February 4, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to BIO102 at Allen County Community College taught by Betty Herring in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 31 views. For similar materials see Principles of Biology in Biology at Allen County Community College.

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Date Created: 02/04/16
BIOLOGY STUDY GUIDE CH 1 -4 ü Characteristics of living things - Cells and organization ; energy use and metabolism; response to environmental changes; regulation and homeostasis; growth and development; re production; biological evolution Levels of organization (atom – organism)- Atom, small molecule, large molecule, cell, tissue, organ, organ system, organism ü Taxonomic levels (domain – species)- Domain Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus Species Natural selection - Members of a species with a desirable trait reproduce until the entire species has that desirable trait. Members of the species without the trait die. ü Binomial nomenclature - The scientific naming of species usi ng two-word names. Names are italicized, and first name is capitalized. Discovery-based science- A method of scientific evaluation where the scientist does not have a hypothesis before beginning testing. Used purely to gather information on a subject. ü Hypothesis testing/ scientific method- 1. Observation of a phenomenon/Studying past data 2. Hypothesis is formulated 3. Experiment and observe testing of the hypothesis 4. Analyze results 5. Continue testing hypothesis OR create a new hypothesis Atomic structure (protons, neutrons, electrons) - Protons (+) and neutrons (no charge) located in nucleus of atom; electron (-) located in clouds surrounding nucleus ü Octet rule- In order for an atom to be stable, it must have 8 electrons in its outer shell (except Hydrogen) Isotopes- variants of an element that have a diff erent number of neutrons ü Covalent bond (polar and nonpolar) - Polar: atoms share electrons unequally. Nonpolar: atoms share electrons equally Ionic bond- The bond between a positive ion (cation) and a negative ion (anion) ü Hydrogen bond- A polar bond between a hydrogen atom a nd another electronegative atom Properties of water- Adhesion (water is attracted to other molecules); Cohesion (water is attr acted to other water molecules); High surface tension (caused by cohesion, allows things like bugs to slide over water’s surface); less dense as a solid; ability to absorb a lot of heat before raising temperature; etc. ü Isomers- When the same amount and kinds of atoms are arranged in different structures and have different properties ü 4 categories of organic molecules in cells, and give an example of each - Carbohydrates (starches); Lipids (fats/steroids); Nucleic acids (DNA/RNA); Proteins (meat) Dehydration synthesis- When things are combined by taking away H20 ü Hydrolysis- When things are taken apart by adding H20 Protein structure (1˚ - 4˚) DNA RNA ü Compare/contrast DNA and RNA - Deoxyribonucleic acid Ribonucleic acid Deoxyribose Ribose Thymine (T) Uracil (U) Cell theory- All organisms are made of cells; All cells came from pre-existing cells Adenine (A), guanine (G), cytosine (C) ü Contrast prokaryotic vs eukaryotic cells Cell organelles / structures and their functions - Mitochondria used in both (produce ATP); Lysosomes (recycle old organelles); Ribosomes 2 strands- double helix Single strand (create proteins); Rough ER (protein synthesis); Smooth ER (detoxification, calcium balance, etc.); golgi (transport) 1 form Several forms ü Diseases associated with organelles- Tay-Sachs (lysosomes lack enzymes to break down certain lipids); cystic fibrosis (defective membrane ion channels); muscular dystrophy (lack of cytoskeletal protein); mitochondrial disease (mitochondria fail to do their job)


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