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Study Guide for Exam 1

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by: Kelsey Bishoff

Study Guide for Exam 1 SOC 110

Marketplace > University of North Dakota > Sociology > SOC 110 > Study Guide for Exam 1
Kelsey Bishoff
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Study guide for the first exam on the week of 2/8/16
Introduction to Sociology
Ashley Leschyshyn
Study Guide
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"I'm really struggling in class and this study guide was freaking crucial. Really needed help, and Kelsey delivered. Shoutout Kelsey, I won't forget!"
Frieda Thiel

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This 6 page Study Guide was uploaded by Kelsey Bishoff on Thursday February 4, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to SOC 110 at University of North Dakota taught by Ashley Leschyshyn in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 100 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Sociology in Sociology at University of North Dakota.

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Reviews for Study Guide for Exam 1

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I'm really struggling in class and this study guide was freaking crucial. Really needed help, and Kelsey delivered. Shoutout Kelsey, I won't forget!

-Frieda Thiel


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Date Created: 02/04/16
Study Guide Exam 1 Chapter 1: Sociological Imagination o What is sociology? o Sociology is the study of social behavior and human groups o Micro: small scale social interactions o Marco: large scale social interactions o Define features of the sociological imagination. o Critical thinking and social issues o Individual problems in relation to wider society o Intersectionalities: take into account multiple sociological qualities/variables  Ex: sex, education, wealth  Personal issues: micro  Public issues: macro o Compare and contrast the three perspectives of sociology; what are their features and criticisms? o Functionalist: (Macro) how things function in society; society is structured to maintain its stability  people are socialized to perform societal functions o Conflict: (Macro) tension between groups is over power or the allocation for resources  people are shaped by power, coercion and authority o Interactionist: (Micro) generalizes about everyday forms of social interaction in order to explain society as a whole  people manipulate symbols and create their social words though interactions o What are the differences between the natural sciences and the social sciences? o Natural sciences: study of physical features of nature and the ways in which they interact and change  Ex: astronomy, biology, chemistry o Social sciences: study of the social features of humans and the ways in which they interact and change  Ex: sociology, psychology Chapter 3: Culture o Apply the three perspectives of sociology to culture. o Functionalist: similar beliefs bind people together; collective assumption of what is good  Key concepts: preservation, facilitation, and communication o Conflict: culture reflects dominant ideology  Key concepts: privilege, dominance, and inequality o Interactionist: culture is transmitted through social interactions; values and beliefs are learned through society  Key concepts: social construction, nonverbal communication o Explain material and non-material culture. o Material culture: tangible things  Ex: cell phones, cars, clothes o Nonmaterial culture: meanings attributed to materials  Ex: social roles, beliefs, ethics, rules o What are the components of non-material culture? o Forms of Communication  Signs/Symbols: bathroom signs, clothing brands  Gestures: nonverbal body communication (90% of communication)  Language: shared symbols to communicate (10% of communication)  Values: desirable/undesirable (American Dream) o Norms  Folkways: not strictly enforced but guide behavior  Ex: being quiet in libraries  Mores: strict norms, the foundation of law  Ex: rape, murder, breaking laws  Taboos: strongest norm, provoke revulsion  Ex: cannibalism o Describe cultural universals. o values /behaviors shared by ALL human cultures but not all traits are structured the same  Ex: funerals, polygamy, sports o Explain ethnocentrism, cultural relativism and culture shock. o Ethnocentrism: belief ones culture/way of life is superior  judgment based upon standards set in one's own culture  can produce xenophobia: fear of outsiders/strangers o Cultural Relativism: viewing people's behavior from the perspective of their own culture as an attempt to avoid ethnocentrism  Ex: understanding why the Chinese kill their baby girls o Culture Shock: disorientation that occur when entering a radically new society/culture environment  Ex: consuming insects, tattoos o Describe the basic process of discovery, invention, and diffusion. o Discovery: uncovering or revealing an existing aspect of reality  Ex: identifying DNA o Invention: combines existing cultural artifacts to create something new  Ex: the automobile o Diffusion: the process by which some aspect of culture spreads from one group or society to another  Ex: exploration, war o Explain cultural variation; ideal culture, real culture, subcultures and countercultures. o Culture variation: culture adapts to meet specific circumstances o Ideal culture: beliefs, values, and norms people in society say they follow  Ex: following the laws, monogamy o Real culture: actual everyday behavior  Ex: breaking laws, serial monogamy (marriage, divorce, remarriage) o Subcultures: groups sharing distinctive mores, folkways, and values  creates variety o Countercultures: a subculture that deliberately opposes aspects of the dominant culture  Ex: terrorists Chapter 4: Socialization o What is socialization and why is it important? o learning cultural norms, values, and expectations  creates self concept: totality of our beliefs/feelings about ourselves o What is sociobiology? o a discipline dedicated to the systematic study of how biology affects human social behavior o What are the key theories of the socialization process and their associated features? o Cooley: Looking-Glass Self  "self" created through social interactions based on how we think other see us  can create a false self image  Derived from 3 steps:  Imagine- how do we appear to others  Judgment- interpretation of perception  Evaluation- "self" defined as a result of these assumptions o Mead: Role-taking and stages of self  how self is developed  learn to take the perspective of others  "self" has 2 components:  "I" the acting self (impulsive and irrational)  "Me" the socialized self (rational and controlled)  Stages of "self" development:  Preparatory Stage o I is dominant o learning through imitation  Play Stage o pretend to take roles of specific teacher  Game Stage o generalized other: attitudes, viewpoints, and expectations of society as a whole (taking other views into perspective) o Goffman: Presentation of the self  Dramaturgy: theoretical performance  impression management: altering presentation to create distinctive appearances to satisfy particular audiences  2 stages:  Front Stage: Public self o Ex: being in class  Back Stage: Personal self o Ex: being with friends o Identify and explain anticipatory socialization and rites of passage. o Anticipatory Socialization: learning how to perform a role that one does not occupy  occurs more than once in lifetime o Rites of passage: rituals that mark the symbolic transition from one social position to another o Discuss resocialization throughout the life course. o Resocialization: the process of discarding former behavior patters and accepting new ones  unlikely to occur in lifetime  voluntary or involuntary  total institution  Ex: joining the army, mental healthy institution, going to jail Chapter 5: Social Structure o Identify the components of social structure. o organizes society into predictable relationships  Statuses  Roles  Groups  Organizations  Institutions o Explain a social network. o web of social ties directly/indirectly linking individuals o link individuals with larger society o Define types of statuses and how they relate to one another. o Ascribed status: status that you are born with; hard to change  Ex: race, gender o Achieved status: status that is earned; you can control; hard work and effort  Ex: college student, doctor, also includes criminals o Master status: status that dominates one's identity; the first thing people notice; determines social position; (usually 1 or 2)  Ex: occupation, celebrity, skin color, female pilot o Inconsistency: when an individual's status set has differentially ranked statuses  Ex: 11 or 99 year old college graduate o What is the difference between role strain and role conflict? o Role strain: stress due to incompatible demands among roles within a single status  Ex: having labs and lectures for 1 class o Role conflict: incompatible expectations arising from two or more social statuses  Ex: being a student and having a job o Distinguish between primary and secondary groups. o Primary groups: small, intimate, long term, and emotional  Ex: friends and family o Secondary groups: large, impersonal, and temporary  Ex: sports teams, class o Illustrate types of formal organizations. o Voluntary organizations: members share common interest while not being paid  Ex: humane society o Coercive organizations: no choice but to participate  Ex: total institutions- prison, mental health institution o Utilitarian organization: achieve desired goal in exchange for money  Ex: janitor, mental health institution doctor o What are the characteristics of bureaucracy and its associated shortcomings e.g.) trained incapacity, goal displacement)? How does an “ideal type” relate to Webers’ ideas about bureaucracy? o Characteristics:  Hierarchy: 1 person at the top, few below, most at the bottom  (Like a pyramid)  Division of labor: people take on specific and routine tasks to achieve efficiency  Written rules and regulations: keeps things impersonal and creates efficiency  Employment based on technical qualifications: what you know and not who you know; must have certain qualities/characteristics  Impersonality: keeps efficient by treating everyone based on same ethics; helps increase production and meet goals o Shortcomings:  Trained incapacity: workers become so specialized that they develop blind spots  fail to recognize potential problems  Ex: calling a company & being passed around to many departments to get an answer  Goal displacement: replacing old goals with new ones; takes away from efficiency  Ex: March of Dimes changing goal from finding cure for Polio to a fighting chance for every baby o Ideal type: abstract model of essential characteristics of a phenomenon; blueprint of how an organization should work o Describe mechanical and organic solidarity. o Mechanical solidarity: social cohesion based on shared experiences, knowledge, and skill in which social relations function more or less the way they always have  Ex: farming, cooking o Organic solidarity: social cohesion based on our mutual interdependence in the context of extreme division of labor


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