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FSU - CHM 1051 - Study Guide

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Schools > Florida State University > Chemistry > CHM 1051 > FSU - CHM 1051 - Study Guide

FSU - CHM 1051 - Study Guide

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background image exam 1: Wednesday, Feb. 10th chm1051 exam 1 study guide 1. Provide the seven Bravais Lattices AND define what a unit cell is.  Unit Cell: smallest repeating unit in a structure with no gaps; use math to
create symmetrically equivalent objects with unit cells
background image exam 1: Wednesday, Feb. 10th 2. What are the structural differences between amorphous and crystalline  solids?  Amorphous solids o short range order
o no sharp melting point- softened in a range of temperatures
o undergo irregular breakage
o isotrophic- properties* are independent of the direction in which they 
are measured o less rigid
o Examples: fiberglass, cellophane, polyurethane
Crystalline solids o long range order
o melt at sharp temperatures
o can be cleaved along definite planes
o anisotrophic- properties* are in different directions
o more rigid
o Examples: copper, potassium nitrate
amorphous (left) and crystalline (right) 3. The radius of a gold atom is 1.44 Å and elemental silver crystallizes in a face- centered cubic lattice.  Calculate the density of silver. a) What we know: FCC= CCP= 4 atoms per unit cell
1 Å= 10
-10 m density= g/cm 3 b) Pythagorean theorem indicates: a 2 + b 2 = 4r 2 d= r 8 = 1.14 Å( 8 ¿ = 407pm c) Volume: V= d 3 407pm 3 = 6.74x10 7 pm 3 =6.74x10 -23 cm 3 d) Mass of unit cell: 4 atoms
1 U.C.
1mole 6.022 x10 23 atoms 197 g Au mole Au = 1.31x10 -21  g/U.C. e) Density:
background image exam 1: Wednesday, Feb. 10th d= m
1.31 10 21 g per U . C . 6.74 10 23 c m 3 = 19.3 g/cm 3 4. Indicate the periodic trends for atomic radii and first ionization energy.  IE= ionization energy & size refers to atomic radius (size of atom) 5. Zr is 0.01 Å larger than Hf.  Why?  What is the name of this phenomenon. The 4f 14  electrons are so diffuse that it's almost as if they are not even there,  so the 5d 2  electrons feel the most pressure This is called Lanthenide Contraction: o 5s and 5p orbitals penetrate the 4f-subshell, so the 4f orbital is not  shielded from increasing nuclear change, which causes the atomic radii
of atoms to decrease throughout the series
ALSO... o Why are Eu & Yb larger than expected? They have half-filled electron shells- we want full shells!
(1) Eu: [Xe]6s
2 5d 1 4f 6  ------------> (2) Eu: [Xe] 6s 2 4f 7 (1) Yb: [Xe] 6s 2 5d 1 4f 13  -----------> (2) Yb: [Xe] 6s 2 4f 14 Since the 5d orbital is the highest, take the electron from here and 
place in the f orbital. This creates a full s-shell and a partially filled f-
shell, as opposed to a full s-shell, partially filled d- AND f-shells...it's 
more stable now.
6. Discuss the differences between the bonding and chemical behavior of  actinides versus lanthanides.  While answering this question address why 
Eu(IO3)3 and Eu2O3 emit the same color light when they are irradiated by 
long-wavelength UV light.
Lanthanides and actinides have primarily ionic bonding properties, which are 
governed by a charge density.
Due to the similarity of the oxidation state and their similar ionic radii (caused
by the f-element contractions) separation between the two is difficult.
The f sublevel contains seven orbitals, each of which will hold two electrons. 
Therefore, it is possible to place 14 electrons in the 4f sublevel. Generally 
IE  d e cr e a se s S iz e  i n cr e a se s IE increases Size decreases

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School: Florida State University
Department: Chemistry
Course: General Chemistry II
Professor: Albrecht Tom
Term: Spring 2016
Tags: Chemistry
Name: Study Guide Exam 1
Description: This is the study guide that Dr. Tom gave us- all the information plus details to help you understand are included in 9 lovely pages. (:
Uploaded: 02/04/2016
10 Pages 75 Views 60 Unlocks
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