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UCONN - PNB 3260 - Class Notes - Week 3

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UCONN - PNB 3260 - Class Notes - Week 3

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background image PNB 3260 Week 3 Notes  Lec 6: Epigenetics and Pluripotency  Epigenetics: changes in gene expression or phenotype that does not include changes 
in actual DNA sequencing 
Genetic reprograming: converting differentiated somatic cells to stem cells  Flaws with iPSCs: memory of somatic cell may still exist  iPSCs compared to Embryonic stem cells:    variations in: transcribed genes, epigenetic landscape(can be very  complex), differentiation potential(check for pluripotency in culture by 
ability to form teratoma), and mutational load (caused by reprogramming 
method)    somatic cell may retain traits if   silencing is incomplete  ESC-specific pluripotency genes aren't strong enough  existence of marks that resemble neither cell (parental and ESC)  Developmental potential, each with different epigenetic status    Totipotent    Pluripotent    Multipotent    Unipotent  iPSC Model goes backwards in the list    can result in  1) complete return to totipotency  2) Semi-reprogrammed state: returns to pluripotency but may  differentiate again  3) Trans-differentiation to another cell type  4) Cell death - apoptosis  Addition of certain transcriptional factors can increase efficiency   Oct4/Sox2/Nanog Triad    don't have to be used together but are all 3 known to be master 
regulators 
  require additional factors to have full effects  Chromatin structure -     condensed state allows large amount of DNA to fit in nucleus    Heterochromatin: typically silent (no transcription occurring), tight 
packaging results in closed form 
  Euchromatin: expressed, loosely packed and open form  Epigenetic modification: typically suppress gene modification (area will not be  transcribed    DNA methylation: directly onto DNA at promoter regions  on CpG islands (5C position on cytosines)  heritable regulation of gene regulation  embryogenesis is composed of various waves of methylation and  demethylation  **** 

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School: University of Connecticut
Department: Physiology
Course: Stem Cell Biology
Professor: Conover
Term: Spring 2016
Tags: pnb3260
Name: PNB 3260 Stem Cell Week 3 Notes
Description: Lecture notes
Uploaded: 02/04/2016
2 Pages 28 Views 22 Unlocks
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