PSYC 2110 Study Guide Exam 1
PSYC 2110 Study Guide Exam 1 2110
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This 17 page Study Guide was uploaded by AnnaCiara on Thursday February 4, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to 2110 at University of Connecticut taught by Seth Kalichman in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 138 views. For similar materials see Psychology of Human Sexuality in Psychlogy at University of Connecticut.
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Date Created: 02/04/16
2/4/2016 5:19:00 PM PSYC2110 Exam 1 Legend: Key term: definition Key concept Table of Contents Part I: The Scope of Human Sexuality & Sexual Science and Research A) Culture and Sexuality Term List B) Sexologists C) Research Methods D) Ethical Concerns Part II: Sexual Development and Sexual Differentiation A) Nature vs Nurture B) Sexual Differentiation C) Fertilization D) Stages of Differentiation E) Intersexuality: Disorders of Sexual Development F) Theories of gender role development G) Transgender identities Part III: Part III. Male and Female Sexual Anatomy A) External B) Internal C) Associated hormones D) Cancer/pathologies Part I: The Scope of Human Sexuality & Sexual Science and Research A) Culture and Sexuality Term List Cultural relativism: believing that the value systems of one's original culture should be honored and allowed Cultural absolutism: expecting that those from other cultures must be held to the standards and beliefs in which they live now. we want to avoid this bias more possible to use this when talking about biology Eurocentric: most of the early work, and still much of sexuality research, grows mainly out of European roots. this has implications for what we know o classic euro-centricity is dualistic in nature things seen as "either-or" or "black or white" much is not all of sexuality is multidimensional (mostly continuous - not discrete) acknowledge the Eurocentric bias Sex: the biological aspects of being male or female a categorical characteristic or is it? there is a continuum, generally dichotomous sex differences are physical differences Gender: the psychological and sociocultural meaning coded to biological sex gender differences are socially constructed multidimensional Sexual orientation and Gender Identity: both include processes of discovering who we are in terms of sexuality o gender roles, sexual orientation, relationships with family and friends, perception and experience of self as male/female Sexualization Use of sexuality to influence, control or manipulate Influence of appearance and body language Sexual pathologies diseases, disorders, clinical treatments sexual violence (social sexual pathology) sex therapy, the law - remedies for sexual pathologies B) Sexologists: Charles Darwin Studied evolution Research concerned reproduction and diversity of species Survival value of sex - natural selection Richard von Krafft-Ebing (1840-1902) German neurologist and psychiatrist Wrote Psychopathia Sexualis 4 classifications of pathology: sadism, masochism, fetishism, and homosexuality Hold true today but are more expanded Claimed that masturbation caused all sexual deviations Used case studies to research individual people Sigmund Freud (1856-1939) Austrian neurologist Studied sexual development Psychodynamic theory o Id: part of our psyche as defined by Freud as having to do with impulse Pleasure principle: infants and young children have sexual urges and desires from underlying biological needs Neuroses were produced by unconscious conflicts of a sexual nature theory of infantile sexuality: o adult sexual deviation were distortions of childhood sexual expression wrote Studies in Hysteria and Three Essays on the Theory of Sexuality Iwan Bloch German physician Studied the history of prostitution and abnormal sexual practices May be one of the first "official" sexologists o he wasn't the first to study sex but he placed more emphasis on it than other previous scientists Magnus Hirshfeld (1868-1935) German physician Advocate for sexual minorities Founded the Scientific Humanitarian Committee, the first advocacy group for homosexual and transgender rights Henry Havelock Ellis (1859-1939) English physician spent decades studying info on human sexuality o in the western world and the sexual mores of other cultures responsible for the term "autoeroticism"-meaning masturbation in both sexes and all ages suggested sexual orientation is dynamic/fluid wrote: Studies in the Psychology of Sex Theodor van de Velde (1873-1937) Dutch physician wrote: Ideal Marriage -described a variety of coital positions/sexual advice discussed oral sex and sexual problems Robert Latou Dickinson (1861-1950) American obstetrician and gynecologist, surgeon, maternal heath educator, artist, sculptor and medical illustrator and research scientist Wrote: A Thousand Marriages Documented how repressive sexual attitudes of childhood led to disastrous effects on adult sexual function Studied female response to sexual stimulation Introduced the use of electric vibrators for women Helena Wright (1887-1982) British born known best for pioneering work in contraception and family planning Pioneer in the sexual liberation of women Started a gynecological medical practice in London in the 1920s Wrote: The Sex Factor in Marriage o Instructed/advised women on how to have an orgasm through masturbation and intercourse Alfred C. Kinsley (1894-1956) Entomologist studying the diversity of insects Conducted the first extensive scientific descriptive research of human sexual behavior through sexual histories Ultimately made sex research more legitimate through applied statistical analysis Flaws in his research: convenience sampling o Lack of funding and lack of willingness to participate by subjects o People willing to participate/answer questions did not accurately represent general population o Willing participants of a sex survey may have different perspectives about sex than someone not willing to take a sex survey Interviewed more than 16,000 people about their sex lives Founded/directed Indiana University's Institute for Sex Research Kinsey Scale - sexual orientation on a continuum. most people fall somewhere between Masters and Johnson Soon after Kinsley (he laid some groundwork for their studies) During time of sexual revolution (Kinsley was also part of the sexual revolution) o Innovation of the contraception pill was the major medical advance of the sexual revolution Wanted to understand sexual physiologies and treat people with sexual dysfunctions Used direct observation - "sex laboratory" measured the physiology of sexual response Wrote: Human Sexual Response (published 1966) o sexual response cycle composed of 4 phases 1) excitement -increase in sexual arousal 2) plateau - constant sexual arousal 3) orgasm - peak of sexual arousal 4) resolution - gradual decrease in sexual arousal o varies based on male/female and per individual psychogenic and physiologically based research One of the first people to innovate treatments and sex therapies for sexual dysfunctions Worked at Washington University in St. Louis John Money (1921-2006) Psychologist from Johns Hopkins University Focused on gender identity - our "psychological sexuality" C) Research Methods: 1. Sex Surveys a. Convenience samples - the most common in research i. May not be a good representative sample ii. want to be able to make inferences about a greater population from the sample iii. randomly selected samples are a better method b. Long-term i. make predictions about people's actions over time ii. segments of a population or individuals will be repeatedly surveyed iii. Example: National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health 1. questioned ~20,000 teens about their sexual behavior iv. Other examples: 1. National Survey of Family Growth 2. Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System (YRBS) conducted by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention 3. Healthy Behaviors in School-aged Children (HBSC) c. Correlational i. all survey studies are correlational ii. describe relationships between variables iii. negative relationship: as one variable increases, the other decreases iv. positive relationship: events/variable occurring in parallel v. No correlation: one value tells you nothing about the other vi. NEVER interpret CAUSATION from CORRELATION 1. usually would need a third variable that would be causing them both 2. Case studies a. Sample size of one because it's the study of an INDIVIDUAL b. More often in medical research 3. Ethnography a. Observational research of a culture i. Termed "ethnosexual" when pertaining to sexual studies b. Naturalistic observation c. Non-intrusive - try not to disturb the environment/setting as much as possible 4. Experimental research a. Exert control and systematically manipulate variables to have one reason for measure changes that are observed b. can say that the manipulation of the variable CAUSED the change c. independent variable: variable that is manipulated d. dependent variable: variable measured for change, may depend on changes in the independent variable e. can use self-report and survey in an experimental research study f. may also use physiological measurements g. Plethysmagraphy: instrument that measures sexual arousal i. depends on whether you have a penis or vagina ii. penis: equipment goes around shaft and measures blood flow iii. vagina: measures blood flow to walls of vagina h. Advances in Sexual Sciences Follow Technology i. MRI allows observation of sexual functions and processes as never before ii. can see internal sexual responses in real time D) Ethical issues in Sex Research Masters and Johnson made a code that has since been built on 4 moral principles o 1) respecting the individual participants autonomy have right to refuse o 2) high value on doing no harm because subjects may be especially vulnerable o 3) needs to balance the risks and benefits - benefits must outweigh risks to society o 4) distributive justice - research must be fair Some studies/experiments cannot/should not ever be done researchers must use mixture of sources 2/4/2016 5:19:00 PM Part II: Sexual & Gender Development and Sexual Differentiation Reminder: **sex is male/female more physiologically based, look at chromosomes and genitals** **gender is psychological make up, personal feelings and behaviors** new term= intersexuality: category of an individual's sex with anatomy that is both (but not all) male and female androgeny: occurrence of traits of male and female behavior A) Nature vs. Nurture Nature: biological reasons already determined anatomically and unconsciously lead to an individual's identity o corresponds with biological essentialism: the perspective that your genetics and physiology determine your characteristics Nurture: environmental reasons continuously form an individual's identity o corresponds with social constructionism: who we are is determined solely by our social environment In reality, who we are is determined by a combination of the two concepts: o example: after birth, doctor declares baby as "boy" or "girl" = biological essentialism is the anatomy present but social constructionism is the label you get with that anatomy B) Sexual Differentiation : biological, social and psychological development that leads to a certain sex or gender Encompasses 4 dimensions of sexual identity 1) Genetic Sex o Fertilization=sperm enters egg o 46 chromosomes eventually determine sex (male or female) of the fetus o last pair (23rd pair) are sex determining chromosomes o Karyotype is lay out of 46 chromosomes as a way to determine sex and potential pathologies o chromosomes are made of genes which are made of DNA o Female = XX sex chromosomes o Male = XY sex chromosomes 2) Gonadal sex o Development of gonads: glands in males and females that secrete hormones responsible for determining the sexual development of the fetus male gonads: testes female gonad: ovaries 3) Body sex o Anatomical structures (internal and external) made under the direction of hormones released by the gonads determined the 4) Brain sex o sexual differentiation of the brain o hormones may have effect on male or female like behavior Gender identity: an individual's personal gender experience and feeling of male or female/ internal sense of self and experience Gender role: an individual's expression of their gender identity C) Fertilization formation of a zygote zygote: the structure formed when a sperm fertilizes an egg D) Stages of differentiation 6 weeks: embryo has differentiated tissues that are forming organs but is called an undifferentiated embryo, it has bipotential - potential to become boy or girl o Use karyotype to determine sex at this point between 6 and 8 weeks - get differentiation into ovaries or testicles then Mullerian system develops or degenerates and Wolffian system develops or degenerates 15 weeks: fully differentiated gonadal organs o full differentiation and external genitals formed, external genitals form into parts of vagina or penis/scrotum Wolffian ducts: system that will differentiation into male reproductive system Mullerian ducts: system that will differentiation into female reproductive system XY: Wolffian system will develop and Mullerian will degenerate, undifferentiated glands develop into testes XX: Mullerian system will develop and Wolffian system will degrade, undifferentiated glands develop into clitoris SRY gene o gene on the Y chromosome responsible for sexual differentiation because it produces the H-Y antigen o presence means gonads become testes and start releases hormones - primarily androgens - primarily testosterone --> causes Wolffian System to develop o gene's presence makes body more sensitive to testosterone o Mullerian doesn't develop because testes make the hormone MIS - Mullerian inhibitory substance or the anti-Mullerian hormone (AMH) which stops the Mullerian system from developing if MIS is not produced --> Mullerian system will develop Adrenal glands make androgens in males and females some structures come from the same organ but different tissues = analogous ovaries and the testes are analogous o analogous: some structures come from the same organ but different tissues come from the undifferentiated gonad o homologous: came from common ancestor o penis homologous to clitoris o scrotum analogous to the labia o scrotum is fused labia DAX-1 gene o gene on the X chromosome responsible for sexual differentiation Secondary sex characteristics are caused by hormone production and your body's sensitivity to them o Example of secondary sex characteristic: breasts E) Intersexuality: Disorders of Sexual Development 1) Chromosomal disorders o Chromosomal dysjunction: Normal chromosomal process of the separation of chromosomes and chromatids during meiosis I and meiosis II (Anaphase I and II) Abnormal = non-dysjunction Monomy: missing chromosome in a pair Ex: Turner's syndrome (X0) possible reason: egg fertilized by sperm that is missing a sex chromosome symptoms: short stature, low hairline, characteristic facial features, heart problems they have ovaries, Mullerian system is present you don't need 2 X chromosomes to get the female path Y not differentiating the gonads into testes or producing the MIS Trisomy: extra chromosome in a pair Ex: Klinefelter's syndrome (XXY) extra sex chromosome "X" small testes, infertility, gynecomastia (slight development of breasts in males) testes don't produce an abundance of androgens, tissues are sensitive to androgens shows that two X chromosomes don't make a female o XXX minimal developmental impact no associated syndrome o XXY sperm with two Ys then fertilizes egg and child is XYY no associated syndrome body tissues might be more sensitive to androgens o Y0 sperm with Y fertilizes egg w/o X --> self termination, can't be developed/born o Y chromosome isn't as important to life 2) Hormonal disorders o Exposure to synthetic hormones prenatal exposure fetally androgenized females from taking synthetic drugs (amounts are low) don't have significant birth defects clitoris may be slightly enlarged don't get development of a male because tissues aren't that sensitive to the androgens o body make excess androgens during pregnancy (ex: tumor of the adrenal glands that highly increases androgen production) Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) - when there is adrenal tumor of mother and in the fetus, lots of androgens that the fetus is not sensitive to, not genetic-its hormonal DHT-deficiency syndrome dihydro-testosterone testosterone is converted to this in the tissues normally XY babies that develop testes which produce MIS which produce testosterones, mullerian degenerates and wolffian develops, tissues are insufficiently sensitive to the hormones, may have partially developed vagina but no inner female organs have ambiguous genitals can be misassigned at birth Androgen insensitivity syndrome (AIS) male development of all structures except external tissues of body are insensitive to androgens baby is XY, testes make MIS, wolffian system develops 3) Genital trauma o example: penis singed off with cauterizer during circumcision had before penis reconstruction decided to reassign the baby as a female went to clinic at johns hopkins important case study can look at what characteristics are based on genetics, hormones, environment gender identity of a female but things started happening at puberty gender dysphoria F) Theories of gender role development Psychodynamic perspectives o Freud o 3 phases of early gender development o 1) Children do not recognize sexual differences o 2) Penis is seen as symbol of power o 3) Males move on to find their own place in society and females become more passive o said in first 5 years little girls and boys know what is expected of them o not widely accepted anymore social learning theory o Albert Bandera o life-long continuous learning of gender role influenced by culture Cognitive-Developmental Theory o expectations come from experiences seen in our family - child determines significance on it's own o outside of the family, additional expectations can be learned - life long process o acknowledges biological factors involved Gender Scheme Theory o similar to social learning theory and cognitive developmental theory but less emphasis on life long learning o at any time in life, personal and social pressures o schema are complex cognitive connections that give instruction on development of attitudes Multifactorial theories o Each theory carries some truth o environmental factors and personal perceptions are important o also takes into account biological factors cisgender: term for this match of anatomy and gender identity gender dysphoria may result from isolation/lack of social acceptance G) Transgender identities was considered a psychiatric disorder now, gender dysphoria is the psychiatric disorder associated o may result after sex reassignment surgery if person is expecting to feel a perfect match of identity and anatomy transgenderism: showing discomfort to association within existent gender roles o transexuality: extreme form of transgenderism when one has sexual anatomy that is opposite of their gender identity May choose to undergo sexual reassignment o Sex reassignment Surgically changing anatomy to match gender identity More surgically/socially difficult to change from female to male Exam 1 Part III. Male and Female Sexual Anatomy Lengend: term* = homologous to another term (associated with opposite sex) with equal amount of asterisks A) External MALE: o Penis shaft*: base of penis with 3 columns of spongy tissue: 2 corpora cavernosa and 1 corpus spongiosum o Glans**: sexually sensitive ending of penis o Foreskin***: skin covering the penile glans, removed during circumcision o Testes and scrotum testes have lobes epididymis is storage place for sperm STDs can migrate through vas deferens to the epididymis (chlamydia for example) epididymis eventually joins with urethra (have common exit) primary glands that produce semen: ejaculatory duct Cowper's gland (bulbourethral gland): makes fluid that is basic to balance acidic environment for sperm to live, "pre-ejaculatory fluid" sperm is in it in low quantities low probability but can happen FEMALE: the Vulva o Mons (aka mons pubis or mons veneris): sexually sensitive fatty tissue just below surface of the skin and above the other external sexual organs/structures (also is site of hair growth starting at puberty) o sensitive to sexual stimulation o Labia majora (major lips): protective outer folds of skin reaching from the mons almost to the anus o Labia minora (minor lips): sexually sensitive two inner folds of skin apparent when the labia majora are separated, connecting at the clitoral hood (aka prepuce) o Clitoral hood*** (aka prepuce): protective skin covering of the clitoris o Clitoris: the most sensitive female sex organ (made of erectile tissue) and only sex organ (male and female) with the sole function of pleasure and sexual stimulation Clitoris glans**: external portion of the clitoris that extends internally Clitoral shaft*: extension of the clitoris under the clitoral hood towards the mons but does not pass the top of the labia majora, it has 2 columns and 2 bulbs of spongy tissue that become engorged during sexual stimulation o Bartholin's glands (aka vulvovaginal glands): glands connected to ducts opening inside the labia minora and produce secretions during sexual arousal o Urinary meatus: urethral opening below the clitoris from where urine is expelled o Introitus: opening to the vagina o Skene's glands: glands located between the urethra and the vagina that engorge when sexual stimulation occurs o Secondary sex characteristics Breasts made of gland tissues: mammary glands function: lactation primarily fatty tissue that supports the gland 25-35 lobes of mammary gland in each breast ducts have common opening of the nipple nipple surrounded by the areola (stimulation and engorgement because it is erectile tissue) B) Internal MALE: o urethra: internal tube with opening at end of penis shaft to release urine o seminal vesicles: glands on the more internal side of each vas deferens that contribute chemicals aiding in sperm motility o prostate gland: gland that contributes some contents of the semen semen: ejaculatory fluid composed of sperm and other factors FEMALE: the Vagina: sexually sensitive muscular tube of involuntary smooth muscle which the a penis enters during heterosexual intercourse o sphincter vaginae and lavator ani: somewhat voluntary controlled muscles that line the vaginal opening (not smooth muscle) o Hymen: thin skin membrane at opening of vagina 1)Cribiform (branched) 2)annular (mostly open), 3)septate (mostly open but has one strand crossing opening) 4)imperforate (mostly closed) 5) fibrous (very thick and tough - may cause pain during sex, can be surgically treated) o Vaginal rugae: ridged walls along the vaginal canal o Cervix: opening to the uterus from vagina Os: the opening of the cervix o Isthmus: portion of the uterus that is between the cervix and womb o Fundus: top of the uterus o Uterus: thick muscular walls with 3 layers--> outermost layer to innermost o 1) perimetrium: coating keeping everything together o 2) myometrium: thick smooth muscular lining o 3) endometrium: sheds during menstrual cycle o Ovaries o the differentiated version of the undifferentiated gonads o 2 ovaries, on each side of the lower abdomen - attached to the uterus by ovarian ligaments o Functions: 1) produce gametes (eggs also called oocytes or ova) during ovulation - hormonally control process when egg is released from follicle 2) produce hormones: estrogen and progesterone o Fallopian tube (aka uterine tubes) branch off each side of fundus fimbriae come off end of fallopian tube and go onto the ovary have cilia that make current to draw egg into fallopian tube if sperm is present in fallopian tube then fertilization may occur walls are also lined with cilia to continue to draw egg in C) Associated hormones MALE - testosterone FEMALE o Produced by: 1) hypothalamus: produces Gonadotropin releasing hormones: regulate production of other hormones 2)pituitary gland gonadotropins FSH - follicle stimulating hormone, LH- leutinizing hormone - triggers rupture of follicle and release of egg Gonadotropin releasing hormones: regulate production of other hormones Gonadotropins - effect the gonads 3)ovary: estrogen: stimulate maturation of reproductive organs progesterone - helps maintain uterine lining during pregnancy and vascularization of the endometrium o Responsible for the menstruation cycle 1) preovulatory stage (follicular stage) 2) ovulation: LH and corpus luteum 3) luteal secretion: corpus luteum secretes progesterone and more estrogen 4) egg isn't fertilized - uterine wall is shed through vagina PreMenstrual System (PMS) severity of the discomfort and physical changes vary o Responsible for menopause Menopause: menstruation stops, ongoing process, cycle may slow before it completely stops Hormone replacement therapy works to replace the estrogen and slow the effects of menopause one symptom: hot flashes from changes in estrogen that impact smooth muscle D) Cancer/pathologies MALE o Testicular cancer prognosis is very good if detected early more common and more dangerous in younger men 20-35 years old easily self-detected o Male breast cancer men can get breast cancer and can get mammograms soy has natural estrogens in it that may result in breast development FEMALE o Uterine/cervical cancer risk factors: 1) Intercourse starting at a young age 2) 10 or more sexual partners 3) History of STD 4) Having sexual partner with many past sexual partners Pap smear: test done by a doctor to examine for cervical cancer o Breast cancer Mammography treatment mastectomy - breast is removed lumpectomy - mass/growth is removed most are fueled by estrogens younger women produce more estrogen which may allow the cancer to grow faster adipose tissue produces estrogen: obesity is a major risk factor
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