EXAM 1 STUDY GUIDE
EXAM 1 STUDY GUIDE HIST 1311 - 002
Popular in U.S. History to 1865
Popular in History
This 9 page Study Guide was uploaded by Whitney Jones on Thursday February 4, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to HIST 1311 - 002 at University of Texas at Arlington taught by Kristan Nicole Foust in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 72 views. For similar materials see U.S. History to 1865 in History at University of Texas at Arlington.
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Date Created: 02/04/16
Exam 1 Study Guide Things to know for multiple choice questions: Environmental Determination-The theory that the environment is the determining factor of the course of history. North American Geographical features: - Very Flat - Green - Easy to Travel - Only two major mountain areas - Fertile Land - Rivers: used for transportation, irrigation, and industry purposes - Tropical Weather: heat is important in disease control. This is also good for crops that require non-freezing temperatures year round. - Lack of extractable mineral resources Primary sources for Native Americans Archaeology - Bones - Structures - Trash and dung Anthropology - Oral histories (stories told from generation to generation) - In the 1930’s there were interviews of Native Americans done on their culture. But the data can be skewed because they weren’t actual eye-witnesses of the historical events European Documents - Newspapers - Letters - These sources may have a skewed perspective because they could’ve been used for selling, entertainment, or missionizing. - Sources may have the “European lenses” meaning they only focus on the differences between them and the Native Americans and none of the similarities. Agriculture Revolution Results - We see a growth in the population and sedentary villages - They no longer have to be nomadic and follow buffalo. They hunt local smaller animals - More food meant more energy, and with more energy they had more babies - Almost all of their meals include potatoes, tomatoes, and corn Mayans - They had hieroglyphics as their written language (They were the only Native American tribe to have a written language) - Most of their writing for religious purposes - They had a ball game that was similar to soccer except you had to kick the ball through hoops that were very high up and sideways. The winners of the game had the “honor” of being sacrificed. - I imagine the game was a lot like this. Allow the ending about sacrifices is very inaccurate. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8pF03BXxUSY - They had more human sacrifices than any other Native American tribe. Aztecs - They had developed ways of farming on water - They called themselves Mexica (which is where the name Mexicans came from) - They also participated in human sacrifice - They had a social hierarchy with mobility (meaning you could move up and down the hierarchy) - The hierarchy included kings, nobles, artists, slaves, ect. - There was no welfare system meaning if you’re disabled or unable to provide for yourself you are seen as having no purpose in society. So most became slaves so that they could have clothes and food. - Slaves had much more freedom than what we typically think of for slaves. They could attain wealth, buy homes, have families ( and the children were not automatically slaves) , and they could even own slaves themselves. INCAS - They had a closed hierarchy system. Meaning it was very hard to move up or down within the system. - Their hierarchy consisted of an Emperor, 2 types of nobles, people related to emperor, rich people, and then everyone else - Their Empire was divided into 4 quads and each was ruled by a relative of the emperor. And he had a spy for each to check on them. - They didn’t have a written language - Kuzco is the capital - It took 12 days to walk the long road that went through the Empire - They had the quipo to keep records. PUEBLO CULTURE - In the beginning of their existence they built settlements on the land not in caves like how we usually think of them. - Chaco Canyon was major center of pueblo people - They moved to the cliffs and caves because they had problems with the nomadic tribes - Developed in New Mexico along the Rio Grande, Chaco Canyon - They were not considered an Empire because they didn’t conquer other people. They were made up of multiple towns that shared a common religion, language, art, building styles, agriculture but were not united - They dug pits to store corn in for when they experienced drought - They dug irrigation channels so that water could flow across fields - They had a large area of trade - Monumental architecture such as castle like structures - Each town had its own ruler, but would make alliances to defend against nomads MISSISSIPPI CULTURE - Complex culture - They had villages with their own leaders & only ever formed alliances, never were united - During this time was their agricultural boom - They traded pearls and art - They had Cahokia Monk’s Mound which was often used in religious ceremonies. It was made of many different layers of different dirt. It would’ve taken many years to create. Some of the dirt was brought from many different places. It would be where modern day Illinois is. - In the 13 century there were bout 40,000 people in settlement at Cahokia - After this we saw a decline in the Mississippi culture for various reason such as - Climate change - Deforestation - Over hunting - The culture survived until 1500s but with a much smaller population - The Cherokees, Choctaw, Chickasaw, Creeks, and Seminoles are descendants of the Mississippi culture The Mississippi and Pueblo Cultures were the most advanced Native American groups at the time. Most lived in wood houses surrounded by crops This is very similar to how European peasants lived at that time. Powhatans - The powhatan confederacy was in eastern Virginia - They were in the area of early colonization Apache - They lived in teepees - They were nomadic - They wore headdresses - Mainly hunter/gatherers - They used every part of the buffalo for something - Did not use a lot of wood - Majority of Native Americans did not live like this - This is the stereotype of Native Americans most widely known and were the most talked about by Europeans. - These Native Americans lasted the longest because Europeans did not want their land as much as others. COMANCHES - Kept their society for a very long time - They did not live in as close contact as others so they had less exposure to disease - They survive until the 1800s Vikings - One of the first people to make settlement in the Americas - Vikings traveled for three reasons raid, trade, and settle - When they would raid they would take women, goods, food, children - They are polytheistic - They traveled by very long, wide, but shallow boats which allowed them to travel through rivers - In the 10 Century they landed in Greenland and Iceland - Greenland was very fertile back then. - Leif Erickson named Canada Vinland when they settled there. And is one of the most memorable Viking explorers. - Archaeologists prove Viking were in America because they found coins & dwellings. - They wrote in ruins. - They took the northern route to America rather than the southern route like Columbus. RECONQUISTA - This is when the Christian Spaniards pushed out the Muslim moor people. - This introduces the idea of slavery to the Spaniards. Before this Spain still had a feudal system. - Leads to the formation of Spain as a nation - Puts Spain in position to be the first to settle/explore the Americas SILK ROAD - The trade route between Europe and Asia - This is how they got luxury good like silk and porcelain. - Islamic Empire made traveling difficult - This is why they started looking for new routes COLUMBIAN EXCHANGE - The exchange of disease, animals, people, plants, ideas and technology between Europe and America after Columbus explored America. CHRISTOPHER COLUMBUS AND HIS VOYAGES - After the Reconquista Spain said yes to funding Columbus’s exploration to find a new route to the India after previously saying no. - He will make 4 total voyages - They gave him three ships the Nina, Santa Maria, and Pinta - The arrived to the Caribbean in about 33 days. - He came in contact with the Tainos who were naked and peaceful people - They had cannibal neighbors called the Caribs and because of this they wanted some of Christopher’s people to stay and protect them. Some did stay but when Columbus came back on the second voyage the entire village was destroyed as well as all of his men and people. Explain the effects of isolation in the New World. What are results of the extinction of all the large pack animals? For effects of isolation I would compare the development in Europe vs the New World. Here are some of the effects in both TECHNOLOGY IN THE OLD WORLD - Creation of the wheel - Gun Powder - Having a written language DISEASES IN THE OLD WORLD - Small Pox and Antibodies DISEASES IN THE NEW WORLD - Syphilis GOVERNMENT STRUCTURE IN THE OLD WORLD - Written Laws - Committees GOVERNMENT STUCTURE IN THE NEW WORLD - They had a sole ruler who decided everything. RELIGION IN THE OLD WORLD - Christianity(Monotheism) RELIGION IN THE NEW WORLD - Polytheism THIS IS WHAT CAME OF PACK ANIMALS BEING EXINCT - New farming techniques were developed - Learned to farm potatoes and corn/maze - Less disease from animals such as swine flu or cow pox. - More small animals to feed families - They had to do more hunting - No wheel technology was developed by Native Americans For the other possible essay questions refer back to the section above on the Reconquista and the section on the Agicultural Revolution results. STUDY HARD AND GOOD LUCK ON THE EXAM!
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