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CCJ3024 Exam 1 Study Guide

by: Haley Kairab

CCJ3024 Exam 1 Study Guide CCJ3024

Haley Kairab

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These notes are going to cover what is on our next exam.
Advanced Principles of Criminology Justice
Dr. Marvin Krohn
Study Guide
criminology, Advanced Principles of Criminal Justice
50 ?




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This 11 page Study Guide was uploaded by Haley Kairab on Thursday February 4, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to CCJ3024 at University of Florida taught by Dr. Marvin Krohn in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 36 views. For similar materials see Advanced Principles of Criminology Justice in Criminology and Criminal Justice at University of Florida.

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Date Created: 02/04/16
CCJ 3024 ­ Exam 1 Study Guide ­ exam will be during class (8:30­10:20) on Tuesday 4/9 ­ bring student ID ­ For exam ­ don’t need to know specific names or statistics for answers but they may be  referred to in questions Dr. Krohn’s highlights from notes ­ understand crime as a deviant behavior ­ social definition of crime ­ behavior that hurts the interests of society and humanity ­ problems with the social definition ­ there is no set standard for what is harmful ­ assumes consensus  about crime ­ certain crimes may not be harmful to society ­ ex/ confiscation of native american land was not a crime at the time it happened but  would be with today’s standards ­ ­ legal definition of crime ­ an act or omission not allowed by the public for the protection of the public; made legal in judicial procedure ­ distinguishes between moral, social, and normative definitions ­ makes identifiable categories of behaviors ­ reference point for studying other behaviors ­ what is law ­ law is the specific result that comes from a configuration of obligations that don’t allow a native to break his responsibilities without consequences ◦ Substance ­ types of behavior (morals, customs) ◦ Function ­ what law is intended to do ◦ Form ­ elements necessary to have law (system) ◦ some combination of above • Issues raised in definitions ◦ Legal norm = institutionalized norm  ◦ Bohannon's Notion of double institutionalization • Primary rules ­ substance of law • Secondary rules ­ application or form of law (due process  consideration ­  the rules by which we enforce the law) • Social contract ­ we don't have to sign a contract when we are born to  agree not to break the laws in return for law enforcement to protect you  from others' breakage of the law ■ Agreement between the individual and the state - Law behavior involves: • Coercion • Third party • legitimate authority • Form is more important definer of law than either substance of function. • no mention in the definitions of justice, fairness, or what is right ­ what is justice • just ­ something that is recognized as good by society; typically increases rate of conformity between actual and ideal situations • Justice ­ the evaluation of concrete situations to determine the way law is distributed  - Rawls theory of justice ◦ Trying to ascertain the basis for defining what is just and how it should be distributed ◦ Sees a need of divorce ourselves from preconceived ideas. Especially  • Veil of ignorance ◦ Rawls has two principles of justice • everyone needs to have the most liberty that is available to everyone • Inequalities in power wealth income etc. can’t exist unless they work to  the absolute benefit of the worst off members of society (utilitarian) ◦ Implications • Primacy of liberty over other goods • Not maximizing sum or average of certain advantages but to counteract  natural inequalities that can’t be controlled to try and balance the common  good • Everyone provided with basic conditions to be able to strive and achieve  goals • Components of CJ system ◦ Legislature • determines what is not permitted and creates appropriate punishment and  delegates the money to run the system ◦ Judicial (higher courts) • Interprets existing law and determines constitutionally  ◦ Law enforcement • Investigates potential crimes and apprehends suspects ◦ Courts • Charges, indicts, tries and sentences offenders ◦ Corrections • Carries out sentences by incapacitating offenders and may attempt to treat  and rehabilitate them ◦ Prevention  • not clear if its part of the Criminal Justice System • The criminal justice process ◦ Arrest • Initial contact • Investigation ◦ Booking • Initial appearance ­ typically before a magistrate to be explained their  rights ◦ Preliminary hearing • Statement of evidence against the defendant ­ dismiss or bind over to  grand jury (12th century England) or prosecutor. Most are handled without a grand jury • Consideration of bail ­ making it expansive for the defendant to flee /  setting a cost to try and make sure that the defendant will show up again  when they need to in the criminal justice system ◦ Indictment • Requires the suspect to appear before a court ­ sometimes a grand jury  (they determine if there is enough evidence to proceed with a trial) ◦ Arraignment • Suspect plea is entered ­ hearing date is set ◦ Plea bargaining ­ 90% of all cases resolve in a guilty plea ◦ Trial  • Can be in front of judge or jury  (varies by offense and jurisdiction) ◦ Incarceration or alternatives • Probation, remediation, restitution • A contractual relationship between the state and the offender. if you don’t  comply with the rules you were given you can get brought back to the  conviction phase ◦ Release ­ parole • Most inmates do not serve full sentence • Parole ­ boards of citizens/people from CJ system that look at your case  and see how you have been behaving and acting while incarcerated, plus  also looking at the crime you were convicted for and talk to the victims to  see if you can gets out of prison early ■ probation is similar to parole • Criminal justice funnel ◦ One place to know numbers ◦ Out of 1000 crimes 500 reported ◦ Out of 500 reported ­ 100 arrests ◦ Out of 100 arrested ­ 29 found guilty (27 plead guilty) ◦ Out of 1000 serious crimes ­ 20 end with adult incarcerated • plea bargaining ◦ Advantages to offender of pleading guilty • They could potentially get a lesser sentence ◦ Advantages to system ◦ So what's the problem? • They might be so scared of their future that even if they are not guilty they take the plea and real criminal is still out there that no one is looking for • Adversary system ■ Both sides of case get to present evidence in order for the  defendant to try and show innocence ■ If you have both sides putting out best case for each the jury will  be able to make a very well thought out and rounded decision  about guilt • Wedding cake model of justice - Samuel Jackson ◦ Top layer • Celebrated cases • Full array of procedures ◦ Second layer • Serious felonies • Full jury trial (????) ◦ Third layer • Less serious felonies • Typically younger offenders  • Plea bargain, reduction of charges, probation or outright dismissal ◦ Fourth layer • Misdemeanors • Handled in assembly line fashion Classical school ­17th­18th centuries (monarchy, elite group of upper class, and church had a lot of influence ← Social contract ← When you are living in a society, you have a duty to follow the law and the state has a  duty to protect you in return ← Rational man ­ hedonistic psychology ← Making a decision based on pleasure and pain ← If the activity you are doing will outweigh the pain that would come from the potential  consequences, then you will do it ← Utilitarianism  ← Greatest good for the greatest number of people • Implications for CJ system ◦ Purpose of CJ system is to deter crime  ◦ Impose only that amount of punishment that is necessary to counter the benefits  of crime ◦ Guilt ◦ Focus on laws and CJ system rather than the individual ◦ Law must be knowable     • Positive school - 19th century ◦ Philosophy of positivism • There are laws that govern nature • Man is part of nature • Therefore human behavior is governed by laws • These laws are knowable through the application of scientific methods ◦ Implications for CJ system • Focus on actor and environment to determine causes of behavior • Determine causes of behavior • CJ System should rehabilitate the offender • Indeterminate state   ◦ CJ system in classical school • Law enforcement • Determining if a person is innocent or guilty ◦ CJ system in positive school • The actual punishment that is received by someone that is found guilty • Correctional facilities that are trying to rehabilitate and see why it happened Goal of crime control • Most important goal is to control crime • All other goals should be subservient to this goal • Abolish legal roadblocks • Reduce liberties in order to make crime control more effective   Goal of due process • Emphasis should be placed on constitutional rights • Sacrifice crime control if necessary   • Note there there may be a hard fulfilling both of these goals • Importance of evaluating research methods when examining theoretically driven research ◦ Research method ◦ Research design ◦ Who to collect info from ◦ How many to collect info from ◦ What to measure ◦ How to measure   • Analysis ◦ Technique ◦ Applying the technique • Examination of alternative • Interpretations through analysis interpretation    Types of research design • Experimental studies ◦ You have two or more groups and you are manipulating one group with a variable ◦ Advantage: you can be sure that if behavior changes, you can record why because you have taken away all other variables that cannot be controlled ◦ Disadvantage: are you ethically allowed to create the conditions needed to study  crime / the fact that you are in a controlled environment that might change the  way a participant would normally respond • Quasi­experimental studies ◦ Take advantage of some event has occurred and treat that event as the treatment  variable (ex/ studies of crime due to impact of Hurricane Katrina) ◦ Encounter more extraneous variables that regular experimental studies have / need baseline data • Historical research ◦ Looking at records and archives of whatever you are examining to see how ex/  crime rates of sale of drugs have changes over time ◦ Go through records and archives to also find context of the times you are  researching to see what may have had an influence on the rates • Observational studies ◦ Involve actual observation of the actual people that are doing what you are  studying ◦ How: try to get to know the ex/ gang members you are studying and try to  establish some sort of trust so you know they are going to act how they normally  would and once you've done that  ­ you have to let the people know that you are  actually observing them ◦ Advantage: you (hope) to get to see people in their own environment doing what  they would normally do even if you weren't there ◦ Disadvantage: takes a long time and can be very uneventful for a while ­ but can  also be dangerous • Survey research ◦ Second most widely used ◦ Involves collecting info from people about their opinions or their own behavior  etc. ◦ Advantage: you can get at a lot of information from a lot of people in an efficient  way ◦ Disadvantage: you don’t know if you are getting valid information back  especially when asking about sensitive topics like criminal behavior / the wording on it can affect how it is interpreted / you won't get every survey back which can  skew the data • Secondary analysis ◦ Probably the most popular / biggest dataset of secondary research in US is the  census then the police reports etc. ◦ When you look at a study that has already been done and use that for your own  purposes ◦ Advantage: cheap because you don’t have to spend to research  ◦ Disadvantage: whether or not it measures exactly what you want it to measure /  you have to make compromises in your own research   Reliability v. validity • Reliability ­ has a consistency among answers and data • Validity ­ if something actually accurately measure what was intended to study   Correlation • Two things are related without any proof of causation •  to establish causation you would need to have a correlation first, then you need time order,  and lack or false correlations (just because you see a relationship doesn’t establish that  there is one ­ ex/you have a third variable that is associated with both that is actually  causing the correlation)  • Victimization survey ­ a survey to determine if people have been a victim of a crime  ◦ Advantage as a measurement of crime ­ people will be more willing to say that  they have been the victim of a crime rather than admitting they committed one   Victimization studies today • Conducted by the Census Bureau •  In 2006 ­ 64 million were interviewed, but 93 million in suburban areas (not uniform crime report but research through census)   Purpose • To see how much of crime goes unreported by the victims and why ◦ Why ­ typically because it is a hassle; they are worried the police won't do  anything to help; or worried the criminal will do more to you if you report them;  embarrassment • More accurate count of the true crime rate ◦  people have less of a reason to lie about being a victim • Police efficiency  ◦ to measure using uniform crime rate look at the crimes cleared by arrest out of all  the crimes that police are aware of ◦ However, using victimization surveys you can look at arrests out of all crimes  including those unreported until a victimization survey that they should know  about • Location  ◦ find out where these crimes and victimizations are happening • The nature/characteristics of crime & victim   Problems • The victim's description of offender in limited and unreliable ◦ The victim typically doesn’t get a good look, if they get one at all  • Memory of the details     • Victimization studies have shown that crime rate is twice what police actually know about ◦ Motor vehicle crime is the most likely to be reported ◦ Homicide is not counted because there is no victim left ◦ Least likely is larsony (theft of small things) and assault (they normally know  each other) • Break down by categories of crime    Victimization surveys are good for: 1. Give info on the victims a. 15% of households are victims of crime b. More likely to be victim if: i. Urban resident ii. Male  iii. Younger people  iv. African American v. Victims of violent crime are more likely to be in lower socioeconomic  status c. Most likely to be victim (young, poor black male) is also most likely to commit  serious crime 2. Relationship between victim and offender a. Assaults b. Perpetrators tend to go after people of similar demographic 3. Routine activities of victims a. When/where crimes happen b. Hints to why the crime happens i. Guardianship ­ likelihood of becoming a victim 1. How well you can defend against crime (ex/ locking doors; or stay  out of isolated and dark places, have a dog) ii. Look at how fitting the target is (greater value to the offender, easy to  take) c. Focuses on individual more than location  4. Check on crime stats (uniform crime reports and self reports) Self report studies • ask people if they have committed a crime • Don't just ask questions about the crime, ex/ demographic info, job info, family info ◦ The other questions that seem non­related but can help explain why a crime was  committed   History of self-report studies • Porterfield ­ 1943 ◦ Before this, all crime info came from official data ◦ Porterfield thought that social class and delinquent behavior were related  ◦ He looked in 55 juvenile cases that went to court ◦ He went to interview college student and found that almost every student had  committed at least one of the 55 offenses that he look at  • Mean # of males = 17, and females = 6 • None had been involved with the police/court system because of those  crimes   • This was taken to mean that the juvenile justice system treated people of different  backgrounds differently • Led to many studies that showed relationship between social class and delinquency was  misleadingly exaggerated by the official data that was used   Concerns • Anonymity/confidentiality  ◦ Anonymity ­ you don't know who it is ◦ Confidentiality ­ you know who it is but you can't speak about it • Use this to be able to match it with other data  • Administration of the report ◦ Before it was in interview style which made ^^^ hard ◦ Now its on computer which makes it more valid • Longitudinal design   Sample selection • Short and NYE ­ rural sample • Other studies were in urban areas • Clarke and Wenninger study ­ four areas • Rochester Youth Development Study (RYDS) ­ look at kids that are high risk for crime ◦ Oversampled high crime areas and males   More issues • Items on checklist ◦ Criticism of Short and NYE ­ asked trivial questions   • Most studies give range of behaviors that are more and less serious • Makes a difference in finding ◦ Hindelang Et Al Study ­ official vs. victimization vs. data vs. self­report ◦ Elliot and Ageton ­ looked at self­report data to study a relationship between  class, race, and delinquent behavior • Follow up questions ◦ Make sure you are getting valid information  ◦ Issue with these: people say no to certain question to avoid follow up questions ◦ Testing effect ­ people learn how their answers affect the length of their survey ◦ Thornberry study of NYS effect • How to prevent attrition of the sample ◦ Make sure you can find the person later on after the survey • Overall reliability/validity of the study ◦ Studies on this: • Clark and Wenninger ­ studied college students that filled out aa self­ report check list. Two weeks later they invited them all back in after  recording all of their responses, and let them know the second time that  the study was to test the validity of a lie detector machine. They would  hook them up again and ask the same questions, and they had the  opportunity to change any answers. ■ They measured the amount of times the answer changed ­ found  that 80% told the truth most of the time • Gold Et Al ­ interview friends and ask about their behavior and about their own behavior  ■ Most people told the truth in general • Akers Et Al ­ He looked at substances (spit) and varied the collection of  taking the saliva and giving the checklist. Taking the saliva first expected  to be more honest. Giving checklist first expected to lie more because they didn’t know about the saliva. ■ Most people told the truth in general • Systematic vs. random bias ◦ Systematic bias is what we need to be concerned about  ◦ If random because it is still a fairly accurate correlation because you can keep tabs on the normal sense of the truth Dr. Krohn’s highlights from textbook Know terms in margins/key terms CH. 1 • 3 points about criminal justice system (4-6) • different parts of criminal justice system (7-9) ← - above • Crime control v. due process model with examples ­ above • wedding cake model (11) ← ­ above ← • characteristics of a science objectivity (18) • subsection on college students as victims and offenders (26) Ch 2 • What is criminal law (35) • Summary offenses - meaning • Legal aspects of criminality and what they mean (36) • status offenses (39) • different kinds of ways to confine crime/categorize behavior and identify examples (39-44) • 45-60 - material on researching crime ◦ Different types of research ◦ Advantages/disadvantages as they relate to issues we deal with Ch 3 • Measuring extent of crime (68) ◦ Uniform crime report ◦ What does crime index refers to ◦ Part 1 and 2 offenses ◦ Distinguish different kinds of offenses • graphs (73) ← - They show that crime has been decreasing over the last 20 years • know what clearance rate refers to • What goes into clearing a crime (74) • criticisms of UCR (75-78) • National crime victimization survey • Bounding and telescoping • Figure 3.4 on pg 83 • National incident based reporting system (not in notes) • 4 points that NIBRS provides that other systems don’t (82) • Crime patterns (84) ◦ Age crime curve • General conclusion under sections of region and crime, race and ethnicity, and gender and crime • know the following hypotheses: chivalry, parenting, gender role, accomplice (92-93) • Know about social class in crime (96)***


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