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Public Relations Exam 1 Study Guide

by: Julia Machuga

Public Relations Exam 1 Study Guide STCO 23123

Marketplace > Texas Christian University > Strategic Communication > STCO 23123 > Public Relations Exam 1 Study Guide
Julia Machuga
GPA 3.7

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About this Document

This is my study guide for the Public Relations exam 1 that covers chapters 1-4.
Public Relations
Julie O'Neil
Study Guide
public relations, test, Study Guide, chapters
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This 4 page Study Guide was uploaded by Julia Machuga on Thursday February 4, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to STCO 23123 at Texas Christian University taught by Julie O'Neil in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 77 views. For similar materials see Public Relations in Strategic Communication at Texas Christian University.


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Date Created: 02/04/16
PR Exam 1 Study Guide Chapter 1 PRSA definition of PR: a strategic communication process that builds mutually beneficial relationships between organizations & their publics Challenge of PR  Well established in the U.S. & throughout the world, especially in Europe, Asia (especially China)  Common terms in PR definitions are deliberate, planned, performance, public interest, 2-way communication, & strategic management function  PR can also be called corporate communications, public affairs, communication, and even external affairs. Unflattering terms used in the media are flack and spin-doctor. PR Process  RACE: Research, Action, Communication, Evaluation = constant cycle of feedback & program adjustment  Lots of PR specialties like counseling, media relations, publicity, etc.  PR is different from journalism, advertising and marketing but they share basic disciplines  An organization’s goals & objectives are best achieved by integrating activities of advertising, marketing, and PR. PR Careers  People who plan careers PR should be competent in writing, research, planning, problem solving, business/econ, & social media  Internships are important for students to get experience  Entry-level salaries are higher than in many other communications fields. Entry-level person can earn $30,000-$40,000, while a more experienced professional can earn a six figure salary Chapter 2 Early Beginnings  PR is a 20 century term but goes back to the ancient empires of Egypt, Greece, Rome & India  The Catholic church in the Middle Ages and Martin Luther in the Reformation, extensively used PR tactics  Private companies attracted immigrants to New World with promotion and fertile land. American Revolution was a result of staged events like Boston Tea Party and the Federalist Papers. The 1800s: Golden Age of Press Agentry  P.T. Barnum: master showman of 19 century, pioneered many techniques sill used today  Promotions of land developers & American railroads caused settlement of the west  First presidential press secretary was administration of Andrew Jackson  Social movements for women’s rights, racial equality, prohibition used publicity  Wannamaker department store and Macy’s were first to use PR techniques to attract customers  US adopted alternating current in 1890s as result of successful PR campaign by George Washington, who competed with Thomas Edison’s advocacy of direct current 1900-1950: Age of Pioneers  Ivy Lee & Edward Bernays did most to establish foundation for today’s PR practice  Ivy Lee: built up Rockefeller’s reputation & made him more appealing to public  Edward Bernays: believed PR should emphasize application of social science research & behavioral psychology, “scientific persuasion”  Arthur W. Page also was probably the first practitioner to establish PR as an integral part of high-level corporate management  Also Hollywood publicist Warren Cowan & fashion publicist Eleanor Lambert 1950-2000: PR Comes of Age  PR field greatly expanded after WWII as result of changes in American society like urbanization, the development of mass media including TV & overall expansion of business.  Concept of PR shifts with reputation management & relationship building becoming more prominent  PR was traditionally a male domain, but now 70% of PR practitioners are female. 2000 to Present  PR has increased emphasis on listening, engagement & dialogue with respective publics because of Internet & social media  Concept of corporate social responsibility (CSR) & necessity for transparency become mainstream in terms of widespread acceptance by all organizations Major Historical Themes Over The Centuries  Profit  Recruitment  Legitimacy  Agitation  Advocacy Four Classic Models of PR  Press Agentry/Publicity: primarily through mass media, distribute info that may be exaggerated, distorted or incomplete to hype a cause, product, or service  Public Information: one-way distribution for purpose of informing public  Two-Way Asymmetric: has feedback look, but main purpose is to help communicator better understand audience & how to persuade it  Two-Way Symmetric: gaining mutual understanding, find out how public perceives organization and determine what consequences or actions need to be made Chapter 3 Understanding Ethics/Values  Ethics: study of how we should behave  Values: drive our actual behavior in a given situation  Advocate & conduct yourself in a manner that is honest, open, & fair Role of Professional Organizations  PRSA, IABC, & IPRA play a big role in setting standards & ethical behavior for PR  Mission of professional groups is to provide continuing education to its members & raise standards in industry Professional Code of Conduct  Common sense… don’t bribe journalists  All professional organizations have published codes of conduct and there are specialized ones for certain areas like financial relations, production of video news releases & blogging/social media Other Steps toward Professionalism  Occupation becomes a profession through an evolutionary process involving many steps like accepting professional standards of practitioners with no formal training  Groups like IABC & PRSA have accreditation programs where you can submit portfolios, pass an oral, and take a written test Ethical Dealings with the News Media  Both PR & journalism groups condemn gift giving to journalists because it undermines the media’s credibility & public’s trust  More ethical issues are advertising influencing news coverage & not disclosing one’s affiliation with a company while promoting them Ethics Counselor to Senior Management  Learn about ethics  Know your own values  Spot ethical issues  Identify & shape the organization’s core values  Educate management Chapter 4 PR Departments  Most organizations have a PR department, aka corporate communications  PR professionals often serve at the tactical level, but others are counselors to the top executive & have a major role in policy making  PR is a staff function, not a line function PR Firms  PR firms can be large and complex or small, & can provide a variety of services  Many large, international firms are part of giant communication conglomerates  Advantages of using outside PR firms include versatility & extensive resources  Revenues mostly come from charging a basic hourly fee, and out-of- pocket expenses


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