Study Guide for Test 1 - February 8th, 2016
Study Guide for Test 1 - February 8th, 2016 BIO 1144
Popular in Biology II
Popular in Biology
This 10 page Study Guide was uploaded by Grey Garris on Thursday February 4, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to BIO 1144 at Mississippi State University taught by Dr. Williamson in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 347 views. For similar materials see Biology II in Biology at Mississippi State University.
Reviews for Study Guide for Test 1 - February 8th, 2016
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!
Date Created: 02/04/16
BIO 1144 Bio II with Dr. Williamson Taxonomy and Systematics ● Taxonomy Taxonomy is a way of classifying species. It is basically a naming system. John Ray was the pioneer of the process (which has since become a science in and of itself) and Carolus Linnaeus expanded on his work. ○ Binomial Nomenclature Taxonomy is the system by which creatures are assigned a scientific name by their Genus and Species Designation, which makes it a two (bi) name (nomial) system. ○ Domains A new taxon (which is a category of taxonomy just a name for a group) introduced by Carl Woese that is based on gene sequences. It is the new largest taxon as it is placed above the Kingdoms. There are currently three Domains: Bacteria, Archaea, and Eukarya. ■ Bacteria Bacteria are the most primitive forms of living creatures as they are unicellular prokaryotes (singlecelled organisms lacking a nucleus or membranebound organelles). ■ Archaea They are called the Extremophiles as they are found in some of the most inhospitable places on the planet such as volcanicfueled hotsprings and subzero ice wastes. They are generally considered to be the oldest species of creatures. ■ Eukarya The Domain that includes everything not an Archaea or Bacteria. They are simply anything composed of cells with membranebound organelles and a nucleus. ○ Supergroup A new taxon that is between the Domain and the Kingdom. Originally Domain Eukarya was divided into 4 Kingdoms: Protista, Fungi, Plantae, and Animalia. Now Protista is not viewed as a separate Kingdom and has instead been divided into 7 different Kingdoms of Protists. ○ Kingdom ○ Phylum ○ Class ○ Order ○ Family ○ Genus ○ Species The most specific category of Taxonomy. Includes one single species of creature. ● Phylogeny Also called Phylogenesis, it is the evolutionary history (development and diversification) of a species. Phylogenetic Trees are the branching maps that depict the relationships between different species. ○ Systematics Systematics is the study of biodiversity, which is studying how organisms are different from one another within a certain ecosystem, biome, etc. It also focuses on the evolutionary relationships between those species and is used to place the species into their various taxonomic categories. ○ Phylogenetic Trees and their Formations ■ Anagenesis Anagenesis is when one species evolves into a completely different one without branching off. It is described by the left part of the tree in the picture. ■ Cladogenesis Cladogenesis is when one species evolves into more than one new species. The simple branching into two species is described by the right part of the above picture. The two new species and their ancestor (original species) are cclade, which is a group including the ancestor species and every species descended from it. The branching point from a particular species is referred tnode. ● A Monophyletic Group is a clade comprised of the ancestor and all of its descendents. ● A Paraphyletic Group is a clade comprised of the ancestor asome of the descendents. ● A Polyphyletic Group is a clade comprised of species with different ancestors. ○ Homology Homology is similarity between species due to having a common ancestor. These similarities are referred homologous features . The features are split up further into morphological features, which are body parts and what a creature looks likegenetic features, which are similarities in the genetic code. ■ Morphological Analysis A Systematic way of classifying creatures and their relationships to one another based on morphological characteristics that are in common. ■ Molecular Analysis A Systematic way of classifying creatures and their relationships to one another based on genetic data that is then used to propose the Phylogenetic trees. ○ Cladistic Cladistics is a way of classifying species based on the evolutionary relationships of a phylogenetic tree.Cladogram is a tree produced with this approach. It compcharacters (homologous features such as wings and arms) that exist in 2 or more forms. ■ Shared Primitive Characters (Symplesiomorphy) Characters shared by two or more taxa that are inherited traits from ancestors older than the two species’ most recent ancestor. ■ Shared Derived Characters (Synapomorphy) Characters shared by two or more taxa that are inherited traits from the two species’ most recent ancestor. Plant Diversity ● Land Plants ○ Plants are multicellular eukaryotic organisms that contain plastids and are primarily located on land. They originated from a single photosynthetic ancesStreptophyte Algae). All plants are therefore in the Streptophyte Clade. Common features of all Streptophytes are: special form of cytokinesis, cells have Plasmodesmata (channels between cells that go through the cell walls), and specialized forms of reproduction. ○ Distinguishing Characteristics ■ Bodies are composed of desiccation (water loss) resistant tissues. ■ They have a lower surfacearea to volume ratio than branching filaments, which lowers water loss. ■ New tissues arise from Apical Meristems (branching filaments with cells at the tips that actively divide. ■ Generally thick bodies to withstand lack of water and mechanical stress as well as having specialized organs. ■ Reproduction ● Sporic Life Cycles Plants alternate between two body forms to reproduce. The Sporophyte Form and theametophyte Form. ○ Plants produce 2 types of bodies: Sporophytes (diploid form produces Spores) and Gametophytes (haploid form produces Gametes) ■ Gametophyte ● Gametangia: The gamete producing organism of plants. The cells it produces are haploid and produce the gametes by mitosis. Gametes from the Gametophyte form are all genetically identical. The gametes are surrounded by protective “shield cells” to guard against H2loss and microbial attacks. The shield cells are tArchegonia, which enclose a single egg, and thentheridia, which produce many sperm. ● Fertilization: If there is moisture thenAntheridia releases sperm and the Archegonia releases molecules that draw in the sperm to fertilize the egg. A diploid zygote forms that develop into embryos that become the Sporophyte form. ■ Sporophyte ● The developing zygotes remain in the gametophytes to be sheltered and fed. This happens in all land plants, as they develop into sporophytes from embryos, all land plants are called embryophytes. ● Sporangia This organ produces spores by meiosis in order to make it genetically diverse. The spores are then released and transported by wind (while protected by cell walls supported by Sporopollenin). If conditions are proper for reproduction the cell wall opens and new gametophytes develop by mitosis. ○ Classification of Modern Plants and Characteristics ■ Bryophytes: Phylum Hepatophyta (Liverworts), Phylum Bryophyta (Mosses), and Phylum Anthocerophyta (Hornworts). The Bryophytes are the simplest plants as they are seedless and nonvascular. They do not form a clade of their own (they each form their own) but they all share similar structural, reproductive, and ecological features. They are all generally small and, as they are unable to hold water very well, are most common in moist environments. ● Characteristics ○ The dominant part of the life cycle is the Gametophyte stage, which is more common, larger, and longerlived than their Sporophyte versions. The Sporophytes have short lives and are attached to the Gametophytes and do not branch so they only form one Sporangium. ■ Vascular Plants ● Stems, Roots, and Leaves ○ Stems branching structures that have vascular tissues and also produce leaves and sporangia. The vascular tissues allow the plants to grow taller than nonvascular plants. Two types of vascular tissue: Phloem and Xylem, which contains Tracheids to provide support. The cell walls also contain Lignin, which is both decay and compression resistant as well as resistant to water. ○ Roots organs specialized for the uptake of water and minerals from the soil. ○ Leaves photosynthetic organs emerging from stems that tend to be flat. Leaves are either Lycophylls or Euphylls and have the following characteristics: ■ Lycophylls Euphylls (smallest and (true leaves) oldest) Found In Lycophyte Fern & Seed Plants Also Called Microphylls Macrophylls Size Small Large Venation Unbranched Branched ● Adaptations for Dry Environments ○ Due to their vascular system they are able to maintain a stable internal water level, which is helpful in dry environments. ○ Cuticle a waxy, protective surface film that contains Cutin to protect from pathogens and wax to prevent water loss. ○ Stomata pores in stems and leaves that open and close to allow for the exchange of gases for photosynthesis as well as water conservation. ● Phylum Lycopodiophyta (Lycophytes) and Phylum Pteridophyta (Pteridophytes) are seedless but have vascular systems. ○ Characteristics ■ The Sporophyte part of the life cycle is dominant. They have vascular tissues and the ability to branch allows them to grow taller. The Lycophytes are the oldest living phylum of the vascular plants and the Pteridophytes are the second oldest. The two phylums together are called the Tracheophytes due to having Tracheids, which are cells that conduct water and minerals and provide support. ■ Vascular Plants with Seeds ● Reproduction is done with spores and seeds. The Gymnosperms and Angiosperms are informally called the seed plants. ● Seed Seeds are reproductive structures generally formed by sexual reproduction. They enclose plant embryos and specialized tissues store food for the growing plant embryo. ○ Plant Embryos ■ Having an embryo stage was critical to the development on land plants as it protects the seeds from desiccation and infection while enclosed within the maternal tissues. ■ They are multicellular and diploid and begin developing while within the maternal tissue. In order to develop they require placental transfer tissue, which helps the mother give nutrients to the embryo. ● All living and fossil seed plants are Spermatophytes and many produce wood via Xylem, which allows the plants to grow in width and height. ● Gymnosperms ○ Phyla Cycadophyta (Cycads), Ginkgophyta (Ginkgos), Coniferophyta (Conifers), Gnetophyta (Ephedra) ○ Gymnosperms bear “naked seeds” and produce seeds and spores. The seeds are not in fruits and most have wood. ● Angiosperms ○ Phylum Anthophyta ○ They have flowers, which are simply reproductive organs at the end of a short stem. ○ They develop fruits from the flowers and the fruits shield the seeds for dispersal later. The endosperm is a nutritious seed tissue that increases the efficiency of food storage. Animal Diversity ● Characteristics ○ Animals are multicellular and their cells have no cell wall, the lack of which supports freedom of movement. To hold tissues in place there is an Extracellular Matrix (ECM) that supports them. There are many forms of ECM but most are comprised of fibers. They maintain tissue structure and allow for communication in what are called Junctional Complexes. ○ Animals are heterotrophic. They are unable to produce their own food. ○ Animals are able to move at some stage in their life cycle. They have muscular and nervous tissue and muscles are unique to animals. The muscles are controlled by the nervous system and allow the animal to move around to avoid predators. In sessile (unmoving) species, the young are able to move around while the adults are not. ○ Most animals reproduce sexually with internal or external fertilization ● Evolutionary History of Animals ○ Animals showed up at the end of the Proterozoic Eon roughly 590 Million Years Ago ○ The first animals were invertebrates. ○ Cambrian Explosion An apparent time period in which the animal population exploded in number and diversity around 533 to 525 Million Years Ago. ● Classification ○ Animals are Metazoans (multicellular) and are part of a Monophyletic Kingdom with 35 Phyla. ○ There are creatures called Choanoflagellates that exist. These are just protists with flagella. They are the closest relatives of animals and many species group together to form colonies in a manner similar to the choanocytes of sponges. Some of those species could have developed specialized functions for the colony such as motion and nutrition. ● Animal Body Plans ○ Traditional classification is based on body plans such as morphological and developmental features, the presence of specific tissues, body symmetry, and how the embryo develops. ○ Tissues ■ Parazoa Have no specialized tissues or organs but have specialized cells. The cells can move and change the shape of the entire organism. This is the sponges. ■ Eumetazoa Possess tissues. Everything that is not a sponge is a Eumetazoa. ○ Body Symmetry ■ Asymmetrical No body symmetry whatsoever. This is the sponges again. ■ Radial Symmetry The Radiata. They are divided by any longitudinal plane through a central axis. They are often circular or tubular and have oral and aboral surfaces. This includes the Phyla Cnidaria (Hydras) and Ctenophora (Comb Jellies). ■ Bilateral Symmetry Bilateria. They are divided along one vertical plane at the midline to make two similar halves. Animals have mirrored right and left sides as well as dorsal (back) and ventral (front) sides and an anterior (head) and posterior (tail) end.Bilateral symmetry is known to help with movement through land environments and also correlated with Cephalization, which is the grouping together of sensory structures in the anterior end.Phylogenies from Molecular (Genetic) Data ● Phylogenies from Molecular (Genetic) Data ○ There are three clades of Bilateral Organisms ■ Ecdysozoa: Phyla Nematoda and Arthropoda. They have an exoskeleton and under Ecdysis, which is the molting of the exoskeleton. ■ Locotrophozoa: Phyla Annelida, Mollusca, Platyhelminthes, and Rotifera. They have a Lophophore, which is a horseshoe shaped crown of tentacles used for feeding. They also have Trochophore Larva who have cilia for swimming. ■ Deuterostomia: The Echinoderms and Chordates. They have bilateral symmetry and their blastopore forms an anus. ○ Germ Layers ■ Germ Layers are tissue layers over the embryo. They are the Endoderm, Ectoderm and Mesoderm. ■ Diploblastic The Radiata. They have two germ layers for embryos. The Ectoderm covers the surface of the embryo and forms the epidermis and nervous system. The Endoderm lines the Archenteron, which is the primitive gut. This is an opening in the cells of the blastula. ■ Triploblastic The Bilateria. They have the previous two layers as well as a Mesoderm, which is between the two layers and forms the muscles, most other organs between the digestive tract and the skin. ○ Embryonic Development ■ When an egg is fertilized it becomes a Zygote. This Zygote undergoes Cleavage to become more and more cells that get smaller and smaller while the Zygote remains the same size. This ball of cells is called the Blastula. It is a hollow ball of cells and these small cells are called Blastomeres at this point. This hollow ball becomes a Gastrula when the Blastomeres that make it up begin to infold on themselves to create Blastopores in those Blastomeres. ■ During Gastrulation, which is the infolding of cells to create specialized components, the Endoderm invaginates (infolds) to form the Archenteron. The opening into the Archenteron is called the Blastopore. What this first Blastopore becomes determines some characteristics. ■ Protostomes The Blastopore becomes a mouth. This trait is characterized by Determinate Development, which means that if a single blastopore from the Blastula is removed then it takes all the cell signals and special chemicals it had away and the embryo is no longer viable as it is missing special components. Protostomes have Spiral Cleavage, which means that the newly formed cells form between the old cells. ■ Deuterostomes The Blastopore becomes an anus. This trait is characterized by Indeterminate Development, which means that if a single blastopore is removed from the Blastula then the embryo will still be viable because the cell signals and special chemicals and machinery are equally distributed among all the Blastopores. Deuterostomes have Radial Cleavage, which means that the cells form tiers. ○ Body Cavity No longer considered important to Phylogenies. ■ Coelom A fluidfilled, mesodermlined cavity between the digestive tract and the body surface. ■ Acoelomate Have no coelom. The region between the gut and body surface contains Mesenchyme, which are undifferentiated cells from the Mesoderm that work like padding. This occurs in flatworms. ■ Pseudocoelomate False cavity. The body cavity is not completely lined by the mesoderm or derived tissue. This is the rotifers and roundworms. ■ Coelomate Have a coelom. The coelom functions to cushion the internal organs and allows the internal organs to move and grow independently of the body surface. It allows for a hydrostatic skeleton for free movement and a simple circulatory system. This is the earthworms and molluscs. ○ Segmentation Also no longer considered to be important to Phylogenies. ■ Says if the body is in specific segments. This is repetition in body parts, which provides a backup in many cases. Invertebrate Survey ● The Subphylum Urochordata is the Tunicates and the Subphylum Cephalochordata are the Lancelets. ● Phylum Porifera ○ The Parazoans the Sponges. They are asymmetrical, have no true tissues but have specialized cells, and they have a Spongocoel that is a central body cavity where water circulates. It has a Mesohyl, which is a gelatinous matrix that keeps all the cells of the “body” together. ○ Specialized Cells Include: ■ Choanocytes Flagellated cells within the Spongocoel that beat the water to circulate it and trap food particles. ■ Epithelial These cells line the exterior of the “body.” ■ Amoebocytes They absorb food from the Choanocytes and distribute it out. Some become sharp Spicules, which are sharp thornlike structures that serve to deter predators. ● Phylum Cnidaria ○ Specialized Cells ■ Cnidocytes Specialized stinging cells that release toxins via barbs. ○ They have Radial Symmetry and are Diploblasts; however, they have a third layer between their Endoderm and Ectoderm called the Mesoglia, which is a gellike layer between the two. They also have a Gastrovascular cavity and nerve cells that are set up in a sort of net. They can reproduce sexually or asexually. They have stages of growth called Polyp and Medusa, the polyp is the larvae stage and is attached to the ground while the Medusa is freely moving. ● Phylum Platyhelminthes ○ The Flatworms. They are active predators with bilateral symmetry and cephalization without respiratory or circulatory systems. They have an incomplete gut, which means there is one tube with an entry for food and exit for waste. their excretory system is called the Protonephridia and they can reproduce Asexually or Sexually because most of them are Hermaphrodites. ● Phylum Rotifera ○ The Roundworms. They have a Corona, which is a ciliated head that is used for feeding, as well as a Mastax, which is a muscular pharynx (throat) to help with feeding, They have a Pseudocoelom and most of them reside in freshwater while some live on land or in saltwater. They have a complete gut (separated mouth and anus) as well as a jointed foot with four toes that also contains Pedal Glands that secrete a sticky liquid to tack onto surfaces. ● Phylum Mollusca ○ They are generally marine creatures that have soft bodies and hard outer shells. They generally have a Mantle to create the shell, a Visceral Mass that holds the organs, and a Foot for movement (usually). They also have a Coelom, an open circulatory system (blood washes over organs instead of being directed) and reproduce sexually. ● Phylum Annelida ○ They have a Coelom and are segmented to allow for replication of necessary body parts. They also have a complete gut and a closed circulatory system. ● Phylum Nematoda ○ The Roundworms, many of which are parasites. They have a Pseudocoelom and they exchange gases via the Enticle. They are found pretty much everywhere and they have bodies covered in a cuticle for protection as well as complete guts. They also reproduce sexually by general standard but some do reproduce asexually. ● Phylum Arthropoda ○ They are viewed as highly successful as 75% of all living species are Arthropods. They have a generally successful body plan as well as Exoskeletons made from Chitin, which allows the shell to be extremely flexible or extremely hard depending as well as being near impervious to water, they have segmented bodies and generally show a high degree of cephalization. ● Phylum Echinodermata ○ They have bilaterally symmetrical larvae while the adults have radial. They have no cephalization or even brain in many cases and their skin has spines and Pedicellariae (small claws or graspers that have no completely understood function). They have a waterbased vascular system and no excretory systems. They are able to readily detach their body parts and those body parts can potentially grow new organisms. Vertebrate Survey ● Subphylum Vertebrata ○ Includes all Vertebrates, which are approximately 48,000 species and occupy every biome. ○ Craniates many Chordates have a cranium, which is a protective bone or cover for the brain that forms from the Neural Crest Cells. These cells are embryonic cells that contribute to the development of the skeleton, nerves, jaws, and teeth. ○ Characteristics ■ The Big Four all Chordates have these characteristics at at least one point in their life. ● Notochord They have a stiff structure along the dorsal surface. ● Dorsal Hollow Nerve Cord The Spinal Cord that connects to the brain. ● Pharyngeal Gill Slits Gills that connect to the pharynx. ● PostAnal Tail A strong tail back from the anus. ■ Vertebral Column The notochord is replaced by bone or cartilage vertebrae. ■ Endoskeleton Inner skeleton composed of bone or cartilage. ■ Internal Organs The Liver is a specialized internal organ found only in Vertebrates, ■ Most have 2 pairs of limbs. ■ Hinged Jaws They are not present in the Lampreys or Hagfish but are considered to be a key innovation. ○ Phylum Chordata Has the above characteristics. Includes the Tetrapods and the rest. ■ Others ● Class Myxini The Hagfish. They are marine life that look like slimy, headless eels. They have no jaws or fins and lack vertebrae (they are considered vertebrates because their ancestors are assumed to have had them. They have a keen sense of smell and can secrete a slime that expands rapidly in contact with saltwater. This acts as a defense mechanism for the creatures. ● Class Cephalaspidomorphi The Lampreys. They lack jaws or appendages. They do have a notochord and a rudimentary vertebral column. They live in freshwater and saltwater but the latter mature into parasitic adults. ● Class Chondrichthyes The Cartilaginous Fish (sharks, skates, and rays). Their skeletons are made of cartilage and they have teeth not set in their jaws. They are denser than water, because they do not have a swim bladder, and have to keep moving at all times in order to maintain buoyancy and breathing. They have twochambered hearts, strong senses of smell and a “lateral line system” that acts as a pressure wave detection system to show them where things are in their surroundings. ● Class Osteichthyes The Bony Fish. They have bones instead of cartilage, protective coverings over their gills called the Operculum, as well as swim bladders. ○ Subclass Actinopterygii The rayfinned fishes. Includes all except the Coelacanths and Lungfish. their fins are supported by thin, flexible rays of bone. ○ Subclass Sarcopterygii The lobefinned fish. Coelacanths were believed to be extinct until 1938, when one was found. They have a special joint in their skulls to allow for an extremely powerful bite. Lungfish have both lungs and gills. They live in oxygenpoor freshwater and have to breathe air or they will drown. ■ Tetrapods Four appendages. They have an advantage on land and generally have desiccation resistant skin, are able to support themselves on land as well as reproduce there. They have stronger vertebral columns and their hip and shoulder joints are braced against their backbone. ● Class Amphibia They are successful on land and reproduce in water via external fertilization with larval stages in the water. They use Buccal Pumping to literally shove air into their lungs. Their skin also absorbs oxygen to breathe and they have threechambered hearts. ○ Order Anura 90% of all Amphibians. The Frogs and Toads, which are herbivores as young and Carnivores as adults. ○ Order Urodela The Salamanders. They have arms and legs that are equally sized and have a tail and elongated body. They have smooth skins with mucus (slime) and poison glands to deter predators from eating them. ○ Order Apoda The Caecilians, which are legless, nearly or completely blind, and live in tropical environments. ● The Amniotes Inclusive of the Birds, Reptiles, and Mammals. The Amniotes reproduce an Amniotic Egg to protect their young embryos. These shelled, literally or not quite, eggs won over water because they didn’t require returning to water to develop. They also have desiccation resistant skins, Thoracic breathing to allow air to simply enter the lungs without having to force it in, waterconserving kidneys, and internal fertilization. ○ The Amniotic Egg In shelled eggs, 4 extraembryonic membranes enclose the embryo then a shell protects the entirety of it. The Yolk sac provides food, the Allantois stores waste, the Chorion allows gas exchange and sometimes melds with the Allantois, and the Amnion surrounds the embryo in a protective bubble of gellike fluid. ○ Class Reptilia ■ Order Testuidines Turtles, Tortoises, and Terrapins. They have hard shells that are fused with their backbones and ribcages and don’t have teeth but replace that with a sharp beak and strong bite. ■ Order Squamata Snakes and Lizards. They have a “kinetic skull,” which means it is highly mobile. the lower jaw is not connected to the skull directly and the upper jaw is hinged and can move on its own. Lizards have movable eyelids and external ears while snakes do not. ■ Order Crocodilia Crocodiles and Alligators. They have not changed for over 200 Million Years. They have fourchambered hearts and their teeth are set in their sockets. They also care for their young when they hatch. ○ Class Aves Birds. They have feathers for warmth and to help in flight. They have lightweight skeletons (bones often hollow) and their flight muscles extend from their sternum. They also have a reduction in the organs, such as not having a bladder, one ovary, and no teeth. They also have double circulation with their fourchambered hearts and have sharp vision. They are mostly carnivorous and have complex courtship rituals which result in broods of eggs that are taken care of when they hatch. ○ Class Mammalia Evolved from some amniote ancestor earlier than the birds did, roughly 220 Million Years Ago. The mammals were not dominant until the extinction of the dinosaurs, who were extremely successful predators of them. They all have mammary glands, hair on some part of the body, specialized teeth, and their skulls have one lower jaw bone and 3 inner ear bones. They also have external ears called pinnae and their brains are enlarged and protected by a skull. ■ Monotremes Platypus and Echidna. They lay eggs and lack placentas and lack developed nipples but they still survive. ■ Marsupials Once everywhere but now most live in Australia. Highly undeveloped young move in a Marsupium to continue their growth. ■ Placental Mammals Prolonged gestation periods with a placenta that provides the food to grow them.This would be humans,
Are you sure you want to buy this material for
You're already Subscribed!
Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'