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GVSU / Biomedical Science / BMS 208 / What does articulated mean in terms of the study of skeleton?

What does articulated mean in terms of the study of skeleton?

What does articulated mean in terms of the study of skeleton?

Description

School: Grand Valley State University
Department: Biomedical Science
Course: Human Anatomy
Professor: Jolanta lanier
Term: Winter 2016
Tags: Human Anatomy
Cost: 25
Name: The Skeleton
Description: These notes cover the beginning of the skeletal system.
Uploaded: 02/05/2016
8 Pages 273 Views 0 Unlocks
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"}.lst-kix_mm4414y8tiw6-7 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_dffsna4uj83b-6 > li:before{content:"- "}ol.lst-kix_eevjmqx8yjgb-1{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_tlhr9j82pi5h-1 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_mm4414y8tiw6-4 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_tlhr9j82pi5h-2 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_eevjmqx8yjgb-4 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_eevjmqx8yjgb-4,lower-latin) ". "}.lst-kix_mm4414y8tiw6-5 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_dffsna4uj83b-8 > li:before{content:"- "}ul.lst-kix_6msxm23hj0dw-1{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_ltn1trvik03j-2{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_6msxm23hj0dw-0{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_ltn1trvik03j-1{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_ltn1trvik03j-4{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_ltn1trvik03j-3{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_ltn1trvik03j-6{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_ltn1trvik03j-5{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_ltn1trvik03j-8{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_ltn1trvik03j-7{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_eevjmqx8yjgb-4{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_eevjmqx8yjgb-3{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_eevjmqx8yjgb-6{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_eevjmqx8yjgb-5{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_eevjmqx8yjgb-8{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_eevjmqx8yjgb-7{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_ltn1trvik03j-0{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_eevjmqx8yjgb-6 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_eevjmqx8yjgb-6}ul.lst-kix_6msxm23hj0dw-8{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_6msxm23hj0dw-7{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_6msxm23hj0dw-6{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_6msxm23hj0dw-5{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_6msxm23hj0dw-4{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_6msxm23hj0dw-3{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_6msxm23hj0dw-2{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_47rdy8hyklia-0{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_47rdy8hyklia-2{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_47rdy8hyklia-1{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_pw2fjf8gc3vw-2{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_pw2fjf8gc3vw-3{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_pw2fjf8gc3vw-4{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_pw2fjf8gc3vw-5{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_pw2fjf8gc3vw-6{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_pw2fjf8gc3vw-7{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_pw2fjf8gc3vw-8{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_pw2fjf8gc3vw-0{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_pw2fjf8gc3vw-1{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_eevjmqx8yjgb-4 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_eevjmqx8yjgb-4}.lst-kix_6msxm23hj0dw-0 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_6msxm23hj0dw-4 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_6msxm23hj0dw-6 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_6msxm23hj0dw-8 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_eevjmqx8yjgb-5 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_eevjmqx8yjgb-5}.lst-kix_33uyab1qamuq-3 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_33uyab1qamuq-5 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_33uyab1qamuq-7 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_3wofz1zfap22-4 > li:before{content:"- "}ol.lst-kix_eevjmqx8yjgb-2.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_eevjmqx8yjgb-2 0}ul.lst-kix_mhtspma338j0-3{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_mhtspma338j0-4{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_mhtspma338j0-1{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_eevjmqx8yjgb-3 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_eevjmqx8yjgb-3}ul.lst-kix_mhtspma338j0-2{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_mhtspma338j0-0{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_3wofz1zfap22-6 > li:before{content:"- "}ul.lst-kix_mhtspma338j0-7{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_mhtspma338j0-8{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_mhtspma338j0-5{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_6msxm23hj0dw-2 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_3wofz1zfap22-8 > li:before{content:"- "}ul.lst-kix_mhtspma338j0-6{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_eevjmqx8yjgb-1.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_eevjmqx8yjgb-1 0}.lst-kix_ltn1trvik03j-2 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_mocu03xr2b79-7 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_ltn1trvik03j-0 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_ltn1trvik03j-8 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_mocu03xr2b79-3 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_mocu03xr2b79-5 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_tlhr9j82pi5h-7 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_ltn1trvik03j-6 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_3wofz1zfap22-2 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_3wofz1zfap22-0 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_xcu1lly3isl6-1 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_ltn1trvik03j-4 > li:before{content:"- "}ol.lst-kix_eevjmqx8yjgb-0.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_eevjmqx8yjgb-0 0}.lst-kix_xcu1lly3isl6-7 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_33uyab1qamuq-1 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_xcu1lly3isl6-3 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_xcu1lly3isl6-5 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_mo1kzi76d2ex-3 > li:before{content:"- "}ul.lst-kix_3wofz1zfap22-1{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_3wofz1zfap22-0{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_3wofz1zfap22-3{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_3wofz1zfap22-2{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_x8nsztrfvqf-0 > li:before{content:"- "}ul.lst-kix_tlhr9j82pi5h-2{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_tlhr9j82pi5h-3{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_tlhr9j82pi5h-0{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_tlhr9j82pi5h-1{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_x8nsztrfvqf-1 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_x8nsztrfvqf-3 > li:before{content:"- "}ul.lst-kix_tlhr9j82pi5h-6{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_tlhr9j82pi5h-7{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_mhtspma338j0-8 > li:before{content:"- "}ul.lst-kix_tlhr9j82pi5h-4{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_tlhr9j82pi5h-5{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_x8nsztrfvqf-2 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_x8nsztrfvqf-5 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_x8nsztrfvqf-7 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_x8nsztrfvqf-4 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_x8nsztrfvqf-8 > li:before{content:"- "}ul.lst-kix_3wofz1zfap22-5{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_3wofz1zfap22-4{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_3wofz1zfap22-7{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_3wofz1zfap22-6{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_3wofz1zfap22-8{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_x8nsztrfvqf-6 > li:before{content:"- "}ul.lst-kix_dffsna4uj83b-0{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_47rdy8hyklia-5 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_47rdy8hyklia-7 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_47rdy8hyklia-6 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_mhtspma338j0-1 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_mocu03xr2b79-0 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_mocu03xr2b79-1 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_47rdy8hyklia-1 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_mhtspma338j0-0 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_47rdy8hyklia-0 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_47rdy8hyklia-8 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_mhtspma338j0-5 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_mhtspma338j0-3 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_mhtspma338j0-7 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_mhtspma338j0-2 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_mhtspma338j0-6 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_47rdy8hyklia-2 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_eevjmqx8yjgb-0 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_eevjmqx8yjgb-0}.lst-kix_47rdy8hyklia-3 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_mhtspma338j0-4 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_47rdy8hyklia-4 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_pw2fjf8gc3vw-1 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_pw2fjf8gc3vw-2 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_eevjmqx8yjgb-2 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_eevjmqx8yjgb-2}ol.lst-kix_eevjmqx8yjgb-4.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_eevjmqx8yjgb-4 0}.lst-kix_pw2fjf8gc3vw-0 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_pw2fjf8gc3vw-7 > li:before{content:"- "}ul.lst-kix_mm4414y8tiw6-2{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_mm4414y8tiw6-1{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_mm4414y8tiw6-0{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_pw2fjf8gc3vw-6 > li:before{content:"- "}ul.lst-kix_mm4414y8tiw6-6{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_mm4414y8tiw6-5{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_mm4414y8tiw6-4{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_pw2fjf8gc3vw-3 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_pw2fjf8gc3vw-5 > li:before{content:"- "}ul.lst-kix_mm4414y8tiw6-3{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_mm4414y8tiw6-8{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_pw2fjf8gc3vw-4 > li:before{content:"- "}ul.lst-kix_mm4414y8tiw6-7{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_eevjmqx8yjgb-3.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_eevjmqx8yjgb-3 0}ul.lst-kix_tlhr9j82pi5h-8{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_pw2fjf8gc3vw-8 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_6msxm23hj0dw-3 > li:before{content:"- "}ul.lst-kix_mo1kzi76d2ex-3{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_mocu03xr2b79-1{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_mo1kzi76d2ex-2{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_mocu03xr2b79-0{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_mo1kzi76d2ex-5{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_mo1kzi76d2ex-4{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_xcu1lly3isl6-3{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_mocu03xr2b79-5{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_xcu1lly3isl6-2{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_mocu03xr2b79-4{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_mo1kzi76d2ex-1{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_xcu1lly3isl6-1{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_mocu03xr2b79-3{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_mo1kzi76d2ex-0{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_xcu1lly3isl6-0{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_mocu03xr2b79-2{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_6msxm23hj0dw-7 > li:before{content:"- "}ul.lst-kix_xcu1lly3isl6-7{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_xcu1lly3isl6-6{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_mocu03xr2b79-8{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_xcu1lly3isl6-5{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_mocu03xr2b79-7{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_xcu1lly3isl6-4{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_mocu03xr2b79-6{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_6msxm23hj0dw-5 > li:before{content:"- "}ul.lst-kix_xcu1lly3isl6-8{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_mo1kzi76d2ex-7{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_mo1kzi76d2ex-6{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_mo1kzi76d2ex-8{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_33uyab1qamuq-3{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_33uyab1qamuq-2{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_33uyab1qamuq-1{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_33uyab1qamuq-4 > li:before{content:"- "}ul.lst-kix_33uyab1qamuq-0{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_eevjmqx8yjgb-5.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_eevjmqx8yjgb-5 0}.lst-kix_3wofz1zfap22-3 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_33uyab1qamuq-6 > li:before{content:"- 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The SkeletonWe also discuss several other topics like Where is the layer cake federalism based on?

  • Articulated: bones are joined together
  • Disarticulated: bones are not joined

Types of Bones

  • Long
  • Short
  • Flat
  • Irregular
  • Sesamoid
  • Sutural

Anatomy of Long Bone

  • Proximal and distal epiphysis
  • Diaphysis (shaft of bone, “dia” = inbetween)
  • Metaphysis (transition between diaphysis and epiphysis)
  • Epiphysis and metaphysis are made up of spongy bone and filled with red marrow
  • Diaphysis made up of compact bone
  • Inside of diaphysis, there is a cavity called the medullary cavity
  • In adults, the cavity is filled with fat or yellow bone marrow
  • For protection, bone is covered with a dense, regular tissue called periosteum on the outside
  • On the inside, there is endosteum
  • Periosteum has 2 layers: fibrous on outside layer and cellular on inside
  • Endosteum is made of one layer but had different cells
  • Osteoprogenitor: gives rise to all cells
  • Osteoblasts: building new bone
  • Osteocyte: maintain bone matrix
  • Osteoclast: destroy bone using lysosomes and enzymes

Formation of Bone

  • Endochondral ossification is how long bones form
  • Hardening of cartilage
  1. Bones begin as hyaline cartilage
  2. Ossification begins in diaphysis (center)
  3. Secondary ossification centers are in epiphysis
  • As ossification continues, hyaline cartilage remains in the metaphysis; these are growth plates
  • Intramembranous ossification is how flat bone form

        *figure 6.17*Don't forget about the age old question of What is the function of prokaryotic cell walls?

Axial Skeleton

  • Bones forming central axis of skeleton
  • Provides main support
  • protect s central nervous system
  • Skull
  • Thoracic cage
  • Sternum and ribs
  • Vertebral

Appendicular Skeleton

  • Bones in the appendages
  • Shoulder clavicle and scapula
  • Upper limb
  • Pelvic girdle
  • Lower limb

The Skull

  • Cranial Bones
  • Superior, lateral, posterior
  • Frontal, parietal(2), occipital, temporal(2), sphenoid, ethmoid

Facial Bones

  • Anterior bones, face
  • Nasal, maxillary, zygomatic, mandible, lacrimal (means tear)

Process = Projection

  • From an inferior perspective, the temporal bone juts inward, this is called the petrous portion. These is also a depression called the mandibular fossa
  • Occipital bone has a hole at the bottom: foramen magnum
  • The mandible and maxillary have an alveolar process (depression)
  • Palate is made up of maxillary bone
  • At end of palate are palatine bones
  • Within the sphenoid bone there is a depression called sella turcica which holds the pituitary gland
  • Sphenoid sinus - cavity within sphenoid
  • Aids in sound resonation
  • Makes skull lighter
  • From a mid - sagittal view, the vomer bone is visible, which forms the bottom of the nasal septum
  • The rest of the nasal bone is made up of ethmoid bone
  • The perpendicular plate
  • Crista galli

If you want to learn more check out Illustrate the photoelectric effect.
Don't forget about the age old question of What is cyberbullying?
We also discuss several other topics like hyomandibula
If you want to learn more check out How do you investigate the water solubility of alcohols?

Suture = connects bones of skull

  • Coronal suture - between frontal and parietal
  • Sagittal suture - between left and right parietal bones
  • Squamous portion of maxillary bone
  • Lambdoid suture - between parietal and occipital bones

Vertebral regions:

  • Cervical(7) - number of vertebrae
  • Thoracic(12)
  • Lumbar(5)
  • Sacral(5)
  • Coccygeal(3-5)

A typical vertebra has the body (bulky region) and an arch

  • A pedicle connects body to arch
  • Lamind connects left and right arch
  • Opening in vertebrae = vertebral foramen
  • Spinous process: projects out
  • transverse process: projects on the sides

  • Cervical vertebrae have transverse foramen (openings on sides)
  • C1 is called Atlas: holds the Skull
  • C2 is called Axis: allows for rotation of the atlas
  • Within body of C2 is a projection called “dens”
  • Articular processes allow for movement between vertebrae
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