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PSYC 429 Test one study guide

by: Dawn Kohler

PSYC 429 Test one study guide Psyc 429

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These notes cover chapters 1-4
History and Systems of Psychology
Dr. Robert Tigner
Study Guide
History and Systems, Tigner
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This 31 page Study Guide was uploaded by Dawn Kohler on Thursday February 4, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Psyc 429 at Truman State University taught by Dr. Robert Tigner in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 44 views. For similar materials see History and Systems of Psychology in Psychlogy at Truman State University.


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Date Created: 02/04/16
Harlow Monkey experiment- monkey’s preferred contact comfort to food. Animal rights activists against this. This study convinced people to start holding their babies, despite the risk of germs which little was known about. Kissing and coddling babies was originally thought to cause kids not to be able to stand on their own. Monkey’s proved that without a mom babies were dysfunctional like at orphanages where babies died due to no human interaction. In five orphanages only one baby lived more than a year in a sterile isolated environment. Lead to attachment and better survival rates of infants. Pavlov’s Dogs- research was cruel pulled glands and organs out of living animals but loves animals and considered them partners for his data. Most Russians at this time were starving to death 1890s. Muller was the world’s best physiologist in 1800s one of his students Helmholtz studied the spread of electricity through a neuron used a frog body to measure it at 60mph. Math pattern 33 130 298 526 824 1192 1620 2104 Brain with hole in Broca’s area from Laborne Skinner’s box with his daughter as well as with rats and pigeons. The one with his daughter was called the heir crib. Bell curve- normal curve will cover later Problem solving studies with animals by Kohler animals have aha movements of insights learn through imitation and observation. Happened at the same time that behaviorist on the other side of the world were studying shaping. Tranquilizer Chair with no sound or sight, developed by Benjamin Rush who was the face of the APA it is now considered a torcher device. Plato’s Cave Allegory – story about people’s perception verses reality. Can we really trust what we perceive? There are problems with perception mating reality. Decarte’s drawing with the Penial gland with the mind body problem. He was a dualist believed that the soul was separate from the physical body. Tries to answer the question how the mind influences the physical body. Says the penial gland in brain tells the body what to do. Prosthetic limbs can now be moved with your mind. Galileo- discovery of Saturn and that it looks like three things and acts strangely. He thought it’s rings were moons and called it a triplet. He sent a cypher of a code to his friend and college Kepler which could be used to prove his claim. Kepler incorrectly solves the puzzle about Mars. Lead to the later discover of Saturn’s rings 1659 and Mars’s moons. Galileo looking at Venus said that Venus goes through phases proving that Venus and the solar system rotates around the Sun released 1613. Kepler starts with Jupiter and thinks that Jupiter’s red spot rotates mathematically proved 1665 Scientists still scramble to be the first still resistance to climate change and evolution, bias still exist. Try to appreciate zeitgeist-spirt of the times- what people are interested or worried about. We still use codes Notes over Philosophical Context PowerPoint and lecture over Chapters 1 & 2 Slide 1: Modern Zeitgeist- increase of tolerance and social networking. Politics, technology, individualistic, stress levels influence of outside forces. View of body image and perfection. We will appreciate the zeitgeist of the other time periods that we will study we need to reaize the zeitgeist of each era. Questions- who do we turn to when we need help friends, parents, God, self? Part of zeitgeist in culture people turn to one or the other. Cultural. Slide 2: Ebbinghaus quote “Psychology has a long past but a short history” he came up with the forgetting cure. Things that psychologist have been interested in people have been interested in forever. The scientific study has come about recently beforehand only philosophers studied it. Certain areas like Consciousness still are hard or impossible to study in lab. Nature vs. Nurture. Are genetics or environment more important? Still argued it matures which is favored in zeitgeist. Now thought to be entwined. But genetic research and genome and DNA research is being emphasized. In the past one or the other is predominate. When nature is seen more important scientists have more bias like racism and sexism, religious differences. Nurture people can be improved by education we can tinker with environment. We are worse as communities when Nature is put first. Rationalism vs Empiricism- Empiricism- scientific research based. Rationalism uses thought and reason to draw conclusion. Modern scientists use both. Philosophers use Rationalism. Trust vs Reason vs Experience- God vs Self (individual) vs experience (what we can see) Making a murderer on Netflix it is possible the police set him up and he did commit the murder. Or any combination. Example trust in the legal system. Reason your own deduction from the show. Compare to own life experience watching cop shows. All three can point you in different directions. Societies can differ in these areas. In the election Trump is favoring American distrust of government so is Bernie Sanders Dualism vs Monism- Dualists believe that mind and brain are separate while Monists believe they are the same. Dualists may believe in soul or in after life. Vitalism vs Mechanism- Vitalists believe in an invisible life force air or vitality that that makes some things alive and other things not alive. When you die you don’t have air. Mechanists believe that every part of the body is a machine. They believe that by dissecting things they can understand how life was created. Years ago life was a magical unknown. Afterwards physiology saw life as part of a machine Mechanism. Mechanists are usually Monists as Dualists are generally vitalists Determinism vs. Free will- Determinism- we have pre-determined fate or destiny. Skinner was a Determinist thought that free will was an illusion. He would say that we came to class today because of reinforcement and punishments for going to class and skipping class. Materialism vs Antimaterialism- (Reductionist, elementists, atomists) Materialist- everything including life or thoughts can be broken down into elements and atoms many reject life and thoughts. If you can except that everything can be broken down into elements can free will exist? Modern neuroscientists fit here and believe in Determinism and use Rationalism. Issues that affect each other and change thoughts about others. Basic (pure) vs. Applied Research- Basic looking at it just to understand it. Applied research with an intent and use for result. Wanting to find out how cells work vs finding out how cells replicate to cure cancer. More federal funding for Basic research than for Applied. Private funds more Applied research. We need fundamental understanding first. Basic is considered unbiased and can be better understood APA- more clinical psychology, applied research APS- more Basic research Slide 3: How do you quantify the mind? Why is it even important to do so? Assign numbers to mental processes. Must quantify to be accepted at a science. Numbers to emotion, memory, nervous system effecting muscles. Hard to assign numbers to consciousness more philosophy than science in consciousness. Ebbinghaus quantified memory using nonsense syllables. This allowed memory to be studied scientifically. What is the fundamental unit of thought? Action potential-nueron? Language- morpheme (smallest unit of meaning)? Different answers and debates? Goal of Psychology?- understand predict and control behavior. These are are the systems of people with different goals. Is internal or External more important? Internal validity controlling as many things as you can to measure dependent variable. With results can determine cause and effect. External validity ability to apply research to real world situations. With more Internal validity less external validity. Can’t have both in the same experiment can’t have both in the same experiment. Need multiple experiments using one using both. Do we perceive reality accurately? Hallucinations, delusions, perceptions of someone’s actions, visual illusions. Can be mismatches, Bias can be purposeful or accidental. Hard to avoid Slide 4: Chapter 2 Theme Philosophical Context. When philosophy and Physiology came together. “Berkeley Rendered epistemology a branch of psychology, and the two have never been divorced since” Epistemology- study of knowledge Empirist- knowledge comes from experience. Blank slate “tabula rosa” How do you go from nothing to thought to adult knowledge Slide 5: Rene Descartes 1596-1650 Some psychology texts start with ancient Greeks others start with Descartes He was a philosopher mathematician and scientist not a specialist. Developed analytic geometry. Had a lot of health issues. Thought about a point in space while lying in bed ill. The key to defining a point is 0 used 0 with x and y axis to define and reference. Must be commonly defined and agreed upon. Arbitrary but must be found by all. Psychologists can find 0 point of mental processes. Descartes supported heliocentric beliefs rejected geocentric beliefs of religious groups. Reviving philosophical debates discussed earlier. Slide 6: Rationalism vs Empiricism Descartes is a Rationalism Zeitgeist- I think therefore I am- Cogito Ergo Sum- je pense donc je suis (French) Hates being wrong embarrassing to be wrong about geocentric and heart (dualist). Belief that heart creates blood and life rather than pump of blood. Thinks he needs to know for sure everything. He doubts everything until he can prove it. Flat earth; motionless planet.Reduces everything to simplest form. You can’t doubt that you are thinking- core belief “I think therefore I am” Work from simple to complex distrust own experience religion and common knowledge Willingness to be skeptical could be seen as blasphemy- doubting God, Reductionism- simplest form Reason experience. Slide 7: Cogito ergo sum- pops up everywhere: artificial intelligence, gun rights, woman’s rights Slide 8: Descartes thinks more like a Mechanist than a vitalist. Asks how does thought turn into body motion? (example walking) nomadic theory of how muscles work. Moving statues with water pressure. Thinks that the mind gets the body to move using pressure in the arteries. Gets people to take sides. Water closet theory belittling his theory. Simple reflexes knee kick reflex. Circuits, pain reflexes before you realize that you have experienced pain. Sensation going up response going down. Thinks this is the fundamental unit of thought (sensation and reflex). Was an empiricist by dissection of animals and explaining body functions. Dissected eye balls and connected muscles. Made more mistakes believes humans are the best, and categorically different than other animals doesn’t believe that animals have thought or intellect. Humans by God. Humans are the only living things that experience emotions and pain. Did research on living animals thought pain was just reflexes. Slide 9: Descartes is a dualist. Was sick a lot. So sick you can’t think your mind isn’t working due to how sick your body is. Developed a theory that your body could affect how well your mind works. Interactionism or interactive dualism- Your body can have an impact on your mind. Pineal gland at center of the brain has only one is the place where he saw the mind enters the brain. Slide 10: Modern technology we can interface robotic arms Slide 11: Descartes was a Nativist Believed that he had some innate knowledge- Idea of God what God means to you when have your senses experienced God? Born with your appreciation of God and the idea of infinity, perfection or self. Empiricist- experience- is the opposite of Nativist- Slide 12: British Empiricism What is the source of human Knowledge. Tabula Rasa- you are born a blank slate. Experience knowledge or information enters you through your senses. Everything is sensation or reflections according to empiricists Primary and Secondary qualities. Primary- inherent properties shape, size, motion Secondary- smell, temperature, color (must be there to know) interaction John Locke would demonstrate this with 3 temperatures of water. Temperature is relative your perception. Tickle sensation of a feather. Color- color blindness- wavelength of light bouncing off. Simple or complex ideas- adding things together in your mind-complex ideas Slide 13: John Locke- 1632-1704 Father of British empiricism Wrote an Essay Concerning Human Understanding Theorized about democracy and three branches with checks and balances. He also wanted a social contract to make people have educated votes and decisions and more participation. US voters aren’t involved enough. Empiricism is linked to tolerance and political liberalism and differences derive from environment government can give us equal experiences. We should have experiences that benefit the most people. Slide 14: George Berkeley (1685-1753) Epistemology and psychology everything can be broken down into the same set of matter Materialist assertion implied monism, atomism and determinism Rejects materialism is an immaterialism or subjective idealist Key phrase Esse est percipi to be is to be perceived. Objects only possess secondary qualities therefore objects only have qualities when perceived. If a tree falls in the forest and there is no one there to hear it does it make a sound Berkeley would say “what forest” like object permanence. Used God as the reason for things to continue to be when we are not observing them. Berkeley studies sense organs to study depth perception. Overlap- inter position. Size constancy- once you know an objects size you can judge size based on experience. Convergence- your eyes are parallel when looking far away, your eyes are crossed when looking at something close. Accommodation- more muscles inside your eyes that move and stretch your lenses and eye muscles Slide 15: British Associationists late British Empiricists asked slightly more sophisticated questions. Brick walls you can see ingredients cake you can’t see ingredients. Slide 16: David Hume (1711-1776) An Inquiry Concerning Human Understanding Believes that all knowledge comes from impressions and ideas similar to experiences and reflections. Tabular rasa- but still questioned the notion of self not nativist. Sense of self is an illusion. Resemblance- look alike, opposites Contiguity- go together- co-occur Causality- cause and effects are associated you never sense the causation. (you can’t see a transfer of energy) you don’t experience cause and effect just before and after. Psychological Context Slide 16: Continued: one thing in our mind makes us think of another we get accustomed to cause and effect it is not causation. Hume’s notions of memory links are similar to Aristotle’s similarity and contrast notes Aristotle didn’t note causality. Hume noticed a problem with certainty- we should notice probabilities instead chance of something being right rather than yes or no answer. Data only allows probabilities. Example weather forecasts. Slide 17:Mary Wollstonecraft (1759-1797) lived during British Empiricism movement. Wrote Vindication of the Rights of Women using Empiricism. Zeitgeist men are superior to women, girls not educated. She uses Tabula Rasa to prove that boys and girls are born with equal knowledge. How can women be inferior if born the same? Schooling is making boys superior due to experience. Wrote about Men being more reason/intellect while women are more emotional. Differences don’t men superior. Questioned the importance of rationality over emotionality. She was the mother of the author of Frankenstein Mary Shelly. Slide 18: The Mills- Father- James Mills 1773-1836 Mechanical association of similar to complex complexes/ideas. British Empiricism. Wants his son to be a genius so educates him since the age of Son- John Stuart Mills (1806-1873): Heavily homeschooled becomes a genius. One of the estimated smartest people. No real childhood. Had emotional issues. Chemical Associations- complex idea made up of simple ideas that’s parts can’t be seen- supersummativity- the whole is greater than the sum of it’s parts . 2+2 can =5 Writes a system of Logic wants to know evidence to determine causality. Describes an experiment with experimental and control group. Also described correlations which were useful but not causal. Advocates for woman’s writes and nurture Slide 19: J.S. Mills Nurture over nature. He notices that societies favors nature he thinks focus on nurture will allow society to treat people better Slide 20: Alexander Bain (1818-1903) Founded Mind in 1876 first English Psychology journal. Not really scientific some German journals came out around the same time these were more scientific. Use Jstor for our project Slide 21: German Nativism Reject tabula rasa believed in innate intellect Leibniz (1646-1716) Wrote New Essays on Understanding (1765) published 50 years after he dies. Doesn’t publish it the same year Locke dies it was found by his heirs. Believes that clean slates stay clean can’t multiply a number by 0. Nothing will stick to a friction free table. But with one scratch it can grow. Believes that ideas have to attach to something be it intellect or a capacity to learn. Leibeniz is also a dualist called it Psychophysical Parallelism (pre-established harmony). The mind and body don’t interact but just live in harmony. It is only an illusion that the mind effects the body according to his belief. Came up with Calculus at the same time as Newton in England. To solve infantly large and small numbers. Immanuel Kant (1724-1804) Argued against science of the mind because you can’t turn thinking into numbers to treat it scientifically. It will later be changed to numbers Scientific Context Power Point What is a Sacred Cow? What does it mean if I accuse you of adding epicycles? How do you travel back in time?- memories, look at the stars- photons of lights left suns millions of years ago. Slide 1: Parallels between Astronomy and Psychology- audacity. Infinite number of connections between neurons and behaviors that are behaviors. Infinity times infinity. Astronomers- space and time to get anywhere in space. Nieve beginnings from long beginning in astronomy. Need to go 10 miles a second to get to the edge of our solar system in 40 years. In order for it to reach the next closest star it would need to go 136 times faster than it is for four years (light speed) closest stars are trillions of miles away. Slide 2: Aristotle (385-322 BC) Was intrigued by pattern of movement of things in the sky. Everything he wrote thought to be truth wrote On The Heavens- which concluded geocentrism, spherical earth, circular planetary orbits at constant speeds. Only has one right Spherical people didn’t know it was wrong because he was a “sacred cow” people refused to question his statements. Flawed assumptions made data collection hard Slide 3: Thales 6 century BC proposed geocentrism Aristotle offers his endorsement nd Hipparchus 2 century BC Discovers precession- compared to other patterns from previous astrometry notes Precession- wobble around axis causes shift of pattern 26 thousand years for one cycle really good data see slide 4 Ptolemy 2 nd century AD Wanted to make an equation to predict where the planets were at any given date his equations still work and are in the book Almagest. Comes up with this with Aristotles flawed assumption and they still work when you add epicycles and deferent. Due to saw blade like rotation. Epicycles mean the theory is flawed and has a sacred cow Epicycles- secondary orbit backwards part Deferent- main orbit Tycho Brache- 1596 Made a geocentric- heliocentric hybrid planets orbit sun and the system orbits earth Slide 5: Heliocentric Aristarchus (270BC) First suggested Hilocentrism Ponders stellar parallax- test to see which theory is right. Thinks that by using a near start as a constant and looking behind a clear star. If it is a geocentric model it will always have the same pattern while if it is heliocentric the pattern will shift. It is successfully measured in 1838 by Bessel. It was hard to measure because of the large differences in size it was measured in angstroms. The Localization of Function Debate Power point: Slide 1: Broca’s Area Ladies cabin? Engram? –where is a memory storied Why is Jennifer Aniston famous in Neuroscience? Slide 2: Franz Gall 1758-1828 Made the localization of function debate interesting. Distinguished gray matter-un myelinated and white matter myelinated-where info is carred from one area to another. Gray matter is where action is hubs of brain. Explains the Corpus Callossum- barrier between hemispheres communication between axons. Found where the crossover occurs form most bodily functions in the brain stem. Compaired brain patterns intelligent animals comparing speciecs. Phrenology- he believes that there are localized function in your brain which can be measured by the size of your skull. Dips or bulges in your skull show strengths and weeknesses. Where the saying you should get your head examined come from. Needed before some jobs everyone got one. Slide 3: Identified 27-36 locations- Gall’s followers were in it for money, In school Gall noticed that kids who were smart in schools had large for heads. As an adult. He crossed paths with a prostitute and she passes out he catches her and notices she has a big bump on the back of their head. Other prostitutes also had a bump in this area amativeness area-ladies cabin, measured sex drive or so he thought. He went to prisons to investigate men who were thief’s acquisitiveness area was large Consistent with nativism and determinism, monism, nature, racist and sexist. Poor scientific rigor, though there is evidence it is strongly biasted he would make his theory unfalsifiable. This theory was wrong and led to better truths by other scientists Slide 4: Ablation- systematically destroy one area at a time to see results to functions Nature’s experiments, bad luck accidents Stimulation-mechanical chemical, electrical Slide 5: Pierre Flourens (1794-1867) Systematically ablated brains of birds and rabbits Divides the brain into cerebellum, cortex, midbrain, medulla, and spinal cord to systematically ablate He started with the cerebellum which was considered the ladies cabin- sex drive. He went into living animals and destroyed or removed the cerebellum. He would observe animals after a few days of recovery. He noticed that sexual motivation/ drive was not affected. He noticed that the animals acted drunk and un coordination. Cerebellum is need for fine motor control, and coordination, and timing more quickly effected by alcohol. 50% of the neurons in the brain are in the cerebellum. Then the cortex taking out front, back, or top, can’t find differences by where he cuts but how much he cuts is important. Without cortex animal has no senses or will. Will meaning voluntary movements. Vision and Hearing are worse as the cortex is cut away. He wrongly concluded that senses were not localized. Won’t initiate eating or flying reflexes work. Decades of research. Medulla oblongata, dead as soon as he ablates it. Concludes that life sustaining functions are regulated “vital knot” largely correct. Two conclusions action propere- proper actions/functions for each area Action commune- the system is a community that works best when everything is working properly. Slide 7: Phineas Gage 1848 in Vermont. He Was the foreman of a railroad line. They were blasting a straight path with a hole with musket like power. One day he was distracted will packing the powder the rod went through his face and he was able to get up. Small doctor Dr. John Harlow saved his life harlow kept it clean and made sure the hole was through with drainage when he sowed it. Still believed in phrenology. He took above average detailed notes. Gage had a large disruption of his prefrontal cortex. Long term goal setting was lost. Gentalmanly demeanor lives in the moment with short temper squanders things on a whim. Lost impulse control. Still remembers his job and knows about his job. They won’t hire him back. He joins a freak show. Died of a massive seizure the rod didn’t lodge itself in. Slide: 8 Bouillaud 1796-1881 Aubertin 1825-1893 Had a patient with seizures and language deficiency found damage to the lower frontal lobe is linked to language abilities. Bouillaud was a phernology sympathizer he thinks people will laugh at him for thinking it was phernology like. Aubertin presents it in1861- French audience doesn’t believe him. Broca was in the audience Slide 9: Pierre-Paul Broca-1824-1880 Broca investigates the patient Leborgne in 1861- the man could only say tan. Died of gangrenous infection but had motor aphasia. He had a seizure which lead to damage in his frontal lobe only on his left side. Broca is then notified every time there is language loss in his hospital. His unique contribution was that it was the left side. Slide 10: Carl Wernicke 1848-1905 Discovers Wernicke’s area comprehension-upper left temporal lobe. The idea of localization of function makes a come back Slide 11: Fritsch & Hitzig 1870: Hitzig was part of a medical brigade in the war. Part of a soilder’s skull was missing discovered the motor cortex while cleaning a wound. Used dogs and rabbits to find motor cortex using mechanical pressure. They Id 5 different gross motor areas, fine motor control has more area on the cortex. Slide 12: David Ferrier 1843-1928 Identified the motor cortex in 10 species including fish 1876 Also discovers, visual cortex, somatosensory (like motor cortex but for touch), and auditory cortices (both sides between Broca’s and Wernicke’s) Slide 13: Karl Lashley 1890-1959 grandma cell how do we think of grandma Engram- looked for rats ability to run mazes Comes up with two findings Equipotentiality- every part of the cortex has equal potential for memory Law of Mass Action- the stronger the whole brain is the strong the memory is. His discovery memories are everywhere and nowhere so memory doesn’t exist. In 2005 they found the Jennifer Aniston cell in one individual this part of his brain lights up. Have found some facial recognition areas in the brain Slide 14: The Neurons- were hard to see because they were so densely packed. Golgi- discovered that with a silver nitrate stain neurons could be highlighted. Golgi concludes incorrectly that neurons are connected. Cajal- looks at Golgi stained neurons to conclude that there is a gap but they communicate Shared the Nobel in 1906 Golgi for stain and Cajal for theory Sherrington 1906- publishes the integrative action of the nervous system- notices how the neurons interact. Interplay between muscles and nervous system allows movement. Inhibition is as important as excitation 1923 Nobel Wundt and German Psychology Power Point notes over chapter 4 Slide 1: Philosophers ideas and philology research mashed together Slide 2: Psychophysics- study the relationship between real world and mental representation How many units of length is the line, how many do we perceive Square vs rectangle illusion- our perception- discrepancy can be measured by psychophysics The STL arch is as high as it is wide. Slide 3: Goes back to Plato’s allegory Empiricists and Association need accurate senses. Physiologists examined the sense organ Mueller pondered specific nerve energies. Kant’s skepticism Weber probided clues Slide 4: Ernst Weber At the university of Leipzig Studied the sense of touch Wrote Latin text de Tactu 1834 Tradition that intellectual works were written in latin. Narrow audience. Divided touch into pressure, temperature, and locality. Interactions between the three. Pressure and Temperature-when it is cold pressure hurts worse than when it is hot. You are more sensitive to pressure when it is cold. Locality and pressure- finger is more sensitive than your back. Identified thresholds. Pressure includes pain. Slide 5: Thresholds 2point threshold use a device to see if you are being touched with one or two. On your back you have to have at least 15mm apart. On fingertip you can measure 3mm and smaller. Tongue is sensitive too. Absolute Threshold-minimum detectable energy- loudness brightness ect.- hearing tests use this., difference in the color red. Difference threshold minimum detectable difference between two stimuli: difference in illumination, Just noticeable difference between stimuli (JND) Slide 6: Weber’s Ratio: the difference threshold is a proportion not fixed. One person may see 1/20 heavier as a difference threshold 5 is to 100 as 10 is to 200. JND/S=K K=Weber’s Ratio. Vision 1/60 Smell 1/4 Taste 1/3 There is so much sugar in food because just to notice it takes a third more. Not the same for all types of tastes but close to 1/3. Different animals have different ratios. Building blocks for Psychology as a science Slide 7: Fechner Reads Weber’s book on touch. Interested in metaphysics share soul. Interested in after images. Stared at the sun. cuts holes in his eye lids. Physical pain when any light enters his eyes. His mom would read to him in the hallway he developed mental health problems. Visited by a mystic healer who suggests he only eats fruits spiced ham and wine. Thinks about our perception of reality has an insight on 10/22/1850- believes there is a consistent inconsistency to the mismatch of perception. This day leads to the research that makes psych possible. Slide 8: 1860 Fechner publishes Elements of Psychophysics considered the birth of psychology to psychophysicists Plots Weber’s ratio and his law S=k*log r S=reality k= weber’s ratio r= reality Psychophysical Plot uses db and jnd. Used JND as the intervals in the mind for perception- accelerating curve. Using the log scale turns it into a straight line First time a mental phemonon was plotted on a graph Slide 9: Personal Equation The Chief astronomer in England The Astronomer Royal Maskelyne was the Astronomer Royal in 1796 he set the transit times in Royal observatory in Greenwich to figure out longitude on a ship. Watched for when the moon breaks the planet. Huge problem when ships lost track of time Kenibrook assistant times didn’t match correctly, so was fired Bessel- the astronomer who measured Steller parallax explained the error in the readings between Maskelyne and Kenibrook. Human error judged on a different standard stable difference. Suggested that every astronomer makes an equation. This create a standard you can add and subtract seconds to quantify error. This inspires Wundt and Donders Slide 10: Donders Reaction Times 1860s Sited all the time for his reaction time research. Measures mental phemoninons with Helmholtz (drums with needles). Measured simple reaction times by repeating phonemes. Simple reaction time just repeat Ki Rebeat only Ki amongst Ko and Ku SRT+ Discriminaination SRT+Discrimination+Response selection- repeat Ki, Ko or Ku Discrimination and Response Choice both take 37ms Discrimination of sound doesn’t exist in real world just in mind. We found how to convert to time. Slide 11: Wilhelm Wundt founded Psychology as an independent scientific discipline. Always sitting with brass instruments to create thought of scientific discipline. Slide 12: conducts a study in 1861 uses an upside down pendulum with scale like bent ruler. Graded scale moving at a known speed. Ads a cow bell which rings at due north. He listens to the bell and pays attention to his representation of where th the pointer is. Measures how off from reality he is. About an 8 of a second. Called it a thought meter th Shifting attention- from paying attention to his ear to site takes 120ms 8 of a second. 8 of second measures attention or shift of he has just measured and quantified it. Decided it was time for psyc to become a science. Slide 13: Wundt Early life Born into an educated family, terrible student. Day dreamer. Nearly flunked out of Tubingen saved by physiology which was taught by his uncle. Who was transferred to Heidelberg. Wundt went with his uncle. Slide 14: Bega research under Robert Bunsen who created the Bunsen burner. Studied salt. Studied the vagus nerve one of the cranial nerves that regulates heart rate. Earned an MD in 1856becam a teacher Heidelberg assisted Hemholtz CHAPTER 1 TERMS AND NAMES (PAGES 1-24) Wilhelm Wundt (p.2) founded a laboratory at Leizig, Germany (1979) APA (p.5) American Psychological Association The Association for Psychological Science developed in APS (p.5) 1988 emphasizes the history of great psychologists and celebrates classic studies. Retells old events through secondary sources. It provides a time line for todays old history of psychology (p.9) advances interpreting and looking at the past only in term of present understanding. A term coined by George presentism (p.9) Stocking. uses only knowledge and values of the time of the event. historicism (p.9) George Stocking also developed this term. translated the French intelligence test to English for use Henry Goddard (p.10) on immigrants at Ellis Island. Internal History (p. 11) what is written occurs within psychological discipline external history (p.11) considers influences outside of psychology as well. explained through conditioning principles important Behaviorism (p.12) aspects of human behavior history that emphaizes tellectual and cutural aspests of a historical era. Developed by a German Philosopher named Hegel. What people are interested and worried about at zeitgeist (p.12) the time formally called the great man theroy. Events in history develop from the actions of individuals which are "turning Personal History (p.12) points" Hegel (p.12) German Philosopher who developed the term zeitgeist history told through the method of writing biographies eponyms (p.13) about influential individuals a psychology historian who favored the naturalistic model of history, and recognized the great figures too. Studied and taught at Cornell University. (The text book has a half Edwin G Boring (p. 13) page bio on pages 13-14). naturalistic history (p. 14) emphasizes how the force of history acts on individuals A type of historic event named by historian Robert Merton. Is when two or more people independently make the same discovery about the same time. (Ex. Charles Multiple (historic event) (p. 15) Darwin and Alfred Russel Wallace discovery of evolution). reify (p. 15) give a concrete detached existence to an abstraction term developed by Darwin though the discovery was also made by Wallace at the same time he didn't have as evolution (p. 15) much research and writings. a published analysis or summary of person, event or period. Includes books, journal articles, magazine articles, secondary source (p.17) encyclopedia articles and other sources uses information found in archives: including university records, diaries, speeches, meeting minutes, donated individual documents which are connected to the Primary source (p. 17) university. archive (p.17) an area of unpublished information. Archives of the history of American is located at the center of for the history of Psychology at Psychology (AHAP) (p.19) the university of Akron in Ohio. Library of Congress (P.19) in Washington DC has large archives CHAPTER 2 TERMS AND NAMES (PAGES 29-56) invented the nonsense syllable studied human memory experimentally. Developed the Ebbinghaus curve of Herman Ebbinghaus (p. 29) forgetting. had scientific interests during the renaissance period. Studied using the Scholastic tradition. Innate ideas, Descartes (p.30) nativist, dualist, mechanist Johannes Gutenberg (p.30) inventor of a new form of the printing press. geocentric view of the universe (p.30) earth was placed at the center of the universe the sun was at the planets orbited around it. Developed heliocentric theory (p.30) by Polish Astronomer, Nicolas Copernicus. inductive approach to science (p. scientists must observe nature systematically instead of 31) using deductive analysis advocated the inductive approach. He believed that "a true understanding of nature follows the ability to create and recreate the effects of will" "aquire knowelege Sir Francis Bacon (p.31) through experience" B.F. Skinner (p. 31) "Had a Baconian value system" "combining the received wisdom of church authority with Scholastic (p.31) the careul use of reason." rationalist (p.32) believe truth emerges through reason basic truths and ideas of "God, the self, and some basic innate idea (p. 33) mathematical truths" derived ideas (p.33) ideas resulting from experiences favoring innate ideas and leads to the nature vs nurture nativist (p. 33) debate dualist (p.33) clear separation between mind (soul) and body. Cartesian dichotomy (p.33) an implication of dulism that divides humans and animals mechanist (p.34) belief that the body opperates like a complex machiene belief that the mind could have a direct influence on the body and the body could have a direct influence on the interactionist (p.34) mind. reflex (p.34) an automatic stimulous response reaction Descrates believed that tiny spirits were tiny particles in constant motion and were found in the brain, the nerves animal spirits (p. 34) and the muscles. The area in which Decartes believed that animal spirts pineal gland (p.35) could be controlled. our knowledge of the world is constructed from our empiricist (p.36) experiences. knowledge consists of associations amoung experiences associationism (p. 37) (p. 39) and ideas. social contract (p.37) a contract between the government and it's people epistomology (p. 38) the study of human knowledge and acquisition white paper (p.38) the mind at birth is a blank slate locke's idea from basic sensory qualities that can be experienced such Simple ideas (p. 39) as color and temperature. combination of simple and complex ideas such as "a cold complex idea (p.39) drink or very hot day" objects can be reduced to their most basic eleents (atoms) "E.B. Titchener's Structuralism and Watson's atomism (p.39) Behaviorism" inherant property of an object such as "extension, shape Primary qualities (p.39) and motion" feature Descartes "innate ideas" depend on the perception of the object include "color Secondary qualities (p.39) smell warmth and taste" convergence (p.42) "when objects move closer to us or farther away" the lense accominates to keep objects focused on the accomidation (p.42 retina. we can only be certain we are percieveing objects not of subjective idealism (p.43) their reality. Impressions (p.45) base sensations "the raw data of experiences" Ideas (p.45) faint copies of impressions resemblance (p.45) similar to in appearance contiguity (p.45) experiencing things together when one event follows another with regulation a cause cause and effects (p.45) and effect relationship is established psychological and physical events operate sperately but parallelism (p.46) in parellel Spatial contiguity (P.47) Temporal contiguity (p.47) holism (p.47) primacy of a whole over its constituent elements looks for a common element in several instances of an Method of Agreement (p. 52) event. looks for evidence that the absence of an effect is always Method of Difference (p.52). accompanied by the absence of a proposed cause. the method of agreement and difference have a potential Joint Method (p.52) for identifying the cause within the limits of inductions. Concomitant variation (p.53) underlies todays correlational method. monads (p.54) Elements of mental and physical reality. below the level of awareness essential for enabling higher petites perceptions (p. 54-55) levels of perception. Chapter 3 & 4 Key Terms posterior roots of thee spinal cord controlled sensation Bell-Magendie law (p. 64) while anterior roots controlled motor response Specific Energies of nerves (p. 65) different sensory nerves have different qualities vitalism (p.66-67) belief in the existance of a vital life force. material matter was the only reality and all living organisms could be reduced to physical, mechanical and materialism (p. 66-67) chemical process conservation of energy (p. 67) energy is neither created or destroyed. ophthalmoscope (p.68) a device used to examine the retina trichromatic theory/ Young- theory of mutiple color receptors in the eye one for read Hemholtz theory (p.68) grean and blue the use of lenses to bend rays of light to alter the focus of binocular vision (69) objects at different distances different frequencies of sound wer detected by receptors located in differe t places along the basilar membrane of Resonance theroy of hearing (69) the cochlea.. Problem of persception (70) what we percive and realitiy are not the same unconscious inference (70) the ability to percieve objects at different distances. which parts of the brain control which functions of the localization of function (71) body. human faculties could be dintified and located inpercisely defined areas of the brain. Was thought that bumps and Phrenology (71) indintions in the skull could show abilities or lack off. each side of the brain controls the opposite side of the Contralateral function (72) body. it was the key to measurement with various brain locations reflecting the strength of faculties. Measuring doctrine of the skull (73) the skull would yeild measurement of faculties. anecdotal evidence (73-74) they looked for case examples to support their theroies. ablation (77) creating brain damage systematically studying behavioral and mental consequences of brain injury, strokes,illnesses or identifing people with clinical method (78) behavioral or mental disorders inability to articulate ideas verbaly even though the vocal motor aphasia (80) apparatus is intact and general intelligence is normal. consistent brain damage to an ares of the left temporal sensory aphasia (81) lobe of the brain several centimeters behind Broca's area reciprocal innervation (85) pairs of muscles work in conjunction with each other. temporal summation (86) stimuli separated in time combine to produce a response occurred when two or more adjacent points on the skin Spatical summation (86) ser stimulated at the same time. diffent parts of the cortex had equal potential to control equipotentiality (88-89) learning efficiency of performance of an entire co plex functio may be reduced in proportion to the extent of brain injury within an area whos parts are not more specialized for mass action (89) one component of the function than for another. the study of relationship between the perception of a stimulus event and the physical dimension of the stimulus Psychophysics (95) being perceived . the point wher perception changes frome feeling one to two point threshold (96) feeling two Weber's law (97) jnd/s=k absolute threashold (100) the point where sensation was first noticed. the point in which the difference in stimulis can be difference threshold (100) determined. a stimulus is presented that is well above threshold and then greadually reduced in intensity until the subject Method of Limits (100) reports it can no longer be heard. sounds of varying intensities are persented in a random order and the subject's task is to indicate whether or not Method of Constant Stimuli (100) they are heard. the subject directly varies the intensity of the stimulus Method of Adjustment (100) until it seems to be at the threshold introspection (104) self-observation and internal perception self observation as a narrow process of responding Internal perception (104) immediately to precisely controlled stimuli mental Chronometry (106) reaction time personal equation (106) was needed to adjust one's calls to the constant discrimination reaction time minus simple reaction time subtractive method (107) gets discrimination time complication experiment (107) simple reaction time +discrimination time +choice time. Nonsense syllables (115) CVCs with no meaning Ebbinghaus's memory task to find associations between serial learning (115) meaningless syllables fractionation (122) a seperation of the task into its compents mental set (122) determining tendency imageless thought (122) thinking without imagining. conscious attiudes (123) hesitation doubt and vacillation


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