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Exam 1

by: Rachel Armstrong
Rachel Armstrong
GPA 3.0

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This is a review for the first exam with notes that I took in class and notes from the PowerPoint.
Research Methods In Nutrition
Dr. Stevenson
Study Guide
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Popular in Nutrition and Food Sciences

This 10 page Study Guide was uploaded by Rachel Armstrong on Thursday February 4, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to NTDT 40403 at Texas Christian University taught by Dr. Stevenson in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 49 views. For similar materials see Research Methods In Nutrition in Nutrition and Food Sciences at Texas Christian University.


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Date Created: 02/04/16
STUDY GUIDE- Chapters 1, 2, 4, 5 and 9 (Exam 1)* Covers all class sessions/PPTs, text chapters & handouts *This is not an all inclusive study guide 30 Multiple Choice (2 pts each; 60 points total) 15 True/False (1 pt each; 15 points total) 15 Matching (1 pt each; 15 points total) 2 Short Answer (5pts each; 10 points total) Translational Research  Takes results from the lab/study to the community Meta­analysis  Allows data from many empirical studies that meet the specified  inclusion criteria to be united into a larger unit for study   May yield more objective conclusions  DIFFERS FROM SYSTEMATIC REVIEW/EBP   Descriptive Research:  • Cannot test or verify • Illustrates a relevant but nonqualified topic • Research objective/ question • Describe a specific point in time • Provide baseline data • Can monitor change over time • Can help generate a hypothesis • Descriptive EPIDEMIOLOGICAL: collects data detailing person,  place, and time • Descriptive QUALITATIVE: generates data described with words  instead of numbers; often precedes other research; Data are collected  by observation, interviews (focus groups), and questionnaires Analytic Research:   Evaluates hypothesis • Ascertain cause & effect • Hypothesis • Experimental design is the gold standard • Important factors are held constant except those manipulated by  investigators • EXPERIMENTAL analytic: investigator controlled interventions • Observational ­­Research is representative of a population only if variables are well controlled ­­First step when preparing to research is to review published literature Epidemiological: collects data detailing person, place, and time.   Cross Sectional  Case Control  Cohort  Correlational studies  Case reports  Case series  Surveys  Surveillance systems  Demographics  Vital statistics Qualitative: generates data described with words instead of numbers.   Observation  In­depth individual interviews  Focus groups  Nominal group process  Delphi technique  Free elicitation  Concept maps  Cognitive response tasks  Content analysis Basic vs Applied Research  Basic Research: “pure” “fundamental” research. Done to increase a  body of knowledge and explore the unknown, not necessarily to solve a  problem. Ex. Studying the structure of a vitamin. Looking at something  no one has begun to look at yet.   Applied Research: takes known information and attempts to solve  problems. Ex. Effects of a low fat diet on heart disease.  Strengths & Weaknesses of Research Design  Understand each type of Study Design o Epidemiological studies: determine the incidence and distribution of diseases in a population. Epidemiological studies include cross­ sectional, case­control, and cohort. Ex. NHANES  Strengths: Can narrow down the list of possible causes. Can  raise questions to pursue through other types of studies.     Weaknesses: Cannot control variables that may influence the development or the prevention of a disease. Cannot prove  cause and effect o   Laboratory  based studies: explore the effects of a specific  variable on a tissue, cell, or molecule. Laboratory­based studies are often conducted in test tubes (in vitro) or on animals. Ex. Vaccine  research­ Dr. Paton     Strengths: Can control conditions. Can determine effects of  a variable.     Weaknesses:   Cannot apply results from test tubes or animals to human beings.  o   Human Intervention or clinical trials :  involve human beings  who follow a specified regimen.     Strengths: Can control conditions (for the most part). Can  apply findings to some groups of human beings.     Weaknesses:   Cannot generalize findings to all human  beings. Cannot use certain treatments for clinical or ethical  reasons.  RESEARCH QUESTION: concise, simple, straightforward statement • Drives the study design, subject population, and methods to employ • Use OBJECTIVE, MEASURABLE, OPERATIONAL terms: • “Identify” • “Compare” • “Differentiate” • “Assess” • “Describe” SIX ESSENTIAL CHARACTERISTICS­ HYPOTHESIS • Measurable • Specifies the population • Age range, BMI status, exercise status, college students,  elderly. • Identifies the time frame • Specifies the type of relationship to be examined • Defines the variables • States the level of statistical significance • HYPOTHESES­ evaluate the effect of the intervention(s) on some number  of end points INDEPENDENT VARIABLE: the factor that is thought to influence the  dependent variable.   Is the cause Longitudinal Study: based on data collected at more than one point in time SURVEYS:  Useful for establishing associations  Can provide clues to direct further study  DO NOT allow conclusions about causal relationships Simple random sample: all individuals have an equal chance of being selected DOUBLE­BLIND CONTROLLED TRIALS­­GOLD STANDARD  Both subjects and investigators are unaware of assignment  Control group­ receive the standard treatment or placebo  Treatment group­ receive the experimental treatment PROSPECTIVE STUDY: Observational analytic study that mimics an RCT, but  does not involve investigator manipulation   “Cohort”­ a group of people followed over time with similar  characteristics or factor of interest  CASE­CONTROL STUDY: observational analytic study that does not involve  intervention  Cases­ specific and objective definition (ideally all new diagnoses or  detections)  Controls­ ideally representative of the population from which cases  arose  Measurement error­error of observation (Instruments that lack reliability  and validity­ ex: poorly worded questions) Data distortion:  Data dredging (Combining a large pool of data to pick out “significant findings”)  Selective reporting of findings (INTENTIONAL FRAUD–  concealing, hiding, or shaping/trimming data)  Fragmentation of reports; redundant publication; inappropriate  statistical tests *Statistical significance is less than or equal to .05—means that the chance that a  relationship will be significant is 1 in 20 PEER REVIEW  Instrument science uses to monitor itself  Decline to participate if conflict of interest  Maintain confidentiality of the study, especially before it is published ­Statistical tests are performed on the null hypothesis (that no association or  difference exists) ­­FREE­LIVING STUDY: The response observed for an experimental design that mimics real­world; weight loss studies ­­PILOT STUDY­ can determine the length of the treatment period needed to  ensure a response ­­PARALLEL RCT: Participants are randomly assigned to a treatment group and  remain on this treatment throughout the study ­­CROSSOVER RCT: Each participant serves as their own control (participate in  BOTH groups); assume there is no carryover effect ­­FACTORIAL RCT: FACTOR­ the major independent variable; two or more  levels as a subdivision of each factor ­­POSTPRANDIAL STUDY: Can reveal mechanisms associated with the diet­ related pathophysiology of disease processes ­­DOSE­RESPONSE: FDA will not issue a health claim until appropriate nutrient levels or amounts of food are established ­­Food costs are usually the most expensive budget item in research.    ­­PARTICIPANTS:  Specific inclusion and exclusion criteria  Inclusion: needs to be specific, be careful, the selection of  participants. Sex, BMI status, are they sedentary, exercise  status, healthy status.  Exclusion: weight change in the last 3 months, donated plasma  or blood in the last 20 days, if they are pregnant or lactating,  birth control, allergies, psychological disorders, surgery or  anything that could affect swallowing. Usually 2­3 times longer than the inclusion.   Must be outside normal range for factor to be measured at the  beginning of the study  Screening should NOT prompt participants to begin making behavior  changes  *If noncompliance may affect study outcome, that participant must be dismissed. RANDOMIZATION  Simple: assignment to group without regard to the assignments of  other participants; may lead to an imbalance in participant  characteristics between groups  Stratified: strata are based on variables of interest, then separate  randomization is performed for each (ex: young and old)  Constrained/Blocked: blocks contain a pre­specified number of  treatments in random order  Nonrandomized: treatment between groups may not occur at the  same time; groups may not be comparable ­­Low­cost nutrition related incentives:   Diet analysis, nutrition counseling, chronic disease profiles,  pedometers, and recipes ­­INFORMED CONSENT  Must be obtained for ALL human participants  Clearly and accurately describes what the research entails  Must be written at a level all participants can understand and contain  lay information  ~5  grade reading level  Tablespoons instead of milliliters, etc.  Give the opportunity to review and ask questions before signing  Any consent forms have to be locked in a building in the principal  researcher’s office.   No data or anything can go home with you.  Have to be forthright or forth coming on each bullet point for  participants.  Intent to treat: all data that are available for an individual are evaluated, even if  they drop out or are noncompliant. ­­“Food fatigue” can occur if the menu cycle is too short; 6­day menu cycle ­­Formula diets/mixtures provide the greatest degree of consistency *Best data is generated from multiple measurements performed by at least two  different members of the research team with little variance. WHERE TO START  Clarify the plan – Consider the idea and why it is important. How to  go about implementing. Contributions to science. Feasibility of the  study  Review of literature ­­ Determine whether there is   justificati  for  the content area you wish to explore and for your proposed methods.  See what work has been done in related areas. Determine what the  next step in the research chain of events needs to be  Talk with others­­ Explore funding possibilities (get an idea of where you want to get funding at the start). Go back and tweak your research ideas  Explore funding possibilities  Go back and tweak your research ideas       FUNDING  Institutional or in­house funds  Nonprofit and professional organizations (have to go and seek them  out)  Foundations (Susan G Komen, American Heart Association)  Industry (California Walnut Commission)  Government grants (NIH, R15, K99) All proposals need to address 4 questions – what are they? 1. What is the proposed study about? 2. Why is the study worth doing? 3. Who is the research team and what makes them qualified to implement the study? 4. How will the study be done and is the study plan the best one for addressing the research questions? Four Main Sections & what’s included in each section.  Specific Aims­What is the study about  May choose to utilize goals and specific aims, study objectives, and  research questions o Hypotheses should be included  Grab reviewer’s attention by stating why the proposed study is so  important  Show how your specific research questions will help advance  knowledge in the field by addressing a significant problem. o Avoid too much detail  Background and Significance­Why?  The primary aim of this section is to address the question “Why?” o Provide a clear justification for the proposed study o the topic being addressed   the proposed methodologies  Example – Nutrition Intervention o Justify both the target of the intervention (eg, fruit and  vegetable intake in children) & the methodologies being  proposed to bring about increases in the targeted behavior (eg,  increased availability in school cafeterias)  Key opportunity to demonstrate familiarity with the literature  Purpose of this section is not to provide a thorough review of  literature but to provide justification for the proposed study  Preliminary Studies­Who?  Address the question “Who is the research team and why are they qualified to do the proposed study?”  2 Subsections  1 – describes the research team and their qualifications  2 – describes relevant work by the research team that has led to the  study being proposed.  Research Design & methods – How?  Details of how study will be implemented are described  Study limitations and how they will be addressed should be  discussed within the relevant subsections.  1. Overview– A summarized intro helps orient the reviewer to the  detailed plan to follow. Often a diagram that represents the overall  plan can be useful  2. Research Design– Describe the research design and briefly justify  its suitability for addressing the research question.  3. Study population and recruitment – Details on exclusion and  inclusion criteria and how participants will be recruited are absolutely  essential. o Description on procedures for obtaining consent  4.  Intervention – Components of the intervention and differences  between the intervention and control conditions should be described. o Describe in detail. Multidisciplinary Research  Definition: Research that integrates theories, methods, and knowledge from  multiple disciplines, while maintaining each discipline’s distinctness (eg, a  team composed of dietitians, sociologists, and economists.  Most pragmatic reason – fiscal imperative– as more funding agencies are  requiring a multidisciplinary approach  Professional level– increase personal creativity and inspire complex thinking o  Strengthen collegiality o  Enhance flexibility o Stimulate intellectual exchange 5. Data collection procedures and tools – • Details of how data will be collected and what the tools will look like. • If a survey is being used, include a table that describes the  global constructs to be assessed, specific variables, questions  for each variable, psychometrics of questions and scales, and  sources of questions. • Limitations of data collection tools should be addressed in a manner  that justifies selection of these tools. 6. Timeline – Provide a diagram that shows when different aspects of the  study will be conducted 7. Statistical analyses– Provide a clear plan for data analysis and  justification for the sample size.  8. Summary – Provide strengths of the study and why it is worthwhile


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