TEST 1 STUDY GUIDE (CHAPTERS 1-6) Bio 100
TEST 1 STUDY GUIDE (CHAPTERS 1-6) Bio 100 Biol 100
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This 21 page Study Guide was uploaded by Megan Hansel on Thursday February 4, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Biol 100 at Kansas taught by Laurel Haavik, Richard Williamson in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 479 views. For similar materials see Principles of Biology in Biology at Kansas.
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Date Created: 02/04/16
Bio 100 Test 1 Study Guide Answer Key Chapter 1 amp 2 PP N 9089 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 Atomic number aka the number of protons Mass number 15 30974 mass number 15 atomic number or the number of protons 15974 number of neutrons Electrons Negative Charge Protons Positive Charge Neutrons Neutral Charge 3 valence electrons GivesReceives Electrons bond is between a nonmetal and a metal Share electrons bond is between 2 metals When bonds are oppositely charged but the charges aren t equally shared Fluorine Nitrogen and Oxygen Covalent bond Hydrogen bond Polar uneven distribution of charge Non polar even distribution of charge Oxygen Nitrogen Hydrogen and Carbon Molecule Organelle Cell Tissue Organ Organ System Organism Population Community Ecosystem Biosphere Prokaryotic cells amp Eukaryotic cells Provides food for ecosystem Ex algael photosynthetic organism Eat food provided and CO2 is being released as waste returning the chemical energy back to the ecosystem while O2 is being inhaled Ex birdsl many birds consume plants Recyclers change complex chemicals into simpler ones Ex earthwormsl decompose dead materials Energy enters ecosystem while the plants absorb light energy from the sun the change in energy is chemical The chemical energy is consumed and absorbed by consumers ex humans or animals Lastly the decomposers inherit this energy while recycling and restoring the waste materials The process of change overtime Charles Darwin created the idea of natural selection overproduction of offspring happens in species so the competition for resources such as water and food is present Those who lose the competition die off and don t create offspring A proposed explanation for a set of observations Broader and largely supported and tested Usually has more evidence being built to support it ex evolution 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 Experimental group the group that has some change to it or is experimented on Control group a group that has no change to them or no treatment is done to them Control group is needed to have a base level data to compare the experimented data to Anything that occupies space and has mass Gas liquid and solid Substance unable to be broken down any further into other substances by ordinary chemical means ex oxygen 0 Substance With 2 or more elements must be different elements ex table saltsodium chloride NaCl Elements needed for human life but in very small amounts ex Iron Fe 004 of your body Sum of the of protons and neutrons in the nucleus one of several atomic forms of an element each With the same number of protons but a different number of neutrons Reece Jane B Eric J Simon Kelly Hogan Martha R Taylor and Jean L Dickey Campbell Biology Concepts and Connections 8th ed Pearson 2015 Print 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 Nucleus decays Without warning giving off energy and particles 1 2 electrons 2nd 8 electrons to become stable atoms valence electrons Water is a polar molecule It is polar because the electrons are unequally shared they tend to orbit around oxygen due to the fact that there are more protons The protons have positive charge Which attracts the electrons With the negative charge Tendency of molecules of the same kind to stick together think of co coexisttogether or alike Clinging of one substance to another A measure of how difficult it is to stretch or break the surface of liquid Heat breaks hydrogen bonds A liquid consisting of a uniform mixture of 2 or more substances Dissolving agent Substance that is dissolved Is one Which water is the solvent 114 acid battery acid base household ammonia neutral substance that donates hydrogen ions to a solution reduces hydrogen ions concentration of a solution Chapter 3 55 56 carbonbased molecule usually includes hydrogen atoms as well tetrahedron figure 31A in textbook pg 34 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 the difference of a carbon skeleton shape can change compounds even if they have the same molecular formula carbon and hydrogen atoms only affect how a molecule acts due to participation in chemical reactions consist of hydrogen atom bonded to an oxygen carbon atom linked by a double bond to oxygen atom carbon double bonded to an oxygen and bonded to a hydroxyl group nitrogen bonded to 2 hydrogens and the carbon skeleton phosphorus atom bonded With 4 oxygen atoms has carbon bonded to 3 hydrogen atoms aldehyde ketone carbohydrates lipids proteins nucleic acids long chains of smaller molecules made by connecting polymers monomers link monomers together through a dehydration reaction covalent bond removes a water molecule as 2 other molecules are being bonded together each monomer the 2 molecules being bonded together loses something one loses a hydrogen atom the other loses a hydroxyl group their two losses create the water molecule hydrolysis bond between monomers is broken by an addition of a water molecule the addition of a hydrogen is attached to one monomer While the other receives a hydroxyl group specialized macromolecule that speeds up reactions Within a cell the simplest carb and sugar a multiple of CH2O carbohydrates amino acids fatty acids disaccharides polysaccharides 2 monosaccharides bonded together ex sucrose storage starch glycogen cellulose Storage in plants containing chains of glucose a monosaccharide and monomers True Where animals store their glucose it is a polysaccharide used in muscles and liver Humans and many other animals cannot break down this polymer of glucose hydrogen bonds Structural polysaccharide insects exoskeletons made of this False they are hydrophilic Hydrophobic definition of lipid molecules that DO NOT mix with water Fats phospholipids and steroids Made up of glycerol and fatty acids Glycerol 3 carbons each With a hydroxyl group Fatty acid 1 carboxyl group and a hydrocarbon chain 92 Unsaturated fatty acid hydrocarbon chain contains 1 or more double bond Saturated fatty acid no double bonds 93 Saturated fatty acids 94 Storage 95 Phospholipids have a hydrophilic head and a hydrophobic tail 96 The outside and inside of the cell is liquid so the hydrophobic tails cannot be in contact with these liquids So if there is two layers of phospholipids with their tail ends facing each other the head of one lipid will be facing the outside of the cell while the other is facing the inside of the cell This phospholipid bilayer also aids in selective permeability the filter of molecules that can enter and exit a cell 97 Nonpolar molecules can easily travel 98 There are transport proteins that aid in the travel of polar molecules across the membrane 99 1 nucleus and ribosome geneDNA control 2 organelles that perform manufacturing distribution and breaking of other molecules Endoplasmic reticulum golgi apparatus lysosomes vacuoles and peroxisomes 3 mitochondria and chloroplasts energy 4 support communication and movement with in cell and with other cells cytoskeleton plasma membrane and plant cell wall 100 eukaryotic 101 contains cell s genetic information or instructions within one s DNA 102 organized genes into chromosomes 46 chromosomes in one strand of DNA 103 the coil of protein and DNA 104 nuclear envelope 105 ribosomal RNA rRNA 106 directs protein synthesis helps translate amino acid sequence of proteins 107 true 108 use instructions from mRNA to synthesize proteins 109 free ribosomes cytosol bound ribosomes endoplasmic reticulum or nuclear envelope 110 nucleotide sequence of mRNA is changed into amino acid polypeptide sequence 111 major manufacturing cite with in a cell both the smooth and rough ER 112 smooth ER no ribosomes rough ER ribosomes on the surface 113 metabolic processes synthesis lipids oils phospholipids steroids contains enzymes to help process drugs alcohol and other substances storage of calcium ions ex muscle cells 114 synthesis of protein creates membranes phospholipids are created and membrane proteins are created 1 15 a polypeptide is synthesized due to the following of mRNA s instructionsgoes to the Rough ER cavity b while it enters the cavity its 3D shape is created c sugar is often linked to the polypeptides making glycoproteins a molecule d when it leaves the ER it is packed into a transport vesicle The vesicle takes the polypeptide where it needs to go within the cell 116 molecular warehouse for proteins 1 17 d a one side of the Golgi receives the proteins from the Endoplasmic Reticulum b the vesicle with the proteins inside fuses with the Golgi wall to empty its contents c content from the ER are changed throughout travel in each disk of the Golgi stack d once the contents make it to the other side of the Golgi they are put into a vesicle and shipped off elsewhere in or out of the cell 118 digest food particles bacteria that white blood cells have taken out of the blood stream are destroyed by lysosomes recycling of damaged cell parts 119 ingest food water collection digest in plant cells pigments attracts insects to owers can contain poison 120 plant cells 121 contain structural connections between the nuclear envelope Rough and Smooth ER as well as functional connections between the ER Golgi Apparatus and other parts of the cell 122 break down fats detoxify convert toxic byproduct to water 123 convert the food we eat into ATP energy 124 f a narrow ridge between the 2 membranes b mitochondrial mat xljcontains mitochondrial DNA ribosomes and Enzymes 125 photosynthesizing organelles within plants and algae 126 proteins extended throughout a cell to organize support and move within the cell 127 microtubulesl thickest microfilamentsl thinnest intermediate filaments middle 128 agella much larger only one or two per cell aid in movement cilia smaller more numerous appendages that help with movement outside of the cell 129 aid in the movement motions cilia and agella have 130 helps cells stick together forms as protection for the plasma membrane 131 very close together proteins in places you don t want leakage ex bladder 132 rivetsl fastening cells together intermediate filaments use in cytoplasm ex skin or muscle can be stretched and return to before shape 133 have pores that small molecules can go through ex embryos 134 protects and supports cell out layer of cell contains cellulose and a matrix with polysaccharides and proteins 135 pectins 136 plasmodesmata 137 the ability to filter what comes in and out of the cell 138 particles spread into available space usually across a membrane to even the particles in both spaces 139 the fact that particles move from populated areas to less populated areas often across a membrane wants to create equilibrium on each side of a membrane 140 when no energy is needed in order for molecules to move across a membrane goes with or down the concentration gradient 141 diffusion of WATER water molecules move easier across cell membrane compared to other molecules passive transport no energy needed 142 hypobelow a solution with a solute concentration lower than the solute concentration with in the cell more stuff in the cell than outside the cell cell bursts because water or liquid oods into the cell trying to even the high amount of solute within the cell with the low amount of solute outside the cell 143 equal solute amounts in and out of the cell liquid and solute move evenly between in and out of the cell 144 hyperabove a solution with a solute concentration higher outside the cell than inside the cell more stuff outside than inside the cell cell shrinks because the liquid moves outside the cell to attempt to equal the solute levels 145 true 146 this is how polar molecules enter the cell assisted by transport proteins passive transportno energy needed 147 energy ATP is needed to move molecules in and out of the cell moves against or up the concentration gradient ex sodiumpotassium pump 148 the transport protein used in the facilitated diffusion of WATER 149 amino acids sugars ions and water 150 large molecules brought into the cell 151 phagocytosis ex white blood cells engulf particles into a sac which connects to membrane and brings the particles into the cell receptor mediated receptor proteins have only specific molecules that can be brought in figure 59 on page 79 152 helps large molecules leave the cell ex polysaccharides and proteins 153 the amount to cause change or work 154 kinetic motion potential energy due to locationposition 155 j a energy conservation energy within the universe is constant it cannot be created nor destroyed b the amount of transformations increases the amount of unstable energy or entropy 156 random movements of atoms kinetic energy 157 availability to create reaction I potential energy 158 need a net amount of energy for the reactants to react because the product is full of potential energy gets energy form ATP s phosphate group gets ATP from coupling with an exergonic reaction 159 releases energy from the reactants to the products 160 phosphate group attaches to the transport protein changing its shape 161 exergonic reaction needs to happen before an endergonic reaction can 162 this is how endergonic reactions happen transferred one phosphate group from ATP to a different molecule 163 All three are endergonic chemical phosphorylation drives this reaction transport ATP helps move molecules against the concentration gradient through phosphorylation mechanical phosphate group is transferred to a muscle cell protein which causes it to change and pull on filaments causing it to contract 164 165 166 167 The amount of energy needed to overcome the barrier to start a chemical reaction False enzymes are mostly proteins Used to speed up reactions Within the body They speed up reactions by lowering the activation energy making it easier for a reaction to occur 168 a b c d e 169 K Enzyme beings With empty active site Substrate enters the active site weak bond Active site changes shape slightly to increase the bond strength induced fit Reactions With water substrate converted to it s products ex sucrose water glucose fructose enzyme then releases these products and goes to find the next substrate nonprotein helper bonds With active site the inorganic ones ex iron copper zinc the organic cofactors coenzymes 170 171 172 shape 173 174 175 176 177 178 179 180 181 true often blocks the active site from the substrate attaches on other part of enzyme changing the enzymes shape and active site reversible inhibitor can change What the other inhibitors have done to an enzyme false C6H1206 6 02D 6 C02 6 H20 ATP Heat Exergonic reaction 32 ATP molecules per glucose molecule released as heat loses 1 or more electron gains 1 or more electrons during Cellular Respiration electrons transfer from Glucosel oxygen Which converts to energy 182 183 184 185 2 ATP per glucose in Glycolysis and creates 2 Pyruvate per glucose Output on citric acid cycle 2 ATP 6 NADH 2 FADH2 32 ATP CO2 and H20 it is full of mitochondria e 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