A&P Course Introduction Notes
A&P Course Introduction Notes BIOL 221
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This 3 page Study Guide was uploaded by Amber Zurn on Thursday February 4, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to BIOL 221 at Towson University taught by Stella A. Evans in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 182 views. For similar materials see Human Anatomy & Physiology in Biology at Towson University.
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Date Created: 02/04/16
1 BIOL 221 Course Introduction & Embryonic Development Course Introduction Anatomy: Study of body structure (location & composition). Physiology: Study of function of the structures (alone & with other structure). Levels of Organization: Atoms/Molecules: A molecule is the smallest particle in a chemical element or compound that has the chemical properties of that element or compound. Molecules are made up of atoms that are held together by chemical bonds. Cells: The smallest structural and functional unit of an organism. Tissue: Groups of cells similar in structure and function. Organ: A collection of tissues joined in a structural unit to serve a common function. Organ System: A group of anatomical structures that work together to perform a specific function or task. There are 11 different organ systems in the human body Integumentary Muscular Skeletal Nervous Circulatory Lymphatic Respiratory Endocrine Urinary/excretory Reproductive Digestive Organism: Any organized body or system conceived of as analogous to a living being. Homeostasis: Equilibrium within the body, example: body temperature being at the normal rate (not too high and not too low). 2 Autoregulation or Intrinsic Regulation: Tissues can autoregulate themselves. Occurs when the activities of a cell, tissue, organ, or organ system adjust automatically in response to some environmental change. Extrinsic Regulation: Full body effect. Results from the activities of the nervous system or endocrine system, being two of the organ systems that control and/or adjust the activities of several systems simultaneously. An example would be: when exercising, your nervous system issues commands that increase your heart rate so that blood will circulate faster. The nervous system will also reduce blood flow to lessactive organs, such as the digestive track. The oxygen circulating in the blood is than saved for the muscles that are currently active. Feedback Control Controlled condition: Anything in your body being monitored; Ex: CO2 Levels, blood pressure 120/80. Stimulus: Anything that disrupts your controlled condition; Ex: Infection, dehydration. Receptor: Monitor the controlled condition; Ex: Chemreceptors, barorecptors. Barorecptors create an afferent pathway to the brain. Control Center: The Brain; which sends an efferent pathway to the… Effector: Makes the change to bring the controlled factor back to normal; Ex: To lower body temp=sweat. Negative Feedback System: Reverses a change in a controlled condition. The most common in the body, reverses whatever is happening. Examples: If your blood pressure is dropping, it brings it back up. If your temperature is going up, it’ll bring it back down. Positive Feedback System: Strengthen or reinforces a change in the controlled condition. Makes the process. Examples: Blood clotting and child birth (receptors in the cervix can send messages to other receptors to strengthen contractions during child birth). 3 Embryonic Development Fertilization: (2 gamets come together combining genetic information). Zygote: 1) First cleavage division. 2) 2cell stage 3) 4cell stage 4) Early morula 5) Advances morula 6) Blastocyst. Cleavage :Division. Morula: Solid ball of cells, about 618. Blastocyst: Sphere that has fluid in it. In the pocket of cells you have fluid. The inside is the “inner cell mass.” Trophoblast :Becomes the placenta and the sack that protects the fetus. Inner Cell Mass: urns into the embryo/fetus. Extra Embryonic tissues: Amniotic cavity: The embryo is located within the amniotic cavity. Yolk Sac: Until the placenta is fully developed, the yolk sac provides the nutrients to the blastocyst (for the growing fetus). The yolk sac also provides blood cells for the fetus. Embryonic disc Ectoderm : (Ectooutside) Becomes skin cells of epidermis, neuron on brain, pigment cells. Endoderm : (Endoinside) Becomes lung cells, digestive cells, thyroid cells. Mesoderm : (Mesomiddle) Becomes cardiac muscle cells, skeletal muscle cells Gastrulation: Transformation to the blastula into the gastrula.
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