Anthropology 162 Midterm Studyguide
Anthropology 162 Midterm Studyguide Anthropology 162
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This 7 page Study Guide was uploaded by Connor O'Malley on Thursday February 4, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Anthropology 162 at University of Oregon taught by Dr. Sara Lewis in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 55 views. For similar materials see Intro to Medical Anthropology in anthropology, evolution, sphr at University of Oregon.
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Date Created: 02/04/16
Proposed Midterm Questions How is ethnography used as a method of research? ethnography studies the customs of individuals and cultures good research approach because it immerses the researcher in the daily experience of the societal group being studied includes observations obtained over a long period of exposure access to hands on experience and interviews best suited as a research tool for questions that require detailed understanding of things like language, power structure, religion, behavior, etc. for more information review lecture 2 slides What is the difference between disease and illness? illness is Why why must you study both distal and proximal causes that seem very individual to a group of people? Proximate causes Individual behaviors or circumstances Things like smoking heavily, not exercising, risky sex Distal causes Social causes impoverished conditions, racial background, sex, environment structural surroundings It is important to consider both proximate and distal causes because they are both factors in the same outcome which is overall health. People may believe that illness and diseases only stem from proximate cause, but research has revealed that structural distal causes are very important as well. Social structure can take away an individual's agency to make their own proximate decisions. According to Kawachi, Daniels, and Robinson what would be the most effective ways to reduce race and class disparities in health care? The first and most important step would be to start considering racial, and class factors as mutually dependent as opposed to separable factors. as quoted from the article, “we must link efforts to address the injuries of race and class simultaneously if we are to succeed here or anywhere (Kawachi, 349.)” Gathering better census data using linked racial and class information is a key part of this proposal What is an example of culturally syncretic healing? cultural syncretism is the blending of two distinctive cultures or schools of ideology into one new mixed form. an example from our class would be the healing treatments that Gusti Ayu received. (Blend of traditional Balinese healing, and western medicine.) How does witchcraft account for a man developing leprosy in Azande culture? Witch Craft is a plausible explanatory model in Azande culture It is mistaken to say Azande believe that witchcraft is the effective causality of the leprosy; They know that the disease isn’t in itself caused by witchcraft They use witchcraft to explain the why of it in a why that man, why that disease type of way. similar to karma, orcoincidence. What are the main differences between biomedicine and ethnomedicine? Biomedicine Medicine that is based of of scientific research in particular regards to biochemistry and biology “Western Medicine” Ethnomedicine Includes traditional beliefs Involves the wholeness of mind body and spirit oftentimes and is not relegated to “treatment of disease” Cultural roots cultural syncretism What role does culture play when looking at these two different medical approaches? Cultural background may determine which approach a person is likely to use primarily biomedicine is scientific fact base and therefore less variable by culture, however if a culture has certain healing traditions it may affect how much reliance is placed on biomedicine at all List two characteristics of social determinants of health. racism, sexism, homophobia access to sanitation, health services laws that improve or worsen health crime rates education What role does witchcraft and a belief in spirits play in health culture in communities such as those seen in rural Bali? Not the only aspect of health culture The role is still important because witchcraft and belief in spirits is still an accepted form of explanation for poor or good health in these types of communities May increase or decrease the amount of sympathy for afflicted members of community. (Maybe they deserved a curse, maybe it was put on them etc) Leads to a combination of modern and cultural healing techniques What’s the difference between agency and structure? agency is the capacity to exercise choice structure is the societal surroundings or landscape of a community Structure can take away people’s agency, which is important to understand when looking at the causes of illness/disease. What to some may be a proximate cause, becomes a matter of situation if structure hinders agency to that degree. Describe how the repercussions of an illness can far exceed the physical trauma. Social ostracization can result emotional trauma family strain, especially in a culture dependent on caste or family honor financial expense This question involved a hypothetical situation involving a person going to Las Vegas and partying for their birthday, engaging in such “risky” behavior as drinking, smoking, and visiting sex workers. Would these be potential distal or proximal determinants of health? proximate How did Gusti’s illness affect the village’s perception of her? Her village did not understand the illness so it alienated her It led to rumors entailing witchcraft, curses, etc She was thought of as crazy, cursed, unfortunate at best Use an example from the readings to describe a cultural practice different from Western medicine A shaman might lead a spiritual introspective experience including ayahuasca whereas in the western world one might visit a psychologist Western Techniques might prescribe antianxiety pills whereas a cultural healing practice might be meditation All of the following are distal causes of health except: a. poverty b. gender c. poor food choices d. access to healthy food Structural interventions refer to public health interventions that promote health by altering the structural context within which health is produced and reproduced. The best interventions change social factors to facilitate people making healthy choices. Describe and give an example of a structural intervention. NYC green carts. Green Carts are mobile food carts that offer fresh produce in New York City neighborhoods with limited access to healthy foods. blood drive trucks driving to communities where most people would otherwise have a hard time finding transportation to a stationary location better distribution of wealth to unequal public schools Would green carts be considered a structural or behavioral intervention? Why? structural without them people lacked agency the issue wasn’t a matter of choice it was capacity due to societal landscape How do push and pull differences manipulate the difference between a migrant and a refugee? Push poverty, racism, religious persecution, crime Pull economic opportunities social acceptance safety Immigration is seen as Voluntary seeking economic opportunity undeserving of benefit treatment because it was done by “free will” Refugees are seen as coming from cultural or religious violence deserving of support because they had no choice people sometimes mistake migration for acts of free will. Often times immigrants have structural causes to their decisions to leave their homeland that they are not necessarily in control of. What are the two types of ethnography? Explain each. Critical Ethnography Responds to social conditions of inequality entails advocacy attempts to empower people challenges norms Traditional Ethnography tries to remain objective heavily reliant on factual descriptions of field observation In the movie the “Bird Dancer” what social determinants brought on worse TS symptoms for Gusti? access to health services access to education prejudice What are idioms of distress? Give an example. idioms of distress are ways people express emotional tensions and psychosociological discomfort an example is talking about feeling “depressed”. _________ and ____________ factors are the causes for why one chooses to live one’s home country and emigrate to a new one. push,pull List three social differences of Tourette's in Bali and the united States and list some potential psychological effects of these differences. Not diagnosed in Bali caused distress on afflicted because no one understood her illness and thought she was crazy or cursed by witchcraft Explained purely as a medical condition in the United States Greater common knowledge and acceptance Caste system in Bali caused Gusti’s family to be ashamed of her illness. Which of the following is a determinate of health? a) diet b) exercise c) wealth d) all of the above What is “syncretic” religion? a) Replacing knowledge with belief on one god b) Believing in the afterlife and that there is place for the soul to travel after death c) Reincarnation and the rebirth of a soul in a new body d) Merging religious tradition often where people convert, also influenced by spirits, magic and whichcraft What are the three interpretations of racial disparities in health? Race as biology race as a proxy for class Race and class as separate constructs 3.How might a person's understanding of a specific cultural and spiritual experience be constrained? the cultural lense through which a person is reflecting on these experiences may confine interpretation 5. In order to increase the overall health of the population, why would it be smart to assess the situation from a cultural perspective, examining the social landscape, rather than treating people individually? more sustainable method takes into account distal cause in addition to just proximate causes works towards solving the problem long term rather than just treating a case What is the main hallucinogenic element in ayahuasca? DMT Has commercialism affected Shamans? How do they compete against each other? Commercialism has affected the way Shamans compete Shaman’s cast curses on each other Shaman’s slander each other Low income African Americans have the most in common with (in terms of risk of heart disease) a) low income whites b) middle class African Americans c) upper class African Americans d) middle income whites 7) Most clinicians ________ the constraints of migrants and feel ________ as to how to help them. a) dispute; unsure b) recognize; helpless c) do not recognize; confident d) recognize; educated 4. Which one of these phenomena are not classified as bodily affordances? a. Shaking b. Hallucinations c. Adrenaline rush d. Fainting In Cultural Kindling: Why is it that people in Thailand experience very different bodily affordances than people in the United States when it comes to religion? The thai reported feeling what they had a name for (sleep paralysis) and the United States subjects similarly responded that the felt body affordances associated with which they had common terms for. The Buddhist Thais don't believe in a Deity so they were more likely to report feelings of detachment Americans on the other hand were more likely to report feelings from outside forces (Deities maybe) such as being shaken.
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