Physical Geology 1610 Spring Semester 2016
Physical Geology 1610 Spring Semester 2016 GEOL 1610
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This 3 page Study Guide was uploaded by Olivia Brooksbank on Thursday February 4, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to GEOL 1610 at University of North Texas taught by Johnny Byers in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 141 views. For similar materials see Physical Geology in Geology at University of North Texas.
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Date Created: 02/04/16
Study Guide: Physical Geology Exam 1 1. Who is Charles Lyell? - Geologist. He was famous for writing the Principles of Geology - an attempt to explain the former changes of the earth’s surface, by references to causes now (uniformitarianism) - Uniformitarianism: The idea that Earth was shaped by the same processes still in operation today 2. The geologic time scale (two methods): - Relative dating: Putting things in sequence, historical events in the correct order, the age of one object in comparison to another - Absolute dating: Shows how many years ago a given event took place. (1950) based on radiometric decay scale (numerical) Based on isotopes (unstable elements). Estimates how many years ago a given event took place 3. “The present is key to the past” is from what doctrine? - UNIFORMITARIANISM: The earth’s process of asteroids, earthquakes, floods and volcanoes have been happening for thousands of years, what is happening now is the same process that happened in the past to the earth - James Hutton: Originated the theory of Uniformitarianism of the earth, an example would be water flows now just as it has in the past. 4. The outcrop that James Hutton noticed changed his perspective on the Earth’s age. What exactly was this? - He noticed erosion and sedimentation and that understanding these processes will help determine the history of the earth. Like the water example in question three, water flows and erodes rock into cobble stones, shapes the bed of the water by the way it erodes the sediment underneath, with this change caused by water one can see how it has changed over time.As well as sedimentation, sediment will settle at the bottom of a body of water, layers will form and show the age of the particular area when observed. 5. The two major groups of rock forming minerals are silicates and non silicates. - The silicates are the most important part of the crust which makes up 75% of the crust 6. The changing of one type or rock into another through certain steps is called what? - The Rock Cycle 7. Catastrophism: Theory that changes in the earths crust resulted mainly from catastrophic events like volcanic eruptions, hurricanes, earthquakes, etc. 8. The process of observing and gathering data, and testing formulating hypothesisis, testing, theories, and laws is called what? - The Scientific Method 9. Contributes to Plate Techtonics: - Dr. Seuss: (1831) Geologist; Hypothesized maybe sometime in the past there was a super continent - Alfred Wegner: (1880-1930) Geologist; Hypothesized that S.America andAfrica were part of a super continent called Pangea (Super continent, continental drift) Discovered fossil evidence on more than one continent with the same species. Study Guide: Physical Geology Exam 1 - Sir Edward Bullard: (1907-1980) Used Seismology to study the ocean floor, he discovered new theory of continental drift, heat flow through the Ocean crust. - Harry Hess: (1906-1969) Located submarines with sonar during the war, accidentally mapped the ocean floor with this sonar. Discovered elevation in the sea floor and how it is spreading the rock in symmetrical stripes, away from the active ridge crest. 10. Paleomagnetism: The study of the record of the Earth’s magnetic field in rocks, sediment, or archeological materials. Certain minerals in rocks lock-in a record of the direction and intensity of the magnetic field when they form.All major primary landforms are explained by PLATE TECTONICS 11. Three types of plate boundaries: (When continents collide they destroy everything in-between them and create new rock) - Divergent: Pulled apart (DIVERGING) - Transform Boundary: Splitting past each other in opposite directions - Convergent Boundary: They destroy/construct older oceanic rock subjecting into newer oceanic rock 12. What is the driving mechanism for Plate Tectonics? - The earth is covered by crustal plates - Convection currents under the plates move the crustal plates different directions. - The heat from radioactivity deep in the earth drives the convection 13. Elements and minerals of Earth: EIGHT ELEMENTS MAKE UP 98% OF EARTHS CRUST BIGGEST: Oxygen = 46.6%, Silicon = 27.7% 14. Hardest naturally occurring mineral on Moh’s scale (Hardness scale mineral property): - Diamond 15. Amineral is all of the following except? - Arock: which does not have a chemical composition 16. Which mineral is composed of entirely of Silicon and Oxygen? - QUARTZ 17. The dense, positively charged particles that compose atoms are called: - Protons and Neutrons in anAtom make up small, dense and (+) charged core = Nucleus 18. Type of chemical bonding in which a pair of electrons is shared between two atoms is called___ - Covalent Bonds: These electron pairs are known as shared pairs or bonding pairs, and the stable balance of attractive and repulsive forced between atoms, when they share electrons, is known as covalent bonding. 19.All silicate mineral contain these elements: Silicon and Oxygen Study Guide: Physical Geology Exam 1 20.Atype of chemical bonding in which electrons flow freely is called ___bonding? - METALLIC BONDING 21. What are three thingsAlfred Wegner discovered? 1. Continents fit together like a jigsaw puzzle 2. Matching fossils on separate continents 3. Glacial deposits near equator 22. What are three examples of chemical weathering? 1. Oxidation 2. Dissolution 3. Hydrolysis 23. What are examples of mechanical weathering? 1. Frost wedging 2. Root wedging 24. Three basic types of volcanoes: 1. Shield 2. Cinder Cones 3. Composite Cones 25. Intrusive Rocks are… Igneous rocks, rocks that form underground from cooled magma KEYTERMS: 1. Mechanical weathering: Breaking Down physically 2. Differential weathering: Some earth materials weather faster than others 3. Lithosphere: The outermost layer of the earth, Earth’s crust and upper mantle or entire solid planet to include the soil layer or edaphosphere (soil beneath feet) 4. Andesite: Intermediate composition of igneous, volcanic Rock (Grayish) 5. Chemical weathering: Decomposition or chemical alteration 6. Asthenosphere: Weak and ductile surface below the lithosphere 7. Dissolution: Dissolving in Water 8. Rock:An aggregate of one or more minerals (Granite, marble, or shale); or solid organic matter (coal). 9. Mineral: Naturally occurring inorganic substance 10. Isostacy: Equilibrium, earths rocks are floating on top of mantle 11. Phylogeny: The evolutionary development of any plant or animal 12. Ontogeny: Life cycle of single organism 13. Cleavage: The tendency of minerals to break, forming smooth, planar surfaces 14. Frost wedging: Water squeezes within the cracks of stone and freezes, expanding to break the rock 15. Root wedging: Roots from trees grow and break the rock around them in search for water 16. Sedimentary rock: Accumulation, compaction and cementation of sediment (solid particles) or dissolved matter that precipitates from water
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