Anatomy Lecture Exam 1 Study Guide
Anatomy Lecture Exam 1 Study Guide Biol- n261 Anatomy Lecture
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Biol- n 261 Anatomy Lab
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This 15 page Study Guide was uploaded by Rebecca Hall on Thursday February 4, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Biol- n261 Anatomy Lecture at Indiana University Purdue University - Indianapolis taught by Dr. Yard in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 367 views. For similar materials see Anatomy Lecture in Biology at Indiana University Purdue University - Indianapolis.
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Date Created: 02/04/16
Lecture Exam 1 Study Guide 1. Cytosol a. Canaliculi b. osteoblasts c. the fluid d. farther from or away from the body surface; more internal (the lungs are ___ to the skin) 2. cytosol is also known as a. the study of all structures in a single body region, superficial or deep b. intracellular fluid c. simple columnar ciliated d. provides protection and support to the body organs; provides skeletal framework for the muscles to attach, hence, causing movement; stores minerals; blood cell formation occurs within bones 3. cytoplasm a. Front , in front of b. lies horizontally and divides the body into a superior (top) portion and an inferior (lower) portion. these sections are also called cross sections c. thigh d. all the stuf 4. nucleoli a. make ribosome components b. inter-most layer; sits directly on surface of spinal cord c. simple squamous d. surrounds central canal & contains cell bodies of neurons and glial cells groups of nuclei (sensory and motor) with specific functions posterior gray horns anterior gray horns lateral gray horns gray commissures 5. Epithelial Tissue is avascular or vascular? a. keratinized stratified squamous b. Vascular c. forms cutaneous membrane provides protection and thermos-regulation d. parietal 6. Where does epithelial tissue get it's blood supply from? a. Thumb b. Connective tissue c. control center for body immediate responses to stimuli and coordinates other organs d. keratinized stratified squamous 7. Function of stratified squamous epithelial? a. Protection b. difusion secretion of cells c. relays sensory information to cerebellum and thalamus - Subconscious somatic and visceral motor centers d. Canaliculi 8. function of simple squamous epithelial a. anterior pelvis or groin area b. difusion secretion of cells c. cardiac muscle d. all the above 9. Microvilli purpose a. Serous fluid b. The change in living organisms that allow them to live successfully in an environment c. increase surface area for absorption d. away from midline 10.function of cilia a. move fluid b. remove cell debris, wastes, and pathogens by phagocytosis (eating them) c. forearm d. intracellular structures preform specific functions 11.sterocilia a. endochondral growth plate b. lies vertically and divides the body into an anterior portion and posterior portion c. hearing d. change in living organisms that allow them to live in environment 12.where is sterocilia? a. watery 'solution' contains enzymes b. surrounds central canal & contains cell bodies of neurons and glial cells - groups of nuclei (sensory and motor) with specific functions - posterior gray horns - anterior gray horns - lateral gray horns - gray commissures c. building up molecules d. inner ear 13.cuboidal cells have ____ nuclei a. Heart, blood , vessels , and blood to transport materials b. Spherical c. psuedostratified ciliated epithelium tissue d. Cranial cavity and spinal cavity are included in this cavity 14.nuclei columnar a. egg shaped b. contains the heart c. relays sensory information to cerebellum and thalamus - subconscious somatic and visceral motor centers d. nuclear envelope 15.Four classes of connective tissue. a. bone, blood, cartilage, connective tissue (tendons and ligaments) b. diaphragm c. Cell division d. made of gonads produce sex sells and hormones producing ofspring 16.Four major tissue types a. integrates and processes information b. lower back c. Epithelial, connective, muscle, and neural or nervous d. Secrete hormones (metabolism, growth, and reproduction 17.Most widespread tissue in the body a. atoms (building blocks of matter) combine to form small molecules (such as water and carbon dioxide) and larger macromolecules (carbs, lipids, proteins and nucleic acid). Chemicals comprise the entire body b. specialized membranes that provide protection, physical stability, and shock absorption c. more than one tissue type (often all four tissues) combine to form organs, extremely complex physiological processes occur at this level d. Connective 18.blood matrix is a. control center of the body which directs immediate responses to stimuli and coordinates the other organ systems; i.e. responds to internal and external stimuli by activating appropriate muscles and glands b. Heart, blood , vessels , and blood to transport materials c. epiphyseal plate of bone d. plasma 19.cells of bone a. fornix b. toward midline c. great toe or big toe d. osteocytes 20.osteocytes are mature __. a. Control venter , responses to stimuli and coordinates the other organ systems b. osteoblasts. c. Golgi d. receptors -carries info from: somatic sensory receptors, visceral sensory receptors, special sense organs 21.The deep dermis is what a. The study of shapes and markings on the body surface b. nucleus c. the point of attachment of a limb to the body trunk (the shoulders are proximal to the elbow) d. DICT 22.Chondrocytes live in spaces called _ a. the route through which substances (only very small molecules) can enter the body, dependent upon catabolic reactions b. lacunae c. bottom of foot d. mitosis 23.Osteocytes live in spaces called _ a. the study of all structures in a single body region, superficial or deep b. lacunae c. retina d. liver 24.Where is connective tissue proper? a. process food and absorb minerals b. in-between loose and dense connective tissue c. comprised of the kidneys, ureters, the urinary bladder, and the urethra; functions to eliminate excess water, salts, and nitrogenous wastes from the body; regulates water, electrolyte, and acid-base balance of the blood d. nucleolus 25.Connective Tissue: Proper a. Thalamus + Hypothalamus b. Loose + Dense c. divided into 6 columns, which contain tracts - ascending tracts: relay info from spinal cord to brain - descending tracts: relay info from brain to spinal cord d. the ability of an organism to change activity or functioning, based upon application of a stimulus; also referred to as irritability 26.Collagen is made of what protein? a. Cephalon - area of the head Cervicis - neck region Brachium - chest region Antebrachium - forearm Carpus - wrist Manus - hand Pollicis - thumb Abdomen - abdominal region Umbilicus - navel or belly button Pelvis - pelvic region Pubis - anterior pelvis or genital region Inguen - groin Lumbus - lower back Gluteus - buttock region Femur - thigh Patella - kneecap Crus - anterior leg , from knee to ankle Sura - posterior, calf of leg Tarsus - ankle Pes - foot Planta - the bottom of the foot, sole Hallucis - great toe or big toe b. cuboidal epithelium c. collagen protein d. simple cuboidal 27.Reticular fiber is made of what protein? a. function: Mixed (sensory and motor) - passes through: a. V1- ophthalmic branch: superior orbital fissure b. V2- maxillary branch: foramen rotundum c. V3- mandibular branch: foramen ovale b. simple cuboidal epithelium c. anterior leg (knee to ankle) d. collagen protein 28.elastic fiber made of what protein? a. Loose + Dense b. Similar types of cells, with a common function , combine to form tissue c. remove cell debris, wastes, and pathogens by phagocytosis (eating them) d. elastin protein 29.smooth muscle a. involuntary + non striated b. RER c. tongue adipose d. building up molecules 30.Apocrine sweat glad secretes what? a. Connective tissue b. organic material c. function: special sensory (vision) - passes through: optic canal of sphenoid d. ankle 31.serous glands produce _ a. mitochondria b. watery 'solution' contains enzymes c. superior to diaphragm, contains heart, lungs, blood vessels; surrounded by the ribs and the muscles of the chest wall d. Lies vertically and divides the body into an anterior(front) portion and a posterior(back) portion 32.Mucous glands produce a. lacunae b. diferentiation c. mucus d. egg shaped 33.Mixed glands produce a. Serous and mucus b. Adipose c. stratum corneum d. anaphase 34.Merocrine sweat gland produce a. the process through which new individual organisms are produced; therefore, it is essential to the continuity of life b. the actual salty smelly sweat c. "glue" that holds nervous system together - 6 types a. 4 found in the CNS b. 2 found in the PNS d. comprised of the kidneys, ureters, the urinary bladder, and the urethra; functions to eliminate excess water, salts, and nitrogenous wastes from the body; regulates water, electrolyte, and acid-base balance of the blood 35.what do exocrine cells have that endocrine don’t? a. ducts b. contain somatic motor nuclei c. network o interconnected nuclei throughout brain stem d. dense irregular connective tissue 36.apocrine a. below the point of reference; toward the tail end or toward the lower part of a structure or the body b. liver c. blood and lymph d. "a piece" - portion of secreting cells 37.holocrine a. the change in living organisms that allow them to live successfully in an environment b. "hole" - entire cell ruptures - Sebaceous glands c. intracellular structures preform specific functions d. Cranial cavity and spinal cavity are included in this cavity 38.Sebaceous glands produce what a. Below , toward the tail end or toward the lower part of a structure or the body b. closer to the origin of the body part or the point of attachment of a limb to the body trunk (the shoulders are ____ to the elbows) c. forearm d. sebum 39.Merocrine a. Oligodendrocytes - Ependymal Cells - Microglia - Astrocytes b. difusion secretion of cells c. away from the midline of the body; toward the sides or on the outer sides of (the ears are ____ to the nose) d. vesicular - real - secrete by exocytosis 40.where are apocrine glands found a. Axilla, groin, areolar, and male beard region b. function: Mixed (sensory and motor) - passes through: - V1- ophthalmic branch: superior orbital fissure - V2- maxillary branch: foramen rotundum - V3- mandibular branch: foramen ovale c. the process of removing metabolic waste products and other useless materials d. Similar types of cells, with a common function , combine to form tissue 41.non cellular portion a. sebum b. adjusts the postural muscles of the body to maintain balance - programs and fine-tunes voluntary and involuntary movements coordination c. matrix d. farther from or away from the body surface; more internal (the lungs are ___ to the skin) 42.lipid droplets store what a. energy b. cochlea c. closer to trunk d. lies vertically and divides the body into an anterior portion and posterior portion 43.two examples of fluid connective tissues are ____and ____ a. striated muscle b. happens inside - digestive, respiratory, cardio, urinary, and reproductive systems - sensations of deep pressure and pain as well as taste c. contain the axons of interneurons that cross from one side of the cord to the other d. blood and lymph 44.Three Types of Cartilage a. neural tissue dominated by neuron cell bodies - Spinal cord: deep brain: superficial b. a central cavity containing a band of organs, which lies between the pleural cavities; contains the heart, esophagus, trachea, and major blood vessels c. Hyaline cartilage - Elastic cartilage - Fibrocartilages d. dense regular connective tissue 45.The most common cartilage is.. a. divided into 6 columns, which contain tracts - ascending tracts: relay info from spinal cord to brain - descending tracts: relay info from brain to spinal cord b. Lymphatic vessels, lymphoid organs , defense against pathogens and disease c. hyaline cartilage d. closer to or at the body surface (the skin is ___ to the heart) 46.The least common cartilage a. contain somatic and visceral sensory nuclei b. elastic cartilage c. Oligodendrocytes, Ependymal Cells, Microglia, Astrocytes d. divided into 6 columns, which contain tracts - ascending tracts: relay info from spinal cord to brain - descending tracts: relay info from brain to spinal cord 47.loose connective tissue a. unspecialized cell becomes one needed b. serous fluid c. change in living organisms that allow them to live in environment d. Areolar, Adipose, Reticular 48.Dense connective tissue is a. aferent division and eferent division b. comprised of the heart, blood vessels, and blood to transport materials (such as respiratory gases, nutrients and wastes) within the body c. cerebral cortex grey and white matter d. dense regular and dense irregular 49.Cells of adipose tissue are called? a. endochondral growth plate b. Lies vertically and divides the body into an anterior(front) portion and a posterior(back) portion c. Adipocytes d. respiration 50.Where do you find Dense regular connective proper tissue? a. centers controlling emotions, autonomic functions, and hormone production b. tendons and ligaments and aponeuroses c. cisternae d. liver portal triad 51.Where do you find irregular connective tissue? a. middle layer b. simple columnar epithelial c. breakdown of molecules d. organ capsules - periosteum - perichondrion - endostium - deep dermis 52.melanocytes produce a. ability of plasmalemma to conduct electrical impulses b. melanin c. ATP d. ducts 53.Adipose – Functions a. cushions us, store energy, insulates us b. is an action potential traveling along an axon c. the fluid d. a central cavity containing a band of organs, which lies between the pleural cavities; contains the heart, esophagus, trachea, and major blood vessels 54.LACT is a. superficial dermis b. region that consists of upper and lower limbs (or extremities) c. closer to trunk d. 1. Satellite Cells 2. Neurolemmocytes 55.where do you find fiber cartilage a. fusion of vesicles containing fluids and or solids with the plasmalemma b. menisci and intervertebral disks c. "glue" that holds nervous system together 6 types - 4 found in the CNS - 2 found in the PNS d. a bundle of axons within the CNS that share a common origin, destination, or function 56.where do we find fiber cartilage a. fight against diseases housing white blood cells b. intervertebral disks c. Lies horizontally and divides the body into a superior(top) portion and an inferior(lower) portion d. SNS: skeletal muscle contractions (voluntary or involuntary) ANS: visceral motor system, smooth muscle, cardiac muscle, glands, and (involuntary) 57.parietal layer a. supporting cells that interact with neurons and regulate the extracellular environment, provide defense against pathogens, and perform repairs within neural tissue b. organs that work closely together combine to from an organ system, to accomplish a common purpose; there are 11 organ systems of the human body c. outer layer and against body wall d. mucus 58.visceral layer a. below the point of reference b. liver portal triad c. network o interconnected nuclei throughout brain stem d. lines an organ 59.What is the process of absorption, transport, and use of oxygen by cells called? a. study of body structures viewed without magnification b. thigh c. cerebral cortex grey and white matter d. respiration 60. what is the process of removal of waste? a. anchors cytoskeleton b. controls autonomic functions, sets appetitive drives (thirst, hunger, sex) and behaviors, sets emotional states, and integrates with endocrine system c. development, site of information processing, nature of resulting motor response, complexity of the neural circuit d. excretion 61.what is the chemical reactions in cells called a. metabolism b. outer layer and against body wall c. lies horizontally and divides the body into a superior (top) portion and an inferior (lower) portion. these sections are also called cross sections d. protein synthesis 62.what is the process of route things enter the body? a. the point of attachment of a limb to the body trunk (the fingers are distal to the wrist) b. receptors and carries info from: somatic sensory receptors, visceral sensory receptors, special sense organs c. DICT d. absorption 63.over 99% of all atoms in the body are composed of which elements a. adipose b. conscious perception of auditory and olfactory stimuli c. thigh d. hydrogen, oxygen, carbon, nitrogen 64.what is the process of cells becoming particularly specialized in function a. tough, fibrous outermost layer- lining the skull b. diferentiation c. wrist d. thumb 65.what is the process also known as "irritabilty" change in activity or function a. Lies vertically and divides the body into an anterior(front) portion and a posterior(back) portion b. Serous and mucus c. responsiveness d. pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithi. 66.process long term responsiveness a. forearm b. area of head c. More than one tissue type , combine to form organs d. adaptability 67.the ventral body cavity is separated into thoracic and abdominopelvic cavity via the a. function: mixed; passes through: internal acoustic meatus, along facial canal to reach stylomastoid foramen b. lacunae c. diaphragm d. helper protein 68.sperm is an example of a. function: Mixed (sensory and motor) passes through: - V1- ophthalmic branch: superior orbital fissure - V2- maxillary branch: foramen rotundum - V3- mandibular branch: foramen ovale b. arreolar connective tissue c. function: mixed; passes through: internal acoustic meatus, along facial canal to reach stylomastoid foramen d. flagella 69.functions of the cell membrane a. excretion b. away from midline c. sensitivity regulation of exchange with environment structural support d. big toe 70.define osmosis a. movement of water from low solute concentration to high solute concentration b. ATP c. pseudo. ciliated. colum. Epithi d. tongue adipose 71.define facilitated difusion a. provides protection and support to body organs framework for muscles to attach stores minerals blood cell formation within bone b. Golgi c. movement of stuf d. mucus 72.active transport requires a. the actual salty smelly sweat b. atp c. directly efects connections b/w neurons d. hippocampus, amygdaloid body 73.passive transport requires a. the study of structural changes that occur from conception to physical maturity b. hyaline cartilage c. helper protein d. endochondral bone formation 74.what are the passive transports a. -line ventricles of the brain and produce, circulate and monitor cerebrospinal fluid b. osmosis and facilitated difusion c. simple squamous epithelium d. centers controlling emotions, autonomic functions, and hormone production 75.what is phagocytosis a. Above , toward the head , upper part of a structure or the body b. cell eating c. adipose tissue d. centers and tracts that connect the brain with other organs and systems in the body 76.what is pinocytosis a. serous fluid b. a bundle of axons in the PNS c. cell drinking d. epiphyseal plate bone 77.endocytosis is a. adipose b. activation of a motor neuron c. formation of endosomes containing fluid or solid material at plasmalemma d. on opposite sides (the right arm and left leg are ___) 78.exocytosis is a. fusion of vesicles containing fluids and or solids with the plasmalemma b. intervertebral disks c. subconscious adjustment and modification of voluntary motor commands d. in-between loose and dense connective tissue 79.general term for all material inside cell a. a bundle of axons within the CNS that share a common origin, destination, or function b. the process through which new individual organisms are produced; therefore, it is essential to the continuity of life c. thumb d. cytoplasm 80.organelles a. intracellular structures preform specific functions b. arrival of stimulus and activation of receptor c. provides protection and support to the body organs; provides skeletal framework for the muscles to attach, hence, causing movement; stores minerals; blood cell formation occurs within bones d. hair shaft 81.cytosol contains high concentration of __ whereas extracellular fluid contains high cocentration of __ a. potassium ions sodium ions b. position and movement of muscles and joints; information carried in somatic sensory neurons c. 1. Exteroceptors 2. Proprioceptors 3. interoceptors d. kidney cortex 82.nonmembranous organelles a. serous mucous mixed b. "hole" entire cell ruptures sebaceous glands c. Cardiac d. cytoskeleton centric less cilia flagella ribosomes 83.define nonmembranous organelles a. Back , behind , anterior/dorsal and posterior/ventral are interchangeable in humans only b. always in contact with cytosol c. the change in living organisms that allow them to live successfully in an environment d. the study of structural formation and development before birth 84.microfilaments function a. away from trunk b. kidney glomerulus c. anchors cytoskeleton d. Change activity or functioning , based upon the application of a stimulus 85.intermediate filaments function a. forms the cutaneous membrane (epidermis and dermis), the external body covering; provides protection and thermoregulation; synthesizes vitamin D; provides cutaneous reception through sensory receptors; additional accessory structures are hair follicles, nails, sweat (sudoriferous) glands and oil (sebaceous) glands b. toward midline c. an anatomically distinct collection of sensory or motor neurons cell bodies within the PNS d. strength stabilize positions of organelles transport materials within cytoplasm 86.microtubles are built from the protein ... a. menisci intervertebral disks b. parotid gland c. tublin d. neural tissue dominated by myclinated axons spinal cord: superficial brain: deep 87.ribosome are responsible for a. Anatomy of diferent types of animals b. protein synthesis c. osteon d. kidney pyramid 88.mitochondria contains numerous folds called a. neuronal processes that are specialized to respond to specific stimuli in the extracellular environment b. Increase in some quantity over time , often due to an increase in the size and/or number of individual cells c. Christae d. neck region 89.surrounds the nucleus and separates it from the cytosol a. conscious thought processes, intellectual functions memory storage and processing conscious and subconscious regulation of skeletal muscle contractions b. activation of a motor neuron c. nuclear envelope d. buttock region 90.chemical communication between nucleus and cytosol occurs through a. apocrine sweat gland b. nuclear pores c. the route through which substances (only very small molecules) can enter the body, dependent upon catabolic reactions d. forms cutaneous membrane provides protection and thermo regulation 91.the chambers in ER are called a. cisternae b. foot (pedals of a bike) c. immediate involuntary response to a specific stimulus d. the thin membrane that lines the chest walls of the serous membrane 92.TRUE OR FALSE lamellae are in both spongey and compact bone a. True b. False 93.true or false osteons are found in spongey and compact bone a. false b. True 94.Where is elastic cartilage a. Midline; on the inner side of b. Christae c. pseudo. ciliated. colum. Epithi d. ears tip of nose 95.what causes lamellae a. the study of structural changes in cells tissues, and organs caused by disease b. comprised of the lymphatic vessels, lymphoid organs (lymph nodes, the thymus, and the spleen), lymphocytes, and lymphoid tissue; returns leaked fluid to blood; provides defense against pathogens and disease by housing white blood cells (lymphocytes) that function in immunity c. hair d. osteoid laid out by osteoblasts 96.what type of bones are metacarpals a. short bones b. Serous and mucus c. Long Bones d. adipose tissue and skeletal muscles 97.what are the 2 layers of the dermis a. dense regular connective tissue b. metaphase c. physically connects the brain with the spinal cord controls visceral functions like blood pressure, breathing, and heart rate victim will die if severely compromised relay station and house for cranial nerve nuclei d. papillae reticular 98.endocrine secretions are also known as a. 1. Satellite Cells 2. Neurolemmocytes b. Glomerulus c. Hormones d. >star shaped glial cells >maintain blood-brain barrier >structural support >regulate ion, nutrient, and dissolved gas concentrations >absorb and recycle neurotransmitters >FORM SCAR TISSUE AFTER INJURY 99.exocrine secretes through a. ducts b. the thin membrane that lines the wall of the serous membrane c. is an action potential traveling along an axon d. tongue adipose 100. exocrine glands maybe classified as a. a CNS center with discrete anatomical boundaries b. fight against diseases housing white blood cells c. serous mucous mixed d. mitochondria
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